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FIND(1)								       FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-D debugopts] [-Olevel] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according to the rules of prece‐
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome	 is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which point
       find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment	where  security	 is  important
       (for  example  if  you  are  using  it  to  search directories that are
       writable by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"
       chapter	of  the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files
       and comes with findutils.   That document  also	includes  a  lot  more
       detail  and discussion than this manual page, so you may find it a more
       useful source of information.

OPTIONS
       The -H, -L and -P options control  the  treatment  of  symbolic	links.
       Command-line  arguments	following these are taken to be names of files
       or directories to be examined, up to the	 first	argument  that	begins
       with  `-', or the argument `(' or `!'.  That argument and any following
       arguments are taken to be the  expression  describing  what  is	to  be
       searched	 for.	If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the  expression  -print  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using -print0 instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about	 `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi‐
       ately after the last path name.	The five `real' options -H, -L, -P, -D
       and -O must appear before the first path name, if  at  all.   A	double
       dash -- can also be used to signal that any remaining arguments are not
       options (though ensuring that all start points begin with  either  `./'
       or  `/'	is  generally  safer if you use wildcards in the list of start
       points).

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
	      When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
	      a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
	      properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
	      about files, the information used shall be taken from the	 prop‐
	      erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
	      itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
	      examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
	      implies -noleaf.	If you later use the -P option,	 -noleaf  will
	      still  be	 in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
	      symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec‐
	      tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
	      match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link	points
	      to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro‐
	      ken).  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates	always
	      to return false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com‐
	      mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
	      about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop‐
	      erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
	      behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym‐
	      bolic link, and the link can be resolved.	 For  that  situation,
	      the  information	used is taken from whatever the link points to
	      (that is, the link is followed).	The information about the link
	      itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym‐
	      bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
	      the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
	      directory, the contents  of  that	 directory  will  be  examined
	      (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth‐
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the	default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command	line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.	 If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.	If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example	because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con‐
       sideration applies to -newerXY, -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

       -D debugoptions
	      Print diagnostic information; this can be	 helpful  to  diagnose
	      problems	with why find is not doing what you want.  The list of
	      debug options should be comma separated.	Compatibility  of  the
	      debug  options  is not guaranteed between releases of findutils.
	      For a complete list of valid debug options, see  the  output  of
	      find -D help.  Valid debug options include

	      help   Explain the debugging options

	      tree   Show  the	expression  tree in its original and optimised
		     form.

	      stat   Print messages as files are examined with	the  stat  and
		     lstat  system  calls.  The find program tries to minimise
		     such calls.

	      opt    Prints diagnostic information relating to	the  optimisa‐
		     tion of the expression tree; see the -O option.

	      rates  Prints a summary indicating how often each predicate suc‐
		     ceeded or failed.

       -Olevel
	      Enables query optimisation.   The find program reorders tests to
	      speed up execution while preserving the overall effect; that is,
	      predicates with side effects are not reordered relative to  each
	      other.   The  optimisations performed at each optimisation level
	      are as follows.

	      0	     Equivalent to optimisation level 1.

	      1	     This is the default optimisation level and corresponds to
		     the  traditional behaviour.  Expressions are reordered so
		     that tests based only on the names of files (for  example
		     -name and -regex) are performed first.

	      2	     Any  -type	 or -xtype tests are performed after any tests
		     based only on the names of files, but  before  any	 tests
		     that  require information from the inode.	On many modern
		     versions of Unix, file types are  returned	 by  readdir()
		     and so these predicates are faster to evaluate than pred‐
		     icates which need to stat the file first.

	      3	     At this optimisation level,  the  full  cost-based	 query
		     optimiser	is enabled.  The order of tests is modified so
		     that cheap (i.e. fast) tests are performed first and more
		     expensive ones are performed later, if necessary.	Within
		     each cost band, predicates are evaluated earlier or later
		     according	to  whether they are likely to succeed or not.
		     For -o, predicates which are likely to succeed are evalu‐
		     ated  earlier, and for -a, predicates which are likely to
		     fail are evaluated earlier.

	      The cost-based optimiser has a fixed  idea  of  how  likely  any
	      given  test  is to succeed.  In some cases the probability takes
	      account of the specific nature of the test (for example, -type f
	      is  assumed  to  be  more	 likely to succeed than -type c).  The
	      cost-based optimiser is currently being evaluated.   If it  does
	      not actually improve the performance of find, it will be removed
	      again.  Conversely, optimisations that  prove  to	 be  reliable,
	      robust and effective may be enabled at lower optimisation levels
	      over time.  However, the default	behaviour  (i.e.  optimisation
	      level  1)	 will not be changed in the 4.3.x release series.  The
	      findutils test suite runs all the tests on find at each  optimi‐
	      sation level and ensures that the result is the same.

