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FIND(1)								       FIND(1)

NAME
       find - search for files in a directory hierarchy

SYNOPSIS
       find [-H] [-L] [-P] [path...] [expression]

DESCRIPTION
       This  manual page documents the GNU version of find.  GNU find searches
       the directory tree rooted at each given file  name  by  evaluating  the
       given  expression  from left to right, according to the rules of prece‐
       dence (see section OPERATORS), until the outcome	 is  known  (the  left
       hand  side  is  false  for and operations, true for or), at which point
       find moves on to the next file name.

       If you are using find in an environment	where  security	 is  important
       (for example if you are using it to seach directories that are writable
       by other users), you should read the "Security Considerations"  chapter
       of the findutils documentation, which is called Finding Files and comes
       with findutils.	 That document also includes a	lot  more  detail  and
       discussion  than	 this  manual  page,  so you may find it a more useful
       source of information.

OPTIONS
       The `-H', `-L' and `-P'	options	 control  the  treatment  of  symbolic
       links.  Command-line arguments following these are taken to be names of
       files or directories to be examined, up	to  the	 first	argument  that
       begins  with `-', `(', `)', `,', or `!'.	 That argument and any follow‐
       ing arguments are taken to be the expression describing what is	to  be
       searched	 for.	If  no paths are given, the current directory is used.
       If no expression is given, the expression `-print'  is  used  (but  you
       should probably consider using `-print0' instead, anyway).

       This  manual  page  talks  about	 `options' within the expression list.
       These options control the behaviour of find but are  specified  immedi‐
       ately  after  the  last path name.  The three `real' options `-H', `-L'
       and `-P' must appear before the first path name, if at all.

       -P     Never follow symbolic links.  This  is  the  default  behaviour.
	      When find examines or prints information a file, and the file is
	      a symbolic link, the information used shall be  taken  from  the
	      properties of the symbolic link itself.

       -L     Follow symbolic links.  When find examines or prints information
	      about files, the information used shall be taken from the	 prop‐
	      erties  of  the file to which the link points, not from the link
	      itself (unless it is a broken symbolic link or find is unable to
	      examine  the file to which the link points).  Use of this option
	      implies -noleaf.	If you later use the -P option,	 -noleaf  will
	      still  be	 in  effect.   If -L is in effect and find discovers a
	      symbolic link to a subdirectory during its search, the subdirec‐
	      tory pointed to by the symbolic link will be searched.

	      When the -L option is in effect, the -type predicate will always
	      match against the type of the file that a symbolic  link	points
	      to rather than the link itself (unless the symbolic link is bro‐
	      ken).  Using -L causes the -lname and -ilname predicates	always
	      to return false.

       -H     Do  not  follow symbolic links, except while processing the com‐
	      mand line arguments.  When find examines or  prints  information
	      about  files, the information used shall be taken from the prop‐
	      erties of the symbolic link itself.   The only exception to this
	      behaviour is when a file specified on the command line is a sym‐
	      bolic link, and the link can be resolved.	 For  that  situation,
	      the  information	used is taken from whatever the link points to
	      (that is, the link is followed).	The information about the link
	      itself  is used as a fallback if the file pointed to by the sym‐
	      bolic link cannot be examined.  If -H is in effect  and  one  of
	      the  paths specified on the command line is a symbolic link to a
	      directory, the contents  of  that	 directory  will  be  examined
	      (though of course -maxdepth 0 would prevent this).

       If more than one of -H, -L and -P is specified, each overrides the oth‐
       ers; the last one appearing on the command line takes effect.  Since it
       is  the	default,  the  -P  option should be considered to be in effect
       unless either -H or -L is specified.

       GNU find frequently stats files during the processing  of  the  command
       line itself, before any searching has begun.  These options also affect
       how those arguments are processed.  Specifically, there are a number of
       tests  that  compare files listed on the command line against a file we
       are currently considering.  In each case, the  file  specified  on  the
       command	line  will  have been examined and some of its properties will
       have been saved.	 If the named file is in fact a symbolic link, and the
       -P  option  is  in effect (or if neither -H nor -L were specified), the
       information used for the comparison will be taken from  the  properties
       of  the symbolic link.  Otherwise, it will be taken from the properties
       of the file the link points to.	If find cannot follow  the  link  (for
       example	because it has insufficient privileges or the link points to a
       nonexistent file) the properties of the link itself will be used.

