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fbackup(1M)							   fbackup(1M)

       fbackup - selectively back up files

       device device] ...  path] path] graph] path] path] path] config]

       device device] ...  restart] path] path] path] config]

       Note:  The  and commands are deprecated for creating new archives.  See
       for more information.

       combines features of and to provide a flexible, high-speed file	system
       backup  mechanism  (see	dump(1M)  and ftio(1)).	 selectively transfers
       files to an output device.  For each file transferred, the file's  con‐
       tents  and  all	the relevant information necessary to restore it to an
       equivalent state are copied to the output device.   The	output	device
       can  be	a raw magnetic tape drive (for example, a DLT tape drive), the
       standard output, a rewritable magneto-optical disk, or a file.

       The selection of files to back up  is  done  by	explicitly  specifying
       trees  of  files	 to be included or excluded from an session.  The user
       can construct an arbitrary graph of files by using the  or  options  on
       the  command line, or by using the option with a graph file.  For back‐
       ups being done on a regular basis, the option provides an easier inter‐
       face  for  controlling  the backup graph.  selects files in this graph,
       and attempts to transfer them to the output  device.   The  selectivity
       depends on the mode (full or incremental) in which is being used.

       When  doing  full  backups,  all files in the graph are selected.  When
       doing incremental backups, only files in the graph that have been modi‐
       fied  since a previous backup of that graph are selected.  If an incre‐
       mental backup is being done at level 4 and  the	option	is  used,  the
       database file is searched for the most recent previous backup at levels
       0-3.  If a file's modification time is before the time  when  the  last
       appropriate session began and the i-node change time is before the time
       that same session ended, the file is not backed	up.   All  directories
       lying  on  the path to a file that qualifies for the incremental backup
       will also be on the backup media, even if the directories do not	 qual‐
       ify on their own status.

       If  is used for incremental backups, a database of past backups must be
       kept.  maintains this data in the text file by default.	Note that  the
       directory must be created prior to the first time is used for incremen‐
       tal backups.  The option can be used to specify an  alternate  database
       file.   The  user  can specify to update this file when an session com‐
       pletes successfully.  Entries for each session are recorded on separate
       pairs  of  lines.  The following four items appear on the first line of
       each pair: the graph file name, backup level, starting time, and ending
       time  (both in format).	The second line of each pair contains the same
       two times, but in format.  These lines contain the local equivalent  of
       the  start  time,  the  local equivalent of and the ending time.	 These
       second lines serve only to make the dates file more readable; does  not
       use  them.   All fields are separated by white space.  Graph file names
       are compared character-by-character when checking  the  previous-backup
       database	 file  to  ascertain  when a previous session was run for that
       graph.  Caution must be exercised to ensure that, for example, and  are
       not used to specify the same graph file because treats them as two dif‐
       ferent graph files.

       The general structure of an volume is the same, no matter what type  of
       device  is used.	 There are some small specific differences due to dif‐
       fering capabilities of devices.	The general structure is as follows:

	      ·	 reserved space for ASCII tape label (1024 bytes)
	      ·	 volume header (2048 bytes)
	      ·	 session index (size in field of volume header)
	      ·	 data

       Each file entry in the index contains the file size, the volume	number
       and  the	 pathname  of  the  file.   At	the beginning of every volume,
       assumes that all files not already backed up will fit on	 that  volume,
       an erroneous assumption for all but the last volume.  Indices are accu‐
       rate only for the previous volumes in the same set.  Hence,  the	 index
       on the last volume may indicate that a file resides on that volume, but
       it may not have actually been backed up (for example, if it was removed
       after  the index was created, but before attempted to back it up).  The
       only index guaranteed to be correct in all cases is the	on-line	 index
       option), which is produced after the last volume has been written.

       Specific differences in the structure of volumes are listed below:

	      ·	 When using magnetic tape devices, the main blocks of informa‐
		 tion (tape label, volume header, index, data)	are  separated
		 by  EOF  marks.   also	 checkpoints the media periodically to
		 enhance error recovery.  If a write error  is	detected,  the
		 user  normally	 has  two  options:  (1)  a  new volume can be
		 mounted and that volume rewritten from the beginning; or, (2)
		 if  the  volume  is  not  too severely damaged, the good data
		 before the error can be saved, and the write error is treated
		 as  a normal end-of-media condition.  The blocks of data with
		 their checkpoint records are also separated by EOF marks.  In
		 addition,  for	 DDS tape drives, if are supported, these will
		 be used to enhance selective recovery speed by	 placing  them
		 between  blocks  of  files.   Similarly  on  DLT tape drives,
		 faster selective recovery is achieved	using  the  EOF	 marks
		 used  for  checkpointing  in  conjunction with the file sizes
		 given in the index.