EXPRESSIONS
       The  expression	is  made up of options (which affect overall operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests  (which  return  a	 true or false value), and actions (which have
       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by opera‐
       tors.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.

       If the expression contains no actions other than -prune, -print is per‐
       formed on all files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	 Except	 for  -daystart,  -follow  and
       -regextype,  the	 options  affect  all tests, including tests specified
       before the option.  This is because the options are processed when  the
       command	line  is parsed, while the tests don't do anything until files
       are examined.  The -daystart, -follow and -regextype options  are  dif‐
       ferent  in  this respect, and have an effect only on tests which appear
       later in the command line.  Therefore, for clarity, it is best to place
       them  at	 the  beginning of the expression.  A warning is issued if you
       don't do this.

       -d     A synonym for -depth, for compatibility  with  FreeBSD,  NetBSD,
	      MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -daystart
	      Measure  times  (for  -amin,  -atime,  -cmin, -ctime, -mmin, and
	      -mtime) from the beginning of today rather than  from  24	 hours
	      ago.   This  option only affects tests which appear later on the
	      command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the  directory  itself.
	      The -delete action also implies -depth.

       -follow
	      Deprecated;  use	the  -L	 option instead.  Dereference symbolic
	      links.  Implies -noleaf.	The -follow option affects only	 those
	      tests  which appear after it on the command line.	 Unless the -H
	      or -L option has been specified, the  position  of  the  -follow
	      option  changes the behaviour of the -newer predicate; any files
	      listed as the argument of -newer will be	dereferenced  if  they
	      are symbolic links.  The same consideration applies to -newerXY,
	      -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly, the -type predicate will always
	      match  against  the type of the file that a symbolic link points
	      to rather than the link itself.  Using -follow causes the -lname
	      and -ilname predicates always to return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,	 find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
	      a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
	      the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
	      the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
	      issued.	 This also applies to files or directories whose names
	      are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
	      time  the	 command  line	is  read,  which means that you cannot
	      search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
	      of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
	      need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
	      one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc‐
	      tories below the command line arguments.	-maxdepth 0
	       means only apply the tests and  actions	to  the	 command  line
	      arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
	      non-negative integer).  -mindepth	 1  means  process  all	 files
	      except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
	      name for -xdev, for compatibility with some  other  versions  of
	      find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize	 by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
	      subdirectories than their	 hard  link  count.   This  option  is
	      needed  when  searching  filesystems that do not follow the Unix
	      directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS  filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
	      filesystem has at least 2 hard  links:  its  name	 and  its  `.'
	      entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each have a
	      `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
	      directory,  after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
	      directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
	      the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
	      tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
	      no  need	to  stat  them;	 this  gives a significant increase in
	      search speed.

       -regextype type
	      Changes the regular expression syntax understood by  -regex  and
	      -iregex tests which occur later on the command line.  Currently-
	      implemented types are emacs (this is  the	 default),  posix-awk,
	      posix-basic, posix-egrep and posix-extended.

       -version, --version
	      Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn  warning  messages on or off.  These warnings apply only to
	      the command line usage, not to any conditions  that  find	 might
	      encounter	 when  it searches directories.	 The default behaviour
	      corresponds to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to  -nowarn
	      otherwise.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Some  tests,  for  example  -newerXY  and  -samefile,  allow comparison
       between the file currently being examined and some reference file spec‐
       ified  on the command line.  When these tests are used, the interpreta‐
       tion of the reference file is determined by the options -H, -L  and  -P
       and any previous -follow, but the reference file is only examined once,
       at the time the command line is parsed.	If the reference  file	cannot
       be  examined  (for  example,  the stat(2) system call fails for it), an
       error message is issued, and find exits with a nonzero status.

       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
	      file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
	      effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
	      how  many	 24-hour  periods  ago the file was last accessed, any
	      fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
	      have been accessed at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was last changed more recently than file was modi‐
	      fied.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the  -L
	      option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time of the file it
	      points to is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
	      of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -executable
	      Matches files which are executable  and  directories  which  are
	      searchable  (in  a file name resolution sense).  This takes into
	      account access control lists  and	 other	permissions  artefacts
	      which  the  -perm	 test  ignores.	  This	test  makes use of the
	      access(2) system call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which
	      do UID mapping (or root-squashing), since many systems implement
	      access(2) in the client's kernel and so cannot make use  of  the
	      UID  mapping  information held on the server.  Because this test
	      is based only on the result of the access(2) system call,	 there
	      is  no  guarantee	 that  a file for which this test succeeds can
	      actually be executed.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of  type	type.	The  valid  filesystem
	      types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
	      use -printf with the %F directive	 to  see  the  types  of  your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
	      option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this	 test  returns
	      false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file	 names	`Foo',	`FOO',
	      `foo',  `fOo',  etc.   In these patterns, unlike filename expan‐
	      sion by the shell, an initial '.' can be matched by  `*'.	  That
	      is, find -name *bar will match the file `.foobar'.   Please note
	      that you should quote patterns as a matter of course,  otherwise
	      the shell will expand any wildcard characters in them.

