EXP(3P) POSIX Programmer's Manual EXP(3P)[top]PROLOGThis manual page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual. The Linux implementation of this interface may differ (consult the corresponding Linux manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may not be implemented on Linux.NAMEexp, expf, expl — exponential functionSYNOPSIS#include <math.h> double exp(double x); float expf(float x); long double expl(long double x);DESCRIPTIONThe functionality described on this reference page is aligned with the ISO C standard. Any conflict between the requirements described here and the ISO C standard is unintentional. This volume of POSIX.1‐2008 defers to the ISO C standard. These functions shall compute the base-e exponential of x. An application wishing to check for error situations should set errno to zero and call feclearexcept(FE_ALL_EXCEPT) before calling these functions. On return, if errno is non-zero or fetestexcept(FE_INVALID | FE_DIVBYZERO | FE_OVERFLOW | FE_UNDERFLOW) is non-zero, an error has occurred.RETURN VALUEUpon successful completion, these functions shall return the exponen‐ tial value of x. If the correct value would cause overflow, a range error shall occur and exp(), expf(), and expl() shall return the value of the macro HUGE_VAL, HUGE_VALF, and HUGE_VALL, respectively. If the correct value would cause underflow, and is not representable, a range error may occur, and exp(), expf(), and expl() shall return 0.0, or (if the IEC 60559 Floating-Point option is not supported) an imple‐ mentation-defined value no greater in magnitude than DBL_MIN, FLT_MIN, and LDBL_MIN, respectively. If x is NaN, a NaN shall be returned. If x is ±0, 1 shall be returned. If x is −Inf, +0 shall be returned. If x is +Inf, x shall be returned. If the correct value would cause underflow, and is representable, a range error may occur and the correct value shall be returned.ERRORSThese functions shall fail if: Range Error The result overflows. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the overflow floating-point exception shall be raised. These functions may fail if: Range Error The result underflows. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) is non-zero, then errno shall be set to [ERANGE]. If the integer expression (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) is non-zero, then the underflow floating-point exception shall be raised. The following sections are informative.EXAMPLESComputing the Density of the Standard Normal Distribution This function shows an implementation for the density of the standard normal distribution using exp(). This example uses the constant M_PI which is part of the XSI option. #include <math.h> double normal_density (double x) { return exp(−x*x/2) / sqrt (2*M_PI); }APPLICATION USAGENote that for IEEE Std 754‐1985 double, 709.8 < x implies exp(x) has overflowed. The value x< −708.4 implies exp(x) has underflowed. On error, the expressions (math_errhandling & MATH_ERRNO) and (math_errhandling & MATH_ERREXCEPT) are independent of each other, but at least one of them must be non-zero.RATIONALENone.FUTURE DIRECTIONSNone.SEE ALSOfeclearexcept(), fetestexcept(), isnan(), log() The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, Section 4.19, Treatment of Error Conditions for Mathematical Functions, <math.h>COPYRIGHTPortions of this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information TechnologyPortable Operating System Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electri‐ cal and Electronics Engineers, Inc and The Open Group. (This is POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum 1 applied.) In the event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group Standard is the referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online at http://www.unix.org/online.html . Any typographical or formatting errors that appear in this page are most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source files to man page format. To report such errors, see https://www.ker‐ nel.org/doc/man-pages/reporting_bugs.html .--IEEE/The Open Group 2013 EXP(3P)

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