	      ·	 For a magneto-optical device, a disk,	a  file,  or  standard
		 output, there are no special marks separating the information
		 pieces; the backup is always a single file (volume).

       provides the ability to use UCB-mode tape drives.  This makes it possi‐
       ble  to	overlap	 the  tape rewind times if two or more tape drives are
       connected to the system.

       There are several things the user will want to consider when setting up
       for  regular  use.  These include type of device and media, full versus
       incremental frequency, amount of logging information to	keep  on-line,
       structure of the graph file, and on-line versus off-line backup.

       The  type  of  device  used for backups can affect such things as media
       expenses, ability to do unattended backups, and speed  of  the  backup.
       Using  36-track	tapes will probably result in the highest performance,
       but require user intervention for changing tapes.   Both	 DLT  and  DDS
       autochangers  and libraries can provide unattended backups.  A magneto-
       optical autochanger can also provide an unattended backup for  a	 large
       system and long life media, however the media cost is high.  Lower cost
       and good performance can be achieved with a single DLT tape drive,  but
       multi-volume backups must be attended.

       It is also important to consider how often full backups should be made,
       and how many incremental backups to make between	 full  backups.	  Time
       periods	can  be used, such as a full backup every Friday and incremen‐
       tals on all other days.	Media capacities can be	 used  if  incremental
       backups	need  to  run  unattended.   The  availability of personnel to
       change media can also be an important factor as well as the  length  of
       time needed for the backup.  Other factors may affect the need for full
       and incremental	backup	combinations  such  as	contractual  or	 legal

       If backup information (output from the or options) is kept on-line, the
       required storage space must also be considered.	Index file  sizes  are
       hard to predict in advance because they depend on system configuration.
       Each volume header file takes less than 2048 bytes.  Of course the more
       information  that  is  kept on-line, the faster locating a backup media
       for a recovery will be.

       There are several ways to structure the graph file or files used	 in  a
       system  backup.	The first decision involves whether to use one or more
       than one graph file for the backup.  Using one  file  is	 simpler,  but
       less  flexible.	 Using	two  or	 more graph files simplifies splitting
       backups into logical sets.  For example, one graph file can be used for
       system  disks where changes tend to be less frequent, and another graph
       file for the users area.	 Thus two different  policies  can  be	imple‐
       mented for full and incremental backups.

       was  designed  to allow backups while the system is in use by providing
       the capability to retry an active file.	When absolute consistency on a
       full  backup is important, the system should probably be in single-user
       mode.  However, incremental backups can be made while the system is  in
       normal use, thus improving system up-time.

       config	    is	the  name  of  the configuration file, and can contain
		    values for the following parameters:

		      ·	 Number of  1024-byte  blocks  per  record  (supported
			 range: 1 - 9765).
		      ·	 Number of records of shared memory to allocate.
		      ·	 Number	 of  records  between  checkpoints  (supported
			 range: 1 - 9999).  Since the EOF marks between check‐
			 points	 are  also used for fast searching on DLT tape
			 drives, changing the checkpoint  frequency  may  also
			 affect selective recovery speed (see section).
		      ·	 Number of file-reader processes.
		      ·	 Maximum number of times is to retry an active file.
		      ·	 Maximum  number of bytes of media to use while retry‐
			 ing the backup of an active file.
		      ·	 Maximum number of times a magnetic tape volume can be
			 used (supported range: 1 - 9999).
		      ·	 Name  of  a  file to be executed when a volume change
			 occurs.  This file must exist and be executable.
		      ·	 Name of a file to be  executed	 when  a  fatal	 error
			 occurs.  This file must exist and be executable.
		      ·	 The  number  of  files between the on DDS tapes (sup‐
			 ported range: 1 - 9999).  The cost of these marks are
			 negligible  in	 terms	of space on the DDS tape.  Not
			 all DDS tape devices support

		    Each entry in the configuration file consists of one  line
		    of	text in the following format: identifier, white space,
		    argument.  If a parameter  exceeds	the  supported	range,
		    prints  a  warning message and the maximum supported value
		    is used.  If such a warning message is  seen,  any	backup
		    already  written  with this configuration should be tested
		    for readability.