       -inum n
	      File  has	 inode	number	n.   It	 is normally easier to use the
	      -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves in the same way as -iwholename.  This option  is	depre‐
	      cated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat‐
	      tern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If
	      the  -L  option  or  the	-follow option is in effect, this test
	      returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
	      of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base of  file  name  (the	 path  with  the  leading  directories
	      removed)	matches	 shell	pattern	 pattern.   The metacharacters
	      (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the  base  name
	      (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON‐
	      FORMANCE below).	To ignore a directory and the files under  it,
	      use  -prune; see an example in the description of -path.	Braces
	      are not recognised as being special, despite the fact that  some
	      shells  including	 Bash  imbue  braces with a special meaning in
	      shell patterns.  The filename matching is performed with the use
	      of  the  fnmatch(3)  library function.   Don't forget to enclose
	      the pattern in quotes in order to protect it from	 expansion  by
	      the shell.

       -newer file
	      File  was	 modified  more recently than file.  If file is a sym‐
	      bolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,  the
	      modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -newerXY reference
	      Compares	the timestamp of the current file with reference.  The
	      reference argument is normally the name of a file	 (and  one  of
	      its  timestamps is used for the comparison) but it may also be a
	      string describing an absolute time.  X and  Y  are  placeholders
	      for other letters, and these letters select which time belonging
	      to how reference is used for the comparison.

	      a	  The access time of the file reference
	      B	  The birth time of the file reference
	      c	  The inode status change time of reference
	      m	  The modification time of the file reference
	      t	  reference is interpreted directly as a time

	      Some combinations are invalid; for example, it is invalid for  X
	      to  be t.	 Some combinations are not implemented on all systems;
	      for example B is not supported on all systems.  If an invalid or
	      unsupported  combination	of  XY	is  specified,	a  fatal error
	      results.	Time specifications are interpreted as for  the	 argu‐
	      ment  to the -d option of GNU date.  If you try to use the birth
	      time of a reference file, and the birth time  cannot  be	deter‐
	      mined,  a	 fatal	error  message results.	 If you specify a test
	      which refers to the birth time of	 files	being  examined,  this
	      test will fail for any files where the birth time is unknown.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -path pattern
	      File  name matches shell pattern pattern.	 The metacharacters do
	      not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -path "./sr*sc"
	      will print an entry for a directory called `./src/misc' (if  one
	      exists).	 To  ignore  a whole directory tree, use -prune rather
	      than checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip  the
	      directory	 `src/emacs'  and  all files and directories under it,
	      and print the names of the other files found, do something  like
	      this:
			find . -path ./src/emacs -prune -o -print
	      Note that the pattern match test applies to the whole file name,
	      starting from one of the start points named on the command line.
	      It  would	 only  make sense to use an absolute path name here if
	      the relevant start point is also an absolute path.   This	 means
	      that this command will never match anything:
			find bar -path /foo/bar/myfile -print
	      The  predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX find and will be
	      in a forthcoming version of the POSIX standard.

       -perm mode
	      File's permission bits are exactly  mode	(octal	or  symbolic).
	      Since  an	 exact match is required, if you want to use this form
	      for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
	      mode  string.  For example -perm g=w will only match files which
	      have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group  write  permission
	      is  the  only  permission set).  It is more likely that you will
	      want to use the `/' or `-' forms, for example -perm -g=w,	 which
	      matches  any file with group write permission.  See the EXAMPLES
	      section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way in
	      which would want to use them.  You must specify `u', `g' or  `o'
	      if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
	      illustrative examples.

       -perm /mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify `u', `g' or
	      `o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the	EXAMPLES  section  for
	      some  illustrative  examples.  If no permission bits in mode are
	      set, this test matches any file (the idea here is to be  consis‐
	      tent with the behaviour of -perm -000).

       -perm +mode
	      Deprecated,  old way of searching for files with any of the per‐
	      mission bits in mode set.	 You should use -perm  /mode  instead.
	      Trying to use the `+' syntax with symbolic modes will yield sur‐
	      prising results.	For example, `+u+x' is a valid	symbolic  mode
	      (equivalent to +u,+x, i.e. 0111) and will therefore not be eval‐
	      uated as -perm +mode but instead as  the	exact  mode  specifier
	      -perm  mode  and so it matches files with exact permissions 0111
	      instead of files with any execute bit set.  If  you  found  this
	      paragraph	 confusing,  you're  not alone - just use -perm /mode.
	      This form of the -perm test  is  deprecated  because  the	 POSIX
	      specification  requires  the  interpretation of a leading `+' as
	      being part of a symbolic mode, and so we switched to  using  `/'
	      instead.