       When the -H or -L options are in effect, any symbolic links  listed  as
       the  argument of -newer will be dereferenced, and the timestamp will be
       taken from the file to which the symbolic link points.  The  same  con‐
       sideration applies to -anewer and -cnewer.

       The  -follow  option has a similar effect to -L, though it takes effect
       at the point where it appears (that is, if -L is not used  but  -follow
       is, any symbolic links appearing after -follow on the command line will
       be dereferenced, and those before it will not).

EXPRESSIONS
       The expression is made up of options (which  affect  overall  operation
       rather than the processing of a specific file, and always return true),
       tests (which return a true or false value),  and	 actions  (which  have
       side effects and return a true or false value), all separated by opera‐
       tors.  -and is assumed where the operator is omitted.  If  the  expres‐
       sion  contains no actions other than -prune, -print is performed on all
       files for which the expression is true.

   OPTIONS
       All options always return true.	Except for -follow and -daystart, they
       always  take  effect, rather than being processed only when their place
       in the expression is reached.  Therefore, for clarity, it  is  best  to
       place  them at the beginning of the expression.	A warning is issued if
       you don't do this.

       -daystart
	      Measure times (for -amin,	 -atime,  -cmin,  -ctime,  -mmin,  and
	      -mtime)  from  the  beginning of today rather than from 24 hours
	      ago.  This option only affects tests which appear later  on  the
	      command line.

       -depth Process each directory's contents before the directory itself.

       -d     A	 synonym  for  -depth, for compatibility with FreeBSD, NetBSD,
	      MacOS X and OpenBSD.

       -follow
	      Deprecated; use the -L  option  instead.	 Dereference  symbolic
	      links.   Implies	-noleaf.   Unless the -H or -L option has been
	      specified, the position of the -follow option changes the behav‐
	      iour  of	the -newer predicate; any files listed as the argument
	      of -newer will be dereferenced if they are symbolic links.   The
	      same  consideration  applies to -anewer and -cnewer.  Similarly,
	      the -type predicate will always match against the	 type  of  the
	      file that a symbolic link points to rather than the link itself.
	      Using -follow causes the -lname and -ilname predicates always to
	      return false.

       -help, --help
	      Print a summary of the command-line usage of find and exit.

       -ignore_readdir_race
	      Normally,	 find will emit an error message when it fails to stat
	      a file.  If you give this option and a file is  deleted  between
	      the  time find reads the name of the file from the directory and
	      the time it tries to stat the file, no  error  message  will  be
	      issued.	 This also applies to files or directories whose names
	      are given on the command line.  This option takes effect at  the
	      time  the	 command  line	is  read,  which means that you cannot
	      search one part of the filesystem with this option on  and  part
	      of  it  with  this  option off (if you need to do that, you will
	      need to issue two find commands instead, one with the option and
	      one without it).

       -maxdepth levels
	      Descend at most levels (a non-negative integer) levels of direc‐
	      tories below the command line arguments.	 `-maxdepth  0'	 means
	      only apply the tests and actions to the command line arguments.

       -mindepth levels
	      Do  not apply any tests or actions at levels less than levels (a
	      non-negative integer).  `-mindepth 1' means  process  all	 files
	      except the command line arguments.

       -mount Don't  descend  directories  on other filesystems.  An alternate
	      name for -xdev, for compatibility with some  other  versions  of
	      find.

       -noignore_readdir_race
	      Turns off the effect of -ignore_readdir_race.

       -noleaf
	      Do  not  optimize	 by  assuming that directories contain 2 fewer
	      subdirectories than their	 hard  link  count.   This  option  is
	      needed  when  searching  filesystems that do not follow the Unix
	      directory-link convention, such as CD-ROM or MS-DOS  filesystems
	      or  AFS  volume  mount  points.  Each directory on a normal Unix
	      filesystem has at least 2 hard  links:  its  name	 and  its  `.'
	      entry.   Additionally,  its  subdirectories (if any) each have a
	      `..'  entry linked to that directory.  When find is examining  a
	      directory,  after it has statted 2 fewer subdirectories than the
	      directory's link count, it knows that the rest of the entries in
	      the directory are non-directories (`leaf' files in the directory
	      tree).  If only the files' names need to be examined,  there  is
	      no  need	to  stat  them;	 this  gives a significant increase in
	      search speed.