		    In the following sample configuration file, the number  of
		    blocks  per record is set to 16; the number of shared mem‐
		    ory records is set to 16; the checkpoint frequency is  set
		    to	256;  the number of file reader processes is set to 2;
		    the maximum number of retries of an active file is set  to
		    5;	the  maximum  retry  space  for active files is set to
		    5,000,000 bytes; the maximum number of  times  a  magnetic
		    tape volume can be used is set to 100; the file to be exe‐
		    cuted at volume change time is the	file  to  be  executed
		    when  a  fatal  error  occurs  is  and the number of files
		    between on DDS tapes is set to 200.

			   blocksperrecord   16
			   records	     16
			   checkpointfreq    256
			   readerprocesses   2 (maximum of 6)
			   maxretries	     5
			   retrylimit	     5000000
			   maxvoluses	     100
			   chgvol	     /var/adm/fbackupfiles/chgvol
			   error	     /var/adm/fbackupfiles/error
			   filesperfsm	     200

		    Each value listed is also the default  value,  except  and
		    which default to null values.

       This specifies a path to a database for use with incremental backups.
		    It overrides the default database file

       path	    specifies  a  tree	to  be excluded from the backup graph.
		    This tree must be a subtree of part of the	backup	graph.
		    Otherwise,	specifying  it will not exclude any files from
		    the graph.	There is no limit on how many times the option
		    can be specified.

       device	    specifies  the name of an output file.  If the name of the
		    file is writes  to	the  standard  output.	 There	is  no
		    default  output  file; at least one must be specified.  If
		    more than one output file is specified, uses each one suc‐
		    cessively  and  then  repeats in a cyclical pattern.  Pat‐
		    terns can be used in the device name in  a	manner	resem‐
		    bling  file name expansion as done by the shell (see sh(1)
		    and other shell manual entries).   The  patterns  must  be
		    protected  from  expansion	by  the shell by quoting them.
		    The expansion of the pattern results in all matching names
		    being in the list of devices used.

		    There is slightly different behavior if remote devices are
		    used.  A device on the remote machine can be specified  in
		    the	 form  creates	a  server  process  from on the remote
		    machine to access the tape device.	If does not  exist  on
		    the	 remote	 system,  creates a server process from on the
		    remote machine to access the tape device.	Only  magnetic
		    tapes can be remote devices.  When remote DDS tape devices
		    are used, the capability is not used.

       graph	    defines the graph file.  The graph file  is	 a  text  file
		    containing	the list of file names of trees to be included
		    or excluded from the backup graph.	These trees are inter‐
		    preted  in the same manner as when they are specified with
		    the and options.  Graph file entries  consist  of  a  line
		    beginning with either or followed by white space, and then
		    the path name of a tree.  Lines not beginning with or  are
		    treated as an error.  There is no default graph file.  For
		    example, to back up all of except for the subtree  a  file
		    could be created with the following two records:

       path	    specifies  a  tree	to  be	included  in the backup graph.
		    There is no limit on how many  times  the  option  can  be

       Cross	    NFS	 mount	points.	  By default, does not cross NFS mount
		    points, regardless of paths specified by the or options.

       Includes LOFS files specified by the backup graph.
		    By default, does not cross LOFS mount points.  If is spec‐
		    ified,  and the backup graph includes files which are also
		    in an LOFS directory that is in  the  backup  graph,  then
		    those files will be backed up twice.

       Back up the object that a symbolic link refers to.
		    The default behavior is to back up the symbolic link.

       Update the database of past backups
		    so	that  it  contains  the	 backup level, the time of the
		    beginning and end of the session, and the graph file  used
		    for this session.  For this update to take place, the fol‐
		    lowing conditions must exist: Neither the nor  the	option
		    can	 be  used;  the	 option must be specified exactly once
		    (see below); the must complete successfully.

       Run in verbose mode.
		    Generates status messages that are otherwise not seen.

       Automatically answer
		    to any inquiries.

       Do not back up optional entries of access control lists
		    (ACLs) for	files.	 Normally,  all	 mode  information  is
		    backed  up	including  the optional ACL entries.  With the
		    option, the summary mode information (as  returned	by  is
		    backed  up.	  Use this option when backing up files from a
		    system that contains ACLs to be recovered on a system that
		    does not understand ACLs (see acl(5)).