       -readable
	      Matches  files  which  are  readable.   This  takes into account
	      access control lists and other permissions artefacts  which  the
	      -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
	      call, and so can be fooled by NFS servers which do  UID  mapping
	      (or  root-squashing),  since many systems implement access(2) in
	      the client's kernel and so cannot make use of  the  UID  mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
	      on the whole path, not a search.	For example, to match  a  file
	      named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
	      `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
	      by  find	are by default Emacs Regular Expressions, but this can
	      be changed with the -regextype option.

       -samefile name
	      File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
	      this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
		     used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

	      The size does not count  indirect	 blocks,  but  it  does	 count
	      blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
	      mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf	handle
	      sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
	      to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe (FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link; this is never true if the -L option or the
		     -follow option is in effect, unless the symbolic link  is
		     broken.  If you want to search for symbolic links when -L
		     is in effect, use -xtype.

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      See -path.    This alternative is less portable than -path.

       -writable
	      Matches files which  are	writable.   This  takes	 into  account
	      access  control  lists and other permissions artefacts which the
	      -perm test ignores.  This test makes use of the access(2) system
	      call,  and  so can be fooled by NFS servers which do UID mapping
	      (or root-squashing), since many systems implement	 access(2)  in
	      the  client's  kernel  and so cannot make use of the UID mapping
	      information held on the server.

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym‐
	      bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
	      file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
	      given,  true  if	c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic links,
	      -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed,
	      an  error message is issued.  If -delete fails, find's exit sta‐
	      tus will be nonzero (when it eventually exits).  Use of  -delete
	      automatically turns on the -depth option.

	      Warnings:	 Don't	forget that the find command line is evaluated
	      as an expression, so putting -delete first will make find try to
	      delete everything below the starting points you specified.  When
	      testing a find command line that you later intend	 to  use  with
	      -delete,	you should explicitly specify -depth in order to avoid
	      later surprises.	Because -delete	 implies  -depth,  you	cannot
	      usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute  command;	 true  if 0 status is returned.	 All following
	      arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
	      an  argument  consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
	      is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
	      it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
	      where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of	 these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
	      protect them from expansion by the shell.	 See the EXAMPLES sec‐
	      tion for examples of the use of the -exec option.	 The specified
	      command is run once for each matched file.  The command is  exe‐
	      cuted  in	 the starting directory.   There are unavoidable secu‐
	      rity problems surrounding use of the -exec  action;  you	should
	      use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
	      This  variant  of the -exec action runs the specified command on
	      the selected files, but the command line is built	 by  appending
	      each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca‐
	      tions of the command will	 be  much  less	 than  the  number  of
	      matched  files.	The command line is built in much the same way
	      that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  `{}'
	      is  allowed  within the command.	The command is executed in the
	      starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the  subdirec‐
	      tory  containing	the  matched  file,  which is not normally the
	      directory in which you started find.  This a  much  more	secure
	      method  for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions dur‐
	      ing resolution of the paths to the matched files.	 As  with  the
	      -exec action, the `+' form of -execdir will build a command line
	      to process more than one matched file, but any given  invocation
	      of command will only list files that exist in the same subdirec‐
	      tory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that  your	 $PATH
	      environment  variable  does  not	reference  `.';	 otherwise, an
	      attacker can run any commands they like by leaving an  appropri‐
	      ately-named  file in a directory in which you will run -execdir.
	      The same applies to having entries in $PATH which are  empty  or
	      which are not absolute directory names.

       -fls file
	      True;  like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output file
	      is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.   See
	      the  UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist  when  find is run, it is created; if it does exist, it is
	      truncated.  The file names ``/dev/stdout''  and  ``/dev/stderr''
	      are  handled  specially;	they  refer to the standard output and
	      standard error output, respectively.  The output file is	always
	      created,	even  if  the  predicate  is  never  matched.  See the
	      UNUSUAL FILENAMES section	 for  information  about  how  unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
	      True;  like  -print0 but write to file like -fprint.  The output
	      file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
	      See  the	UNUSUAL	 FILENAMES  section  for information about how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
	      True; like -printf but write to file like -fprint.   The	output
	      file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	 section  for  information  about  how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ls    True;  list  current file in ls -dils format on standard output.
	      The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment	 vari‐
	      able  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are
	      used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information	 about
	      how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like  -exec but ask the user first.  If the user agrees, run the
	      command.	Otherwise just return false.  If the command  is  run,
	      its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

	      The  response to the prompt is matched against a pair of regular
	      expressions to determine if it is	 an  affirmative  or  negative
	      response.	  This	regular expression is obtained from the system
	      if the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, or	other‐
	      wise  from  find's  message  translations.  If the system has no
	      suitable definition, find's own definition will  be  used.    In
	      either case, the interpretation of the regular expression itself
	      will be affected by the environment variables 'LC_CTYPE'	(char‐
	      acter  classes)  and  'LC_COLLATE' (character ranges and equiva‐
	      lence classes).