       -version, --version
	      Print the find version number and exit.

       -warn, -nowarn
	      Turn warning messages on or off.	These warnings apply  only  to
	      the  command  line  usage, not to any conditions that find might
	      encounter when it searches directories.  The  default  behaviour
	      corresponds  to -warn if standard input is a tty, and to -nowarn
	      otherwise.

       -xdev  Don't descend directories on other filesystems.

   TESTS
       Numeric arguments can be specified as

       +n     for greater than n,

       -n     for less than n,

       n      for exactly n.

       -amin n
	      File was last accessed n minutes ago.

       -anewer file
	      File was last accessed more recently than file was modified.  If
	      file is a symbolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in
	      effect, the access time of the file it points to is always used.

       -atime n
	      File was last accessed n*24 hours ago.  When  find  figures  out
	      how  many	 24-hour  preiods  ago the file was last accessed, any
	      fractional part is ignored, so to match -atime +1, a file has to
	      have been modified at least two days ago.

       -cmin n
	      File's status was last changed n minutes ago.

       -cnewer file
	      File's status was last changed more recently than file was modi‐
	      fied.  If file is a symbolic link and the -H option  or  the  -L
	      option  is  in  effect,  the  status-change  time of the file it
	      points to is always used.

       -ctime n
	      File's status was last changed n*24 hours ago.  See the comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
	      of file status change times.

       -empty File is empty and is either a regular file or a directory.

       -false Always false.

       -fstype type
	      File is on a filesystem of  type	type.	The  valid  filesystem
	      types  vary among different versions of Unix; an incomplete list
	      of filesystem types that are accepted on some version of Unix or
	      another  is:  ufs, 4.2, 4.3, nfs, tmp, mfs, S51K, S52K.  You can
	      use -printf with the %F directive	 to  see  the  types  of  your
	      filesystems.

       -gid n File's numeric group ID is n.

       -group gname
	      File belongs to group gname (numeric group ID allowed).

       -ilname pattern
	      Like  -lname,  but  the  match  is  case insensitive.  If the -L
	      option or the -follow option is in  effect,  this	 test  returns
	      false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -iname pattern
	      Like -name, but the match is case insensitive.  For example, the
	      patterns `fo*' and `F??' match  the  file	 names	`Foo',	`FOO',
	      `foo',  `fOo',  etc.   In these patterns, unlike filename expan‐
	      sion by the shell, an initial '.' can be matched by  '*'.	  That
	      is, find -name *bar will match the file `.foobar'.

       -inum n
	      File  has	 inode	number	n.   It	 is normally easier to use the
	      -samefile test instead.

       -ipath pattern
	      Behaves in the same way as -iwholename.  This option  is	depre‐
	      cated, so please do not use it.

       -iregex pattern
	      Like -regex, but the match is case insensitive.

       -iwholename pattern
	      Like -wholename, but the match is case insensitive.

       -links n
	      File has n links.

       -lname pattern
	      File  is a symbolic link whose contents match shell pattern pat‐
	      tern.  The metacharacters do not treat `/' or `.' specially.  If
	      the  -L  option  or  the	-follow option is in effect, this test
	      returns false unless the symbolic link is broken.

       -mmin n
	      File's data was last modified n minutes ago.

       -mtime n
	      File's data was last modified n*24 hours ago.  See the  comments
	      for -atime to understand how rounding affects the interpretation
	      of file modification times.

       -name pattern
	      Base of  file  name  (the	 path  with  the  leading  directories
	      removed)	matches	 shell	pattern	 pattern.   The metacharacters
	      (`*', `?', and `[]') match a `.' at the start of the  base  name
	      (this is a change in findutils-4.2.2; see section STANDARDS CON‐
	      FORMANCE below).	To ignore a directory and the files under  it,
	      use  -prune;  see	 an  example in the description of -wholename.
	      Braces are not recognised as being  special,  despite  the  fact
	      that  some  shells  including  Bash  imbue braces with a special
	      meaning in shell patterns.  The filename matching	 is  performed
	      with the use of the fnmatch(3) library function.

