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extract(1int)							 extract(1int)

       extract - interactive string extract and replace

       extract	[ -i ignorefile ] [ -m prefix ] [ -n ] [ -p patternfile ] [ -s
       string ]
       [ -u ] source-program...

       The command interactively extracts text strings from  source  programs.
       The  command  replaces  the strings it extracts with calls to the func‐
       tion.	The command also writes the string it  extracts	 to  a	source
       message	catalog.   You use this command to replace hard-coded messages
       in your program source file with calls to  the  command	and  create  a
       source  message	catalog.   At  run time, the program reads the message
       text from the message catalog.  By storing messages in a message	 cata‐
       log,  instead  of in your program, you allow the text of messages to be
       translated to a new language or modified	 without  the  source  program
       being changed.

       In  the	source-program	argument, you name one or more source programs
       from which you want messages extracted.	The command does  not  extract
       messages from source programs included using the directive.  Therefore,
       you might want to name a source program and all the source programs  it
       includes on a single command line.

       You  can	 create a patterns file (as specified by (patternfile) to con‐
       trol how the command extracts and replaces text.	 The patterns file  is
       divided	into  several  sections, each of which is identified by a key‐
       word.  The keyword must start at the beginning of a new line,  and  its
       first  character	 must be a dollar sign ($).  Following the identifier,
       you specify a number of patterns.  Each pattern begins on  a  new  line
       and  follows  the regular expression syntax you use in the routine. For
       more information on the patterns file, see the reference page.

       In addition to the patterns file, you can create a file that  indicates
       strings	that ignores.  Each line in this ignore file contains a single
       string to be ignored that follows the syntax of the routine.

       When you invoke the command, it reads the patterns file	and  the  file
       that  contains strings it ignores.  You can specify a patterns file and
       an ignore file on the command line.  Otherwise, the command matches all
       strings and uses a default patterns file.

       When  you  run  it  displays three windows on your terminal.  The first
       window contains the program source code.	 The  string  that  matches  a
       string in the patterns file is displayed in reverse video.

       The  second  window displays the contents of the source message catalog
       that the command is creating.

       The third window contains a list of the commands	 that  are  available.
       The  command  displays  the  current command in reverse video.  You can
       execute the current command by pressing the RETURN key.	Select another
       command by typing the first letter in the command name and pressing the
       RETURN key.  The command is not sensitive to the case  of  letters,  so
       you can use uppercase or lowercase letters to issue commands.

       You  can	 use  the  following commands to control how treats the string
       displayed in the first window:

       EXTRACT	      Extract the string into the catalog file and rewrite the
		      source using the rewrite string in the patterns file.

       DUPLICATE      If  the  string has been encountered previously, rewrite
		      the source program using	the  same  message  number  as
		      before.	The  command  need  not add the message to the
		      source message catalog  again,  so  this	command	 saves
		      space in catalogs.

       IGNORE	      Ignore  this  and	 all  subsequent  occurrences  of this
		      string during this interactive  session.	 This  command
		      does not add the string to the ignore file.

       PASS	      Pass  by	(ignore)  this	occurrence  of this particular

       ADD	      Ignore this  and	all  subsequent	 occurrences  of  this
		      string  during this interactive session.	Add the string
		      to the ignore file.

       COMMENT	      Add the comment you enter to the source message catalog.
		      The  command  prompts  you  to  be  sure the comment you
		      entered is correct.  You answer  the  prompt  by	typing
		      ``y,'' n, or q, without pressing the RETURN key.

       QUIT	      Quit  from the interactive session.  The command prompts
		      you to be sure you want to quit.	Answer ``y'' or	 ``n''
		      to the prompt, without pressing the return key.

		      The  output  files that creates up to this point are not
		      removed by this command.	 However,  the	files  contain
		      only  the result of the string extractions that occurred
		      before you issued the QUIT command.

       HELP	      Display a description of all the commands.

       The command creates to files in your current  working  directory.   The
       command creates a new version of the source program that contains calls
       to the function, instead of hard-coded messages.	 The  new  version  of
       the  source program has the same name as the input source program, with
       the prefix ``nl_''.  For example, if the input source program is	 named
       the output source program is named

       In  addition to a new source program, the command creates a source mes‐
       sage catalog. The source message catalog contains  the  text  for  each
       message	extracted  from	 your input source program.  The command names
       the file by appending ``.msf'' to the name of the input source program.
       For example, the source message catalog for the source program is named
       You can use the source message catalog as input to the command.

       -i     Ignore text strings specified in ignorefile .  By	 default,  the
	      command  searches	 for  ignorefile in the current working direc‐
	      tory, your home directory, and

	      If you omit the option, recognizes all strings specified in  the
	      patterns file.

       -m   Add	 prefix	 to  message  numbers in the output source program and
	    source message catalog. You can use this  prefix  as  a  mnemonic.
	    You must process source message catalogs that contain message num‐
	    ber prefixes using the option.

       -n   Create a new source message catalog for each input source program.
	    By	default,  if you specify more than one input source program on
	    the command line, the command creates one source  message  catalog
	    for all the input source programs.

       -p   Use	 patternfile to match strings in the input source program.  By
	    default, the command searches for the pattern file in the  current
	    directory, your home directory and finally

	    If	you  omit the option, the command uses a default patterns file
	    that is stored in

       -s   Write string at the top of the source  message  catalog.   If  you
	    omit  the  option, uses the string specified in the section of the
	    patterns file.

       -u   Use a file produced by  a  previous	 run  of  This	file  contains
	    details  of	 all  the strings which matched the pattern file along
	    with file offsets and line numbers.	 By default  is	 run  and  its
	    output is used to drive

       Given  the  current  syntax  of	the patterns file, you cannot cause to
       ignore strings in comments that are longer than one line.

       You can specify only one rewrite string	for  all  classes  of  pattern

       The  command  does  not extract strings from files you include with the
       directive.  You must run the commands on these files separately.

       Your terminal screen must contain at least 80 columns and 24 lines  for
       to display its three windows.

       The command does not recognize strings that extend beyond one line.

       The  following example shows the commands you issue to run the command,
       create a message catalog from the source message catalog,  and  compile
       the output source program:
       % extract -i newignore -p c_patterns remove.c
       % gencat remove.cat remove.msf
       % vi nl_remove.c
       % cc nl_remove.c

       In  this	 example, the command uses the file to determine which strings
       to ignore.  The command uses the file to determines  which  strings  to
       match.  The input source program is named

       In response to this command, creates the source message catalog and the
       output source program

       You must edit to include the appropriate and function calls.

       The command creates a message catalog and the command creates  an  exe‐
       cutable program.

See Also
       intro(3int),  gencat(1int), strextract(1int), strmerge(1int), regex(3),
       catopen(3int), catgets(3int), patterns(5int)
       Guide to Developing International Software


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