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FIND(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       FIND(1)

NAME
     find — walk a file hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
     find [-H | -L | -P] [-EXdsx] [-f pathname] [pathname ...] expression

DESCRIPTION
     Find recursively descends the directory tree for each pathname listed,
     evaluating an expression (composed of the “primaries” and “operands”
     listed below) in terms of each file in the tree.

     The options are as follows:

     -E	     Interpret regular expressions followed by -regex and -iregex
	     options as extended (modern) regular expressions rather than
	     basic regular expressions (BRE's).	 The re_format(7) manual page
	     fully describes both formats.

     -H	     The -H option causes the file information and file type (see
	     stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link specified on the command
	     line to be those of the file referenced by the link, not the link
	     itself.  If the referenced file does not exist, the file informa‐
	     tion and type will be for the link itself.	 File information of
	     all symbolic links not on the command line is that of the link
	     itself.

     -L	     The -L option causes the file information and file type (see
	     stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the file
	     referenced by the link, not the link itself.  If the referenced
	     file does not exist, the file information and type will be for
	     the link itself.

     -P	     The -P option causes the file information and file type (see
	     stat(2)) returned for each symbolic link to be those of the link
	     itself.  This is the default.

     -X	     The -X option is a modification to permit find to be safely used
	     in conjunction with xargs(1).  If a file name contains any of the
	     delimiting characters used by xargs(1), a diagnostic message is
	     displayed on standard error, and the file is skipped.  The delim‐
	     iting characters include single (“ ' ”) and double (“ " ”)
	     quotes, backslash (“\”), space, tab and newline characters.

     -d	     The -d option causes find to perform a depth-first traversal,
	     i.e., directories are visited in post-order and all entries in a
	     directory will be acted on before the directory itself.  By
	     default, find visits directories in pre-order, i.e., before their
	     contents.	Note, the default is not a breadth-first traversal.

     -f	     The -f option specifies a file hierarchy for find to traverse.
	     File hierarchies may also be specified as the operands immedi‐
	     ately following the options.

     -s	     The -s option causes find to traverse the file hierarchies in
	     lexicographical order, i.e., alphabetical order within each
	     directory.	 Note: ‘find -s’ and ‘find | sort’ may give different
	     results.

     -x	     The -x option prevents find from descending into directories that
	     have a device number different than that of the file from which
	     the descent began.

PRIMARIES
     -amin n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the
	     time find was started, rounded up to the next full minute, is n
	     minutes.

     -anewer file
	     Same as -neweram.

     -atime n
	     True if the difference between the file last access time and the
	     time find was started, rounded up to the next full 24-hour
	     period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -cmin n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file
	     status information and the time find was started, rounded up to
	     the next full minute, is n minutes.

     -cnewer file
	     Same as -newercm.

     -ctime n
	     True if the difference between the time of last change of file
	     status information and the time find was started, rounded up to
	     the next full 24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -delete
	     Delete found files and/or directories.  Always returns true.
	     This executes from the current working directory as find recurses
	     down the tree.  It will not attempt to delete a filename with a
	     “/” character in its pathname relative to “.” for security rea‐
	     sons.  Depth-first traversal processing is implied by this
	     option.

     -depth  Always true; same as the -d option.  -depth can be useful when
	     find is used with cpio(1) to process files that are contained in
	     directories with unusual permissions.  It enures that you have
	     write permission while you are placing files in a directory, then
	     sets the directory's permissions as the last thing.

     -empty  True if the current file or directory is empty.

     -exec utility [argument ...];
	     True if the program named utility returns a zero value as its
	     exit status.  Optional arguments may be passed to the utility.
	     The expression must be terminated by a semicolon (“;”).  If the
	     string “{}” appears anywhere in the utility name or the arguments
	     it is replaced by the pathname of the current file.  Utility will
	     be executed from the directory from which find was executed.
	     Utility and arguments are not subject to the further expansion of
	     shell patterns and constructs.

     -execdir utility [argument ...];
	     The -execdir primary is identical to the -exec primary with the
	     exception that utility will be executed from the directory that
	     holds the current file.  The filename substituted for the string
	     “{}” is not qualified.

     -flags [-|+]flags,notflags
	     The flags are specified using symbolic names (see chflags(1)).
	     Those with the "no" prefix (except "nodump") are said to be
	     notflags.	Flags in flags are checked to be set, and flags in
	     notflags are checked to be not set.  Note that this is different
	     from -perm, which only allows the user to specify mode bits that
	     are set.

	     If flags are preceded by a dash (“-”), this primary evaluates to
	     true if at least all of the bits in flags and none of the bits in
	     notflags are set in the file's flags bits.	 If flags are preceded
	     by a plus (“+”), this primary evaluates to true if any of the
	     bits in flags is set in the file's flags bits, or any of the bits
	     in notflags is not set in the file's flags bits.  Otherwise, this
	     primary evaluates to true if the bits in flags exactly match the
	     file's flags bits, and none of the flags bits match those of
	     notflags.