       Do not back up extent attributes.
		    Normally,  all  extent  attributes	that have been set are
		    included with the file.  This option only applies to  file
		    systems which support extent attributes.

       path	    specifies  the name of the on-line index file to be gener‐
		    ated.  It consists of one line for	each  file  backed  up
		    during the session.	 Each line contains the file size, the
		    volume number on which that file  resides,	and  the  file
		    name.   If	the option is omitted, no index file is gener‐

       The volume header information is written to
		    path at the end of a successful  session.	The  following
		    fields  from the header are written in the format with one
		    pair per line.

		    On a valid		   media it contains the value	(HP-UX
					   11i	Version 3 and beyond).	Previ‐
					   ous	values	of  this  field	  were
					   (between  HP-UX  10.20 and 11i Ver‐
					   sion 2 inclusive) and (before HP-UX
		    This field contains the result of
		    This field contains the result of
		    This field contains the result of
		    This field contains the result of
		    This field contains the result of
					   (see cuserid(3S)).
		    This  field contains the maximum length in bytes of a data
		    This field contains the clock time when
					   was started.
		    This field contains the number of times
					   the media has been used for backup.
					   Since  the  information is actually
					   on  the  media,  this  field	  will
					   always contain the value 0.
		    This field contains a  character followed by 3 digits, and
					   identifies the number of volumes in
					   the backup.
		    This  field	 contains  the	number of data records between
		    This field contains the size of the index.
		    This field is composed of two items: the process
					   ID (pid) and the start time of that
		    This field contains the language used to make the backup.

       Restart an   session  from  where  it  was previously interrupted.  The
		    restart file contains all  the  information	 necessary  to
		    restart  the interrupted session.  None of the options can
		    be used together with the restart option.

       This single-digit number is the backup level.
		    Level indicates a full backup.  Higher levels  are	gener‐
		    ally  used	to perform incremental backups.	 When doing an
		    incremental backup of a particular graph at	 a  particular
		    level,  the	 database  of past backups is searched to find
		    the date of the most recent backup of the same graph  that
		    was done at a lower level.	If no such entry is found, the
		    beginning of time is assumed.  All files in the graph that
		    have been modified since this date are backed up.

   Access Control Lists (ACLs)
       If  a  file  has optional ACL entries, the option is required to enable
       its recovery on a system where the ACL capability is not present.

   Environment Variables
       determines the order in which files are stored on the backup device and
       the order of output by the option.

       determines the format and contents of date and time strings.

       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If and are not all specified in the environment, or if either is set to
       the empty string, the value of is used as a default for	each  unspeci‐
       fied  or	 empty	variable.   If is not specified or is set to the empty
       string, a default of "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of If any inter‐
       nationalization variable contains an invalid setting, behaves as if all
       internationalization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

       returns one of the following values:

       upon normal completion.

       if it is interrupted but allowed
	  to save its state for possible restart.

       if any error conditions
	  prevent the session from completing.

       if any warning conditions are encountered.

       If warnings occur, the operator should check the fbackup logs to verify
       the sanity of the backup.

       In  the	following two examples, assume the graph of interest specifies
       all of except (as described for the option above).

       The first example is a simple case where a full backup is done but  the
       database file is not updated.  This can be invoked as follows:

       The  second  example is more complicated, and assumes the user wants to
       maintain a database of past sessions so that  incremental  backups  are

       If sufficient on-line storage is available, it may be desirable to keep
       several of the most recent index files on disk.	 This  eliminates  the
       need  to	 recover  the  index from the backup media to determine if the
       files to be recovered are on that set.  One method of  maintaining  on-
       line  index  files is outlined below.  The system administrator must do
       the following once before is run for the first time (creating  interme‐
       diate level directories where necessary):

	      ·	 Create a suitable configuration file called in the directory

	      ·	 Create a graph file called in the directory

	      ·	 Create a directory called in the directory

       A  shell script that performs the following tasks could be run for each

	      ·	 Build an index file path name based on both  the  graph  file
		 used (passed as a parameter to the script) and the start time
		 of the session (obtained from the system).  For example:

		      (for Nov 28, 1987 at 3:17 PM)

	      ·	 Invoke with this path name as its index file name.  For exam‐

       When  the  session  completes  successfully, the index is automatically
       placed in the proper location.

       The and commands are deprecated for creating new archives.  In a future
       HP-UX release, creation of new archives with these commands will not be
       supported.  Support will be continued for archive retrieval.   Use  the
       standard	 command  (portable  archive  interchange) to create archives.
       See pax(1).

       consists of multiple executable objects, all of which are  expected  to
       reside in directory

       does  not  require  special  privileges.	 However, if the user does not
       have access to a given file, the file is not backed up.