       -newer file
	      File  was	 modified  more recently than file.  If file is a sym‐
	      bolic link and the -H option or the -L option is in effect,  the
	      modification time of the file it points to is always used.

       -nouser
	      No user corresponds to file's numeric user ID.

       -nogroup
	      No group corresponds to file's numeric group ID.

       -path pattern
	      See -wholename.	The predicate -path is also supported by HP-UX
	      find.

       -perm mode
	      File's permission bits are exactly  mode	(octal	or  symbolic).
	      Since  an	 exact match is required, if you want to use this form
	      for symbolic modes, you may have to  specify  a  rather  complex
	      mode  string.   For  example  '-perm  g=w' will only match files
	      which have mode 0020 (that is, ones for which group  write  per‐
	      mission is the only permission set).  It is more likely that you
	      will want to use the '+' or '-' forms, for example '-perm -g=w',
	      which  matches  any  file	 with group write permission.  See the
	      EXAMPLES section for some illustrative examples.

       -perm -mode
	      All of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are accepted in this form, and this is usually the way in
	      which would want to use them.  You must specify 'u', 'g' or  'o'
	      if  you use a symbolic mode.   See the EXAMPLES section for some
	      illustrative examples.

       -perm +mode
	      Any of the permission bits mode are set for the file.   Symbolic
	      modes  are  accepted in this form.  You must specify 'u', 'g' or
	      'o' if you use a symbolic mode.  See the	EXAMPLES  section  for
	      some illustrative examples.

       -regex pattern
	      File  name  matches regular expression pattern.  This is a match
	      on the whole path, not a search.	For example, to match  a  file
	      named `./fubar3', you can use the regular expression `.*bar.' or
	      `.*b.*3', but not `f.*r3'.  The regular  expressions  understood
	      by  find	follow the conventions for the re_match system library
	      function where this is present (i.e. on systems using the GNU  C
	      Library).	 On other systems, the implementation within Gnulib is
	      used; by default, Gnulib provides ``basic'' regular expressions.

       -samefile name
	      File refers to the same inode as name.   When -L is  in  effect,
	      this can include symbolic links.

       -size n[cwbkMG]
	      File uses n units of space.  The following suffixes can be used:

	      `b'    for  512-byte blocks (this is the default if no suffix is
		     used)

	      `c'    for bytes

	      `w'    for two-byte words

	      `k'    for Kilobytes (units of 1024 bytes)

	      `M'    for Megabytes (units of 1048576 bytes)

	      `G'    for Gigabytes (units of 1073741824 bytes)

	      The size does not count  indirect	 blocks,  but  it  does	 count
	      blocks in sparse files that are not actually allocated.  Bear in
	      mind that the `%k' and `%b' format specifiers of -printf	handle
	      sparse   files  differently.   The  `b'  suffix  always  denotes
	      512-byte blocks and never 1 Kilobyte blocks, which is  different
	      to the behaviour of -ls.

       -true  Always true.

       -type c
	      File is of type c:

	      b	     block (buffered) special

	      c	     character (unbuffered) special

	      d	     directory

	      p	     named pipe (FIFO)

	      f	     regular file

	      l	     symbolic link (never true if the -L option or the -follow
		     option is in effect, unless the symbolic link is broken).

	      s	     socket

	      D	     door (Solaris)

       -uid n File's numeric user ID is n.

       -used n
	      File was last accessed n days after its status was last changed.

       -user uname
	      File is owned by user uname (numeric user ID allowed).

       -wholename pattern
	      File name matches shell pattern pattern.	The metacharacters  do
	      not treat `/' or `.' specially; so, for example,
			find . -wholename './sr*sc'
	      will  print an entry for a directory called './src/misc' (if one
	      exists).	To ignore a whole directory tree,  use	-prune	rather
	      than  checking every file in the tree.  For example, to skip the
	      directory `src/emacs' and all files and  directories  under  it,
	      and  print the names of the other files found, do something like
	      this:
			find . -wholename './src/emacs' -prune -o -print

       -xtype c
	      The same as -type unless the file is a symbolic link.  For  sym‐
	      bolic  links:  if the -H or -P option was specified, true if the
	      file is a link to a file of type c; if the -L  option  has  been
	      given,  true  if	c is `l'.  In other words, for symbolic links,
	      -xtype checks the type of the file that -type does not check.