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but ask the user first in the same way as for -ok.
	      If  the  user does not agree, just return false.	If the command
	      is run, its standard input is redirected from /dev/null.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  newline.	 If  you  are  piping  the output of find into
	      another program and there is the faintest possibility  that  the
	      files  which you are searching for might contain a newline, then
	      you should seriously consider using the -print0  option  instead
	      of  -print.   See	 the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  null  character  (instead	of  the newline character that
	      -print uses).  This allows file names that contain  newlines  or
	      other  types  of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro‐
	      grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds  to
	      the -0 option of xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print  format  on	the  standard output, interpreting `\'
	      escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can  be
	      specified	 as  with  the	`printf' C function.  Please note that
	      many of the fields are printed as %s rather than	%d,  and  this
	      may  mean	 that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also
	      means that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be	 left-
	      aligned).	  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the
	      end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush  the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \0     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access time in the format returned by	the  C
		     `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's  last  access  time	 in the format specified by k,
		     which is either `@' or a directive for the	 C  `strftime'
		     function.	 The  possible	values for k are listed below;
		     some of them might not be available on all	 systems,  due
		     to differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds  since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT, with frac‐
			    tional part.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    Second (00.00 .. 61.00).  There  is	 a  fractional
			    part.

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date  and  time,  separated	 by  `+',  for example
			    `2004-04-28+22:22:05.0'.  This is a GNU extension.
			    The	 time  is given in the current timezone (which
			    may be affected  by	 setting  the  TZ  environment
			    variable).	 The  seconds  field  includes a frac‐
			    tional part.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time  zone
			    is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's  full weekday name, variable length (Sun‐
			    day..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's full month name, variable	length	(Janu‐
			    ary..December)

		     c	    locale's  date  and	 time (Sat Nov 04 12:02:33 EST
			    1989).  The format is the same as for ctime(3) and
			    so	to  preserve  compatibility  with that format,
			    there is no fractional part in the seconds field.

		     d	    day of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day of year (001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week number of year with Sunday as	first  day  of
			    week (00..53)

		     w	    day of week (0..6)

		     W	    week  number  of  year with Monday as first day of
			    week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     The amount of disk space used for this file  in  512-byte
		     blocks. Since disk space is allocated in multiples of the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/512,  but  it  can  also  be  smaller if the file is a
		     sparse file.

	      %c     File's last status change time in the format returned  by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
		     k, which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %D     The  device  number  on which the file exists (the st_dev
		     field of struct stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's name with any leading  directories	removed	 (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type  of the filesystem the file is on; this value can be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's group name, or numeric group ID if the  group  has
		     no name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last ele‐
		     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
		     in	 the  current  directory)  the %h specifier expands to
		     ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks.
		     Since  disk  space	 is  allocated	in  multiples  of  the
		     filesystem	 block	size  this  is	usually	 greater  than
		     %s/1024,  but  it	can  also  be smaller if the file is a
		     sparse file.

	      %l     Object of symbolic link (empty string if file  is	not  a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's  permission bits (in octal).  This option uses the
		     `traditional' numbers  which  most	 Unix  implementations
		     use,  but	if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
		     unusual ordering of octal permissions bits, you will  see
		     a	difference between the actual value of the file's mode
		     and the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have  a
		     leading  zero  on this number, and to do this, you should
		     use the # flag (as in, for example, `%#m').

	      %M     File's permissions (in symbolic form, as for  ls).	  This
		     directive is supported in findutils 4.2.5 and later.

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's  name  with	 the name of the command line argument
		     under which it was found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %S     File's  sparseness.   This	 is  calculated	  as   (BLOCK‐
		     SIZE*st_blocks  / st_size).  The exact value you will get
		     for an ordinary file of a certain length is system-depen‐
		     dent.   However,  normally	 sparse files will have values
		     less than 1.0, and files which use	 indirect  blocks  may
		     have  a value which is greater than 1.0.	The value used
		     for BLOCKSIZE is system-dependent,	 but  is  usually  512
		     bytes.    If  the file size is zero, the value printed is
		     undefined.	 On systems which lack support for  st_blocks,
		     a file's sparseness is assumed to be 1.0.

	      %t     File's  last  modification time in the format returned by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's last modification time in the format specified  by
		     k, which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's  user  name, or numeric user ID if the user has no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's type (like in ls -l),  U=unknown  type  (shouldn't
		     happen)

	      %Y     File's  type  (like  %y),	plus  follow symlinks: L=loop,
		     N=nonexistent

	      A `%' character followed by any other  character	is  discarded,
	      but  the other character is printed (don't rely on this, as fur‐
	      ther format characters may be introduced).  A `%' at the end  of
	      the format argument causes undefined behaviour since there is no
	      following character.  In some locales, it	 may  hide  your  door
	      keys,  while  in	others	it  may remove the final page from the
	      novel you are reading.