       For security reasons, configuration files and the and executable	 files
       should only be writable by their owners.

       In  HP-UX  11i Version 3, the maximum value for fields returned via was
       increased (from 8 to 256).  To accommodate the larger  size,  a	format
       change  was  necessary.	A new magic number, was created to distinguish
       this new format.

       Likewise with HP-UX 10.20, HP-UX added support for large files (greater
       than 2GB) and increased UID/GIDs (greater than 60,000).	The magic num‐
       ber associated with this release through HP-UX 11i  Version  2  (inclu‐
       sive) is

       Archives	 and files with formats and attributes that are unsupported on
       previous HP-UX releases could cause severe  problems  or	 unpredictable
       behavior if attempts were made to restore onto these systems.  For this
       reason, creates tapes with a magic number that is  only	recognized  on
       releases	 which	support	 the features and format being archived.  This
       prevents tape archives from being restored  on  earlier	HP-UX  systems
       than are supported.  still reads all tape formats so that tape archives
       created on earlier HP-UX systems can be restored.

       EOF marks are used for checkpointing on all magnetic tape devices.   On
       DLT tape devices, these EOF marks are also used for fast searching on a
       selective recovery; "fast searching" in this case means spacing to  the
       nearest	checkpoint before the desired file, and then reading until the
       file is found.  With this dual purpose for checkpoints, caution	should
       be used when changing the checkpoint frequency parameter.

       The use of for backing up NFS mounted file systems is not guaranteed to
       work as expected if the backup is done as a privileged user.   This  is
       due  to	the manner in which NFS handles privileged-user access by map‐
       ping user and uid to user usually uid thus disallowing root  privileges
       on the remote system to a root user on the local system.

       The  utility  set  comprised  of and was originally designed for use on
       systems equipped with not more than one gigabyte of total  file	system
       storage.	  Although  the utilities have no programming limitations that
       restrict users to this size, complete backups and  recoveries  of  sub‐
       stantially  larger  systems can cause a large amount of system activity
       due to the amount of virtual memory (swap  space)  used	to  store  the
       indices.	  Users who want to use these utilities, but are noticing poor
       system-wide performance due to the size of the backup,  are  encouraged
       to  back	 up  their  systems  in multiple smaller sessions, rather than
       attempting to back up the entire system at one time.

       Due to present file-system limitations, files whose inode data, but not
       their  contents,	 are  modified	while a backup is in progress might be
       omitted from the next incremental backup of the same graph.  Also, does
       not reset the inode change times of files to their original values.

       should  not  be used with no-rewind devices, for example, or on systems
       where legacy Device Special Files (DSF) is disabled.

       allocates resources that are not returned to the system if it is killed
       in an ungraceful manner.	 If it is necessary to kill send it a not a

       If  sparse  files  are backed up without using data compression, a very
       large amount of media can be consumed.

       creates volumes with a format that  makes  duplication  of  volumes  by
       impossible (see dd(1)).	Copying an volume created on one media type to
       another media type does not produce a valid volume  on  the  new	 media
       because the formats of volumes on raw magnetic tape, on a regular file,
       and on rewritable optical disks are not identical.

       When configuring the parameter (see option), the record size is limited
       by the maximum allowed for the tape drive.  Common record sizes include
       128 blocks for DLT and DDS tape drives, and 60 blocks for  the  HP7980.
       Note  also that the blocksize used in earlier releases (7.0 and before)
       was 512 bytes, whereas it is now 1024 bytes.  This means that the  same
       value specified in blocksperrecord in an earlier release creates blocks
       twice their earlier  size  in  the  current  release;  for  example,  a
       blocksperrecord	parameter  of 32 would create 16-Kbyte blocks at HP-UX
       7.0, but now creates 32-Kbyte blocks.  If blocksperrecord  exceeds  the
       byte count allowed by the tape drive, the tape drive rejects the write,
       causing an error to be communicated to which interprets as a bad	 tape.
       The resulting write error message resembles the following:

       Access  control lists of networked files are summarized (as returned in
       by but not copied to the new file (see stat(2)).

       does not support QIC-120 and QIC-150 formats on	QIC  devices.	If  is
       attempted  for  these  formats, fails and the following message is dis‐
       played :

       was developed by HP.

       database of past backups

       cpio(1), ftio(1), pax(1), dump(1M), frecover(1M), restore(1M), rmt(1M),
       stat(2), acl(5), mt(7).

				TO BE OBSOLETED			   fbackup(1M)

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