   ACTIONS
       -delete
	      Delete files; true if removal succeeded.	If the removal failed,
	      an error message is issued.

       -exec command ;
	      Execute  command;	 true  if 0 status is returned.	 All following
	      arguments to find are taken to be arguments to the command until
	      an  argument  consisting of `;' is encountered.  The string `{}'
	      is replaced by the current file name being processed  everywhere
	      it occurs in the arguments to the command, not just in arguments
	      where it is alone, as in some versions of find.  Both  of	 these
	      constructions might need to be escaped (with a `\') or quoted to
	      protect them from expansion by the shell.	 See the EXAMPLES sec‐
	      tion  for examples of the use of the `-exec' option.  The speci‐
	      fied command is run once for each matched file.  The command  is
	      executed	in  the	 starting  directory.	 There are unavoidable
	      security problems surrounding  use  of  the  -exec  option;  you
	      should use the -execdir option instead.

       -exec command {} +
	      This  variant  of the -exec option runs the specified command on
	      the selected files, but the command line is built	 by  appending
	      each  selected file name at the end; the total number of invoca‐
	      tions of the command will	 be  much  less	 than  the  number  of
	      matched  files.	The command line is built in much the same way
	      that xargs builds its command lines.  Only one instance of  '{}'
	      is  allowed  within the command.	The command is executed in the
	      starting directory.

       -execdir command ;

       -execdir command {} +
	      Like -exec, but the specified command is run from the  subdirec‐
	      tory  containing	the  matched  file,  which is not normally the
	      directory in which you started find.  This a  much  more	secure
	      method  for invoking commands, as it avoids race conditions dur‐
	      ing resolution of the paths to the matched files.	 As  with  the
	      -exec option, the '+' form of -execdir will build a command line
	      to process more than one matched file, but any given  invocation
	      of command will only list files that exist in the same subdirec‐
	      tory.  If you use this option, you must ensure that  your	 $PATH
	      environment  variable  does not reference the current directory;
	      otherwise, an attacker can run any commands they like by leaving
	      an appropriately-named file in a directory in which you will run
	      -execdir.

       -fls file
	      True; like -ls but write to file like -fprint.  The output  file
	      is  always created, even if the predicate is never matched.  See
	      the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information about how  unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint file
	      True; print the full file name into file file.  If file does not
	      exist when find is run, it is created; if it does exist,	it  is
	      truncated.   The	file names ``/dev/stdout'' and ``/dev/stderr''
	      are handled specially; they refer to  the	 standard  output  and
	      standard	error output, respectively.  The output file is always
	      created, even if	the  predicate	is  never  matched.   See  the
	      UNUSUAL  FILENAMES  section  for	information  about how unusual
	      characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprint0 file
	      True; like -print0 but write to file like -fprint.   The	output
	      file  is always created, even if the predicate is never matched.
	      See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES	 section  for  information  about  how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -fprintf file format
	      True;  like  -printf but write to file like -fprint.  The output
	      file is always created, even if the predicate is never  matched.
	      See  the	UNUSUAL	 FILENAMES  section  for information about how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -ok command ;
	      Like -exec but ask the user first (on the	 standard  input);  if
	      the response does not start with `y' or `Y', do not run the com‐
	      mand, and return false.

       -print True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  newline.	 If  you  are  piping  the output of find into
	      another program and there is the faintest possibility  that  the
	      files  which you are searching for might contain a newline, then
	      you should seriously consider using the `-print0' option instead
	      of  `-print'.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for information
	      about how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -okdir command ;
	      Like -execdir but ask the user first (on the standard input); if
	      the response does not start with `y' or `Y', do not run the com‐
	      mand, and return false.

       -print0
	      True; print the full file name on the standard output,  followed
	      by  a  null  character  (instead	of  the newline character that
	      `-print' uses).  This allows file names that contain newlines or
	      other  types  of white space to be correctly interpreted by pro‐
	      grams that process the find output.  This option corresponds  to
	      the `-0' option of xargs.