	      The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but  the
	      other  directives	 do  not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
	      directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
	      and  n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the align‐
	      ment of a field from right-justified (which is the  default)  to
	      left-justified.

	      See  the	UNUSUAL	 FILENAMES  section  for information about how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune True; if the file is a directory, do not	descend	 into  it.  If
	      -depth  is  given,  false;  no  effect.  Because -delete implies
	      -depth, you cannot usefully use -prune and -delete together.

       -quit  Exit immediately.	 No child processes will be left running,  but
	      no  more	paths specified on the command line will be processed.
	      For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
	      /tmp/foo.	  Any  command	lines  which  have  been built up with
	      -execdir ... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The  exit
	      status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
	      already occurred.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many of the actions of find result in the printing  of  data  which  is
       under  the  control  of	other users.  This includes file names, sizes,
       modification times and so forth.	 File names are	 a  potential  problem
       since  they  can	 contain  any  character except `\0' and `/'.  Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to  your	 terminal (for example, changing the settings of your function
       keys on some terminals).	 Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
	      Always  print  the exact filename, unchanged, even if the output
	      is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual characters are always escaped.  White space,  backslash,
	      and  double  quote characters are printed using C-style escaping
	      (for example `\f', `\"').	 Other unusual characters are  printed
	      using  an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls and
	      -fls these are the characters between octal 041  and  0176)  are
	      printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
	      If  the  output is not going to a terminal, it is printed as-is.
	      Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
	      directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
	      are not under control of files' owners, and so are  printed  as-
	      is.   The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s, %t,
	      %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' own‐
	      ers  but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the ter‐
	      minal, and so these are printed as-is.  The directives  %f,  %h,
	      %l, %p and %P are quoted.	 This quoting is performed in the same
	      way as for GNU ls.  This is not the same	quoting	 mechanism  as
	      the  one	used for -ls and -fls.	If you are able to decide what
	      format to use for the output of find then it is normally	better
	      to  use  `\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as file names
	      can contain white space and newline characters.  The setting  of
	      the  `LC_CTYPE'  environment variable is used to determine which
	      characters need to be quoted.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting is handled in the same way as for -printf and  -fprintf.
	      If  you  are  using find in a script or in a situation where the
	      matched files might have arbitrary names,	 you  should  consider
	      using -print0 instead of -print.

       The  -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.	 Since parentheses are special to  the	shell,
	      you  will	 normally need to quote them.  Many of the examples in
	      this manual page use backslashes	for  this  purpose:  `\(...\)'
	      instead of `(...)'.

       ! expr True  if	expr  is false.	 This character will also usually need
	      protection from interpretation by the shell.

       -not expr
	      Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an  implied
	      "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
	      Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List;  both  expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.  The value of
	      expr1 is discarded; the value of the list is the value of expr2.
	      The  comma operator can be useful for searching for several dif‐
	      ferent types of thing, but traversing the	 filesystem  hierarchy
	      only  once.  The -fprintf action can be used to list the various
	      matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       For closest compliance to  the  POSIX  standard,	 you  should  set  the
       POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable.  The following options are speci‐
       fied in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std 1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends  on  the
	      POSIX  conformance  of the system's fnmatch(3) library function.
	      As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*',	 `?'  or  `[]'
	      for  example) will match a leading `.', because IEEE PASC inter‐
	      pretation 126 requires this.   This is a	change	from  previous
	      versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies  `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and
	      `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the
	      OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation  of the response is according to the
	      "yes" and "no" patterns selected by  setting  the	 `LC_MESSAGES'
	      environment  variable.   When  the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment
	      variable is set, these patterns are taken system's definition of
	      a	 positive  (yes)  or  negative (no) response. See the system's
	      documentation for	 nl_langinfo(3),  in  particular  YESEXPR  and
	      NOEXPR.	  When	`POSIXLY_CORRECT' is not set, the patterns are
	      instead taken from find's own message catalogue.

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is  a  symbolic	 link,	it  is
	      always  dereferenced.  This is a change from previous behaviour,
	      which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
	      the HISTORY section below.

       -perm  Supported.   If  the POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable is not
	      set, some mode arguments (for example +a+x) which are not	 valid
	      in POSIX are supported for backward-compatibility.

       Other predicates
	      The  predicates  -atime, -ctime, -depth, -group, -links, -mtime,
	      -nogroup, -nouser, -print, -prune, -size, -user  and  -xdev  are
	      all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators ( -a, -o).