     -fstype type
	     True if the file is contained in a file system of type type.  The
	     sysctl(8) command can be used to find out the types of filesys‐
	     tems that are available on the system:

		   sysctl vfs

	     In addition, there are two pseudo-types, “local” and “rdonly”.
	     The former matches any file system physically mounted on the sys‐
	     tem where the find is being executed and the latter matches any
	     file system which is mounted read-only.

     -group gname
	     True if the file belongs to the group gname.  If gname is numeric
	     and there is no such group name, then gname is treated as a group
	     ID.

     -iname pattern
	     Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.

     -inum n
	     True if the file has inode number n.

     -ipath pattern
	     Like -path, but the match is case insensitive.

     -iregex pattern
	     Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

     -links n
	     True if the file has n links.

     -ls     This primary always evaluates to true.  The following information
	     for the current file is written to standard output: its inode
	     number, size in 512-byte blocks, file permissions, number of hard
	     links, owner, group, size in bytes, last modification time, and
	     pathname.	If the file is a block or character special file, the
	     major and minor numbers will be displayed instead of the size in
	     bytes.  If the file is a symbolic link, the pathname of the
	     linked-to file will be displayed preceded by “->”.	 The format is
	     identical to that produced by ls -dgils.

     -maxdepth n
	     True if the depth of the current file into the tree is less than
	     or equal to n.

     -mindepth n
	     True if the depth of the current file into the tree is greater
	     than or equal to n.

     -mmin n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     minute, is n minutes.

     -mnewer file
	     Same as -newer.

     -mtime n
	     True if the difference between the file last modification time
	     and the time find was started, rounded up to the next full
	     24-hour period, is n 24-hour periods.

     -name pattern
	     True if the last component of the pathname being examined matches
	     pattern.  Special shell pattern matching characters (“[”, “]”,
	     “*”, and “?”) may be used as part of pattern.  These characters
	     may be matched explicitly by escaping them with a backslash
	     (“\”).

     -newer file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last modification time
	     than file.

     -newerXY file
	     True if the current file has a more recent last access time
	     (X=a), change time (X=c), or modification time (X=m) than the
	     last access time (Y=a), change time (Y=c), or modification time
	     (Y=m) of file.  In addition, if Y=t, then file is instead inter‐
	     preted as a direct date specification of the form understood by
	     cvs(1).  Note that -newermm is equivalent to -newer.

     -nogroup
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown group.

     -nouser
	     True if the file belongs to an unknown user.

     -ok utility [argument ...];
	     The -ok primary is identical to the -exec primary with the excep‐
	     tion that find requests user affirmation for the execution of the
	     utility by printing a message to the terminal and reading a
	     response.	If the response is other than “y” the command is not
	     executed and the value of the -ok expression is false.

     -okdir utility [argument ...];
	     The -okdir primary is identical to the -execdir primary with the
	     same exception as described for the -ok primary.

     -path pattern
	     True if the pathname being examined matches pattern.  Special
	     shell pattern matching characters (“[”, “]”, “*”, and “?”) may be
	     used as part of pattern.  These characters may be matched explic‐
	     itly by escaping them with a backslash (“\”).  Slashes (“/”) are
	     treated as normal characters and do not have to be matched
	     explicitly.

     -perm [-|+]mode
	     The mode may be either symbolic (see chmod(1)) or an octal num‐
	     ber.  If the mode is symbolic, a starting value of zero is
	     assumed and the mode sets or clears permissions without regard to
	     the process' file mode creation mask.  If the mode is octal, only
	     bits 07777 (S_ISUID | S_ISGID | S_ISTXT | S_IRWXU | S_IRWXG |
	     S_IRWXO) of the file's mode bits participate in the comparison.
	     If the mode is preceded by a dash (“-”), this primary evaluates
	     to true if at least all of the bits in the mode are set in the
	     file's mode bits.	If the mode is preceded by a plus (“+”), this
	     primary evaluates to true if any of the bits in the mode are set
	     in the file's mode bits.  Otherwise, this primary evaluates to
	     true if the bits in the mode exactly match the file's mode bits.
	     Note, the first character of a symbolic mode may not be a dash
	     (“-”).

     -print  This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of
	     the current file to standard output.  If none of -exec, -ls,
	     -print0, or -ok is specified, the given expression shall be
	     effectively replaced by ( given expression ) -print.

     -print0
	     This primary always evaluates to true.  It prints the pathname of
	     the current file to standard output, followed by an ASCII NUL
	     character (character code 0).