       -printf format
	      True;  print  format  on	the  standard output, interpreting `\'
	      escapes and `%' directives.  Field widths and precisions can  be
	      specified	 as  with  the	`printf' C function.  Please note that
	      many of the fields are printed as %s rather than	%d,  and  this
	      may  mean	 that flags don't work as you might expect.  This also
	      means that the `-' flag does work (it forces fields to be	 left-
	      aligned).	  Unlike -print, -printf does not add a newline at the
	      end of the string.  The escapes and directives are:

	      \a     Alarm bell.

	      \b     Backspace.

	      \c     Stop printing from this format immediately and flush  the
		     output.

	      \f     Form feed.

	      \n     Newline.

	      \r     Carriage return.

	      \t     Horizontal tab.

	      \v     Vertical tab.

	      \	     ASCII NUL.

	      \\     A literal backslash (`\').

	      \NNN   The character whose ASCII code is NNN (octal).

	      A `\' character followed by any other character is treated as an
	      ordinary character, so they both are printed.

	      %%     A literal percent sign.

	      %a     File's last access time in the format returned by	the  C
		     `ctime' function.

	      %Ak    File's  last  access  time	 in the format specified by k,
		     which is either `@' or a directive for the	 C  `strftime'
		     function.	 The  possible	values for k are listed below;
		     some of them might not be available on all	 systems,  due
		     to differences in `strftime' between systems.

		     @	    seconds since Jan. 1, 1970, 00:00 GMT.

		     Time fields:

		     H	    hour (00..23)

		     I	    hour (01..12)

		     k	    hour ( 0..23)

		     l	    hour ( 1..12)

		     M	    minute (00..59)

		     p	    locale's AM or PM

		     r	    time, 12-hour (hh:mm:ss [AP]M)

		     S	    second (00..61)

		     T	    time, 24-hour (hh:mm:ss)

		     +	    Date  and  time,  separated	 by  '+',  for example
			    `2004-04-28+22:22:05'.  The time is given  in  the
			    current timezone (which may be affected by setting
			    the TZ  environment	 variable).   This  is	a  GNU
			    extension.

		     X	    locale's time representation (H:M:S)

		     Z	    time  zone (e.g., EDT), or nothing if no time zone
			    is determinable

		     Date fields:

		     a	    locale's abbreviated weekday name (Sun..Sat)

		     A	    locale's full weekday name, variable length	 (Sun‐
			    day..Saturday)

		     b	    locale's abbreviated month name (Jan..Dec)

		     B	    locale's  full  month name, variable length (Janu‐
			    ary..December)

		     c	    locale's date and time (Sat Nov  04	 12:02:33  EST
			    1989)

		     d	    day of month (01..31)

		     D	    date (mm/dd/yy)

		     h	    same as b

		     j	    day of year (001..366)

		     m	    month (01..12)

		     U	    week  number  of  year with Sunday as first day of
			    week (00..53)

		     w	    day of week (0..6)

		     W	    week number of year with Monday as	first  day  of
			    week (00..53)

		     x	    locale's date representation (mm/dd/yy)

		     y	    last two digits of year (00..99)

		     Y	    year (1970...)

	      %b     File's size in 512-byte blocks (rounded up).

	      %c     File's  last status change time in the format returned by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Ck    File's last status change time in the format specified by
		     k, which is the same as for %A.

	      %d     File's depth in the directory tree; 0 means the file is a
		     command line argument.

	      %D     The device number on which the file  exists  (the	st_dev
		     field of struct stat), in decimal.

	      %f     File's  name  with	 any leading directories removed (only
		     the last element).

	      %F     Type of the filesystem the file is on; this value can  be
		     used for -fstype.

	      %g     File's  group  name, or numeric group ID if the group has
		     no name.

	      %G     File's numeric group ID.

	      %h     Leading directories of file's name (all but the last ele‐
		     ment).  If the file name contains no slashes (since it is
		     in the current directory) the  %h	specifier  expands  to
		     ".".

	      %H     Command line argument under which file was found.

	      %i     File's inode number (in decimal).