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are  extensions
       beyond  the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that find detects loops:

	      The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is,  entering
	      a	 previously  visited directory that is an ancestor of the last
	      file encountered. When it detects an infinite loop,  find	 shall
	      write  a	diagnostic  message to standard error and shall either
	      recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       GNU find complies with these requirements.  The link count of  directo‐
       ries  which  contain  entries  which are hard links to an ancestor will
       often be lower than they otherwise should be.  This can mean  that  GNU
       find  will sometimes optimise away the visiting of a subdirectory which
       is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find does not actually	 enter
       such  a subdirectory, it is allowed to avoid emitting a diagnostic mes‐
       sage.  Although	this  behaviour	 may  be  somewhat  confusing,	it  is
       unlikely	 that anybody actually depends on this behaviour.  If the leaf
       optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the directory entry will
       always  be  examined and the diagnostic message will be issued where it
       is appropriate.	Symbolic links cannot be  used	to  create  filesystem
       cycles as such, but if the -L option or the -follow option is in use, a
       diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a  loop  of  symbolic
       links.  As with loops containing hard links, the leaf optimisation will
       often mean that find knows that it  doesn't  need  to  call  stat()  or
       chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is frequently not nec‐
       essary.

       The -d option is supported for compatibility with various BSD  systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant option -depth instead.

       The  POSIXLY_CORRECT environment variable does not affect the behaviour
       of the -regex or -iregex tests because those tests aren't specified  in
       the POSIX standard.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides	a default value for the internationalization variables
	      that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If set to a non-empty string value, override the values  of  all
	      the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat‐
	      tern matching to be used for the -name option.   GNU  find  uses
	      the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
	      depends on the system library.	This variable also affects the
	      interpretation  of  the response to -ok; while the `LC_MESSAGES'
	      variable selects	the  actual  pattern  used  to	interpret  the
	      response	to  -ok, the interpretation of any bracket expressions
	      in the pattern will be affected by `LC_COLLATE'.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This variable affects the treatment of character classes used in
	      regular  expressions  and	 also with the -name test, if the sys‐
	      tem's fnmatch(3) library function supports this.	This  variable
	      also  affects the interpretation of any character classes in the
	      regular expressions used to interpret the response to the prompt
	      issued  by  -ok.	 The `LC_CTYPE' environment variable will also
	      affect which characters are considered to	 be  unprintable  when
	      filenames are printed; see the section UNUSUAL FILENAMES.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.
	      If the `POSIXLY_CORRECT' environment variable is set, this  also
	      determines the interpretation of the response to the prompt made
	      by the -ok action.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat‐
	      alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the directories which are searched to find the executa‐
	      bles invoked by -exec, -execdir, -ok and -okdir.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines the block size used by -ls and -fls.  If POSIXLY_COR‐
	      RECT  is set, blocks are units of 512 bytes.  Otherwise they are
	      units of 1024 bytes.

	      Setting this variable also turns off warning messages (that  is,
	      implies  -nowarn)	 by default, because POSIX requires that apart
	      from the output for -ok, all  messages  printed  on  stderr  are
	      diagnostics and must result in a non-zero exit status.

	      When POSIXLY_CORRECT is not set, -perm +zzz is treated just like
	      -perm  /zzz  if  +zzz  is	 not  a	 valid	symbolic  mode.	  When
	      POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, such constructs are treated as an error.

	      When  POSIXLY_CORRECT is set, the response to the prompt made by
	      the -ok action is interpreted according to the system's  message
	      catalogue,  as opposed to according to find's own message trans‐
	      lations.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related	format
	      directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con‐
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or	directory  names  con‐
       taining	single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly han‐
       dled.  The -name test comes before the -type test  in  order  to	 avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on	 every file in or below the current directory.	Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation as shell script punctuation.  The semicolon is similarly
       protected by the use of a backslash, though single  quotes  could  have
       been used in that case also.

       find / \
       \( -perm -4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt %#m %u %p\n \) , \
       \( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt %-10s %p\n \)

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big.txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last modified  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.	That means that to match -mtime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is	 less  than  24	 hours
       ago.

       find /sbin /usr/sbin -executable \! -readable -print

       Search for files which are executable but not readable.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which other users can read  but  not  write  to.	 Files
       which  meet  these  criteria  but  have other permissions bits set (for
       example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for  their	 owner
       and  group, and which other users can read, without regard to the pres‐
       ence of any extra permission bits (for  example	the  executable	 bit).
       This will match a file which has mode 0777, for example.

       find . -perm /222

       Search  for files which are writable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm /220
       find . -perm /u+w,g+w
       find . -perm /u=w,g=w

       All three of these commands do the same thing, but the first  one  uses
       the  octal  representation  of the file mode, and the other two use the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are  writable
       by  either  their  owner	 or  their  group.  The files don't have to be
       writable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -220
       find . -perm -g+w,u+w

       Both these commands do the same	thing;	search	for  files  which  are
       writable by both their owner and their group.

       find . -perm -444 -perm /222 ! -perm /111
       find . -perm -a+r -perm /a+w ! -perm /a+x

       These  two  commands both search for files that are readable for every‐
       body ( -perm -444 or -perm -a+r), have at least one  write  bit	set  (
       -perm  /222 or -perm /a+w) but are not executable for anybody ( ! -perm
       /111 and ! -perm /a+x respectively).