     -prune  This primary always evaluates to true.  It causes find to not
	     descend into the current file.  Note, the -prune primary has no
	     effect if the -d option was specified.

     -regex pattern
	     True if the whole path of the file matches pattern using regular
	     expression.  To match a file named “./foo/xyzzy”, you can use the
	     regular expression “.*/[xyz]*” or “.*/foo/.*”, but not “xyzzy” or
	     “/foo/”.

     -size n[c]
	     True if the file's size, rounded up, in 512-byte blocks is n.  If
	     n is followed by a c, then the primary is true if the file's size
	     is n bytes (characters).

     -type t
	     True if the file is of the specified type.	 Possible file types
	     are as follows:

	     b	     block special
	     c	     character special
	     d	     directory
	     f	     regular file
	     l	     symbolic link
	     p	     FIFO
	     s	     socket

     -user uname
	     True if the file belongs to the user uname.  If uname is numeric
	     and there is no such user name, then uname is treated as a user
	     ID.

     All primaries which take a numeric argument allow the number to be pre‐
     ceded by a plus sign (“+”) or a minus sign (“-”).	A preceding plus sign
     means “more than n”, a preceding minus sign means “less than n” and nei‐
     ther means “exactly n”.

OPERATORS
     The primaries may be combined using the following operators.  The opera‐
     tors are listed in order of decreasing precedence.

     ( expression )  This evaluates to true if the parenthesized expression
		     evaluates to true.

     ! expression
     -false expression
     -not expression
		     This is the unary NOT operator.  It evaluates to true if
		     the expression is false.

     expression -and expression
     expression expression
		     The -and operator is the logical AND operator.  As it is
		     implied by the juxtaposition of two expressions it does
		     not have to be specified.	The expression evaluates to
		     true if both expressions are true.	 The second expression
		     is not evaluated if the first expression is false.

     expression -or expression
		     The -or operator is the logical OR operator.  The expres‐
		     sion evaluates to true if either the first or the second
		     expression is true.  The second expression is not evalu‐
		     ated if the first expression is true.

     All operands and primaries must be separate arguments to find.  Primaries
     which themselves take arguments expect each argument to be a separate
     argument to find.

EXAMPLES
     The following examples are shown as given to the shell:

     find / \! -name "*.c" -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose names do not end in .c.

     find / -newer ttt -user wnj -print
	     Print out a list of all the files owned by user “wnj” that are
	     newer than the file ttt.

     find / \! \( -newer ttt -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files which are not both newer than
	     ttt and owned by “wnj”.

     find / \( -newer ttt -or -user wnj \) -print
	     Print out a list of all the files that are either owned by “wnj”
	     or that are newer than ttt.

     find . -newerct '1 minute ago' -print
	     Print out a list of all the files whose inode change time is more
	     recent than the current time minus one minute.

SEE ALSO
     chflags(1), chmod(1), cvs(1), locate(1), whereis(1), which(1), stat(2),
     fts(3), getgrent(3), getpwent(3), strmode(3), re_format(7), symlink(7)

STANDARDS
     The find utility syntax is a superset of the syntax specified by the IEEE
     Std 1003.2 (“POSIX.2”) standard.

     All the single character options as well as the -iname, -inum, -iregex,
     -print0, -delete, -ls, and -regex primaries are extensions to IEEE Std
     1003.2 (“POSIX.2”).

     Historically, the -d, -h and -x options were implemented using the pri‐
     maries -depth, -follow, and -xdev.	 These primaries always evaluated to
     true.  As they were really global variables that took effect before the
     traversal began, some legal expressions could have unexpected results.
     An example is the expression -print -o -depth.  As -print always evalu‐
     ates to true, the standard order of evaluation implies that -depth would
     never be evaluated.  This is not the case.

     The operator -or was implemented as -o, and the operator -and was imple‐
     mented as -a.

     Historic implementations of the -exec and -ok primaries did not replace
     the string “{}” in the utility name or the utility arguments if it had
     preceding or following non-whitespace characters.	This version replaces
     it no matter where in the utility name or arguments it appears.

     The -E option was implemented on the analogy of grep(1) and sed(1).

BUGS
     The special characters used by find are also special characters to many
     shell programs.  In particular, the characters “*”, “[”, “]”, “?”, “(”,
     “)”, “!”, “\” and “;” may have to be escaped from the shell.

     As there is no delimiter separating options and file names or file names
     and the expression, it is difficult to specify files named -xdev or !.
     These problems are handled by the -f option and the getopt(3) “--” con‐
     struct.

     The -delete primary does not interact well with other options that cause
     the filesystem tree traversal options to be changed.

HISTORY
     A find command appeared in Version 1 AT&T UNIX.

BSD				  May 3, 2001				   BSD
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