       cd /source-dir
       find . -name .snapshot -prune -o \( \! -name *~ -print0 \)|
       cpio -pmd0 /dest-dir

       This command copies the contents of /source-dir to /dest-dir, but omits
       files  and directories named .snapshot (and anything in them).  It also
       omits files or directories whose name ends in ~,	 but  not  their  con‐
       tents.  The construct -prune -o \( ... -print0 \) is quite common.  The
       idea here is that the expression before -prune matches things which are
       to  be  pruned.	However, the -prune action itself returns true, so the
       following -o ensures that the right hand side  is  evaluated  only  for
       those  directories  which didn't get pruned (the contents of the pruned
       directories are not even visited, so their  contents  are  irrelevant).
       The  expression on the right hand side of the -o is in parentheses only
       for clarity.  It emphasises that the -print0 action  takes  place  only
       for  things  that  didn't  have	-prune	applied	 to them.  Because the
       default `and' condition between tests binds more tightly than -o,  this
       is  the	default anyway, but the parentheses help to show what is going
       on.

       find repo/ -exec test -d {}/.svn -o -d {}/.git -o -d {}/CVS ; \
       -print -prune

       Given the following directory of	 projects  and	their  associated  SCM
       administrative	directories,  perform  an  efficient  search  for  the
       projects' roots:

       repo/project1/CVS
       repo/gnu/project2/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/.svn
       repo/gnu/project3/src/.svn
       repo/project4/.git

       In this example, -prune prevents unnecessary descent  into  directories
       that  have  already  been  discovered  (for  example  we	 do not search
       project3/src because we already found project3/.svn), but ensures  sib‐
       ling directories (project2 and project3) are found.

EXIT STATUS
       find  exits  with  status  0  if	 all files are processed successfully,
       greater than 0 if errors occur.	 This is  deliberately	a  very	 broad
       description,  but  if the return value is non-zero, you should not rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1), locatedb(5), updatedb(1),  xargs(1),	chmod(1),  fnmatch(3),
       regex(7),  stat(2),  lstat(2), ls(1), printf(3), strftime(3), ctime(3),
       Finding Files (on-line in Info, or printed).

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters (`*', `?' or `[]' for exam‐
       ple)  used  in filename patterns will match a leading `.', because IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

       The syntax -perm +MODE was deprecated in findutils-4.2.21, in favour of
       -perm  /MODE.   As of findutils-4.3.3, -perm /000 now matches all files
       instead of none.

       Nanosecond-resolution timestamps were implemented in findutils-4.3.3.

       As of findutils-4.3.11, the -delete action sets find's exit status to a
       nonzero	value when it fails.  However, find will not exit immediately.
       Previously, find's  exit	 status	 was  unaffected  by  the  failure  of
       -delete.

       Feature		      Added in	 Also occurs in
       -newerXY		      4.3.3	 BSD
       -D		      4.3.1
       -O		      4.3.1
       -readable	      4.3.0
       -writable	      4.3.0
       -executable	      4.3.0
       -regextype	      4.2.24
       -exec ... +	      4.2.12	 POSIX

       -execdir		      4.2.12	 BSD
       -okdir		      4.2.12
       -samefile	      4.2.11
       -H		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -L		      4.2.5	 POSIX
       -P		      4.2.5	 BSD
       -delete		      4.2.3
       -quit		      4.2.3
       -d		      4.2.3	 BSD
       -wholename	      4.2.0
       -iwholename	      4.2.0
       -ignore_readdir_race   4.2.0
       -fls		      4.0
       -ilname		      3.8
       -iname		      3.8
       -ipath		      3.8
       -iregex		      3.8

NON-BUGS
       $ find . -name *.c -print
       find: paths must precede expression
       Usage: find [-H] [-L] [-P] [-Olevel] [-D help|tree|search|stat|rates|opt|exec] [path...] [expression]

       This  happens  because  *.c has been expanded by the shell resulting in
       find actually receiving a command line like this:

       find . -name bigram.c code.c frcode.c locate.c -print

       That command is of course not going to work.  Instead of	 doing	things
       this  way, you should enclose the pattern in quotes or escape the wild‐
       card:
       $ find . -name \*.c -print


BUGS
       There are security problems inherent in the behaviour  that  the	 POSIX
       standard	 specifies  for	 find,	which  therefore cannot be fixed.  For
       example, the -exec action is inherently insecure, and  -execdir	should
       be used instead.	 Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The environment variable LC_COLLATE has no effect on the -ok action.

       The  best  way  to  report  a  bug  is to use the form at http://savan‐
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.  The reason for  this	 is  that  you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com‐
       ments about find(1) and about the findutils package in general  can  be
       sent  to	 the bug-findutils mailing list.  To join the list, send email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

								       FIND(1)
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