	      %k     The  amount of disk space used for this file in 1K blocks
		     (rounded up).  This is different from %s/1024 if the file
		     is a sparse file.

	      %l     Object  of	 symbolic  link (empty string if file is not a
		     symbolic link).

	      %m     File's permission bits (in octal).	 This option uses  the
		     'traditional'  numbers  which  most  Unix implementations
		     use,  but	if  your  particular  implementation  uses  an
		     unusual  ordering of octal permissions bits, you will see
		     a difference between the actual value of the file's  mode
		     and  the output of %m.   Normally you will want to have a
		     leading zero on this number, and to do this,  you	should
		     use the # flag (as in, for example, '%#m').

	      %n     Number of hard links to file.

	      %p     File's name.

	      %P     File's  name  with	 the name of the command line argument
		     under which it was found removed.

	      %s     File's size in bytes.

	      %t     File's last modification time in the format  returned  by
		     the C `ctime' function.

	      %Tk    File's  last modification time in the format specified by
		     k, which is the same as for %A.

	      %u     File's user name, or numeric user ID if the user  has  no
		     name.

	      %U     File's numeric user ID.

	      %y     File's  type  (like  in ls -l), U=unknown type (shouldn't
		     happen)

	      %Y     File's type (like	%y),  plus  follow  symlinks:  L=loop,
		     N=nonexistent

	      A	 `%'  character	 followed  by any other character is discarded
	      (but the other character is printed).

	      The %m and %d directives support the # , 0 and + flags, but  the
	      other  directives	 do  not, even if they print numbers.  Numeric
	      directives that do not support these flags include G, U, b, D, k
	      and  n.  The `-' format flag is supported and changes the align‐
	      ment of a field from right-justified (which is the  default)  to
	      left-justified.

	      See  the	UNUSUAL	 FILENAMES  section  for information about how
	      unusual characters in filenames are handled.

       -prune If -depth is not given, true; if the file is a directory, do not
	      descend into it.
	      If -depth is given, false; no effect.

       -quit  Exit  immediately.   No child proceses will be left running, but
	      no more paths specified on the command line will	be  processed.
	      For example, find /tmp/foo /tmp/bar -print -quit will print only
	      /tmp/foo.	 Any command lines  which  have	 been  built  up  with
	      -execdir	... {} + will be invoked before find exits.   The exit
	      status may or may not be zero, depending on whether an error has
	      already occurred.

       -ls    True; list current file in `ls -dils' format on standard output.
	      The block counts are of 1K blocks, unless the environment	 vari‐
	      able  POSIXLY_CORRECT  is set, in which case 512-byte blocks are
	      used.  See the UNUSUAL FILENAMES section for  information	 about
	      how unusual characters in filenames are handled.

   UNUSUAL FILENAMES
       Many  of	 the  actions  of find result in the printing of data which is
       under the control of other users.  This	includes  file	names,	sizes,
       modification  times  and	 so forth.  File names are a potential problem
       since they can contain any character  except  '\0'  and	'/'.   Unusual
       characters in file names can do unexpected and often undesirable things
       to your terminal (for example, changing the settings of	your  function
       keys on some terminals).	 Unusual characters are handled differently by
       various actions, as described below.

       -print0, -fprint0
	      Always print the exact filename, unchanged, even if  the	output
	      is going to a terminal.

       -ls, -fls
	      Unusual  characters are always escaped.  White space, backslash,
	      and double quote characters are printed using  C-style  escaping
	      (for  example '\f', '\"').  Other unusual characters are printed
	      using an octal escape.  Other printable characters (for -ls  and
	      -fls  these  are	the characters between octal 041 and 0176) are
	      printed as-is.

       -printf, -fprintf
	      If the output is not going to a terminal, it is  printed	as-is.
	      Otherwise, the result depends on which directive is in use.  The
	      directives %D, %F, %g, %G, %H, %Y, and %y expand to values which
	      are  not under control of files' ownwers, and so are printed as-
	      is.  The directives %a, %b, %c, %d, %i, %k, %m, %M, %n, %s,  %t,
	      %u and %U have values which are under the control of files' own‐
	      wers but which cannot be used to send arbitrary data to the ter‐
	      minal,  and  so these are printed as-is.	The directives %f, %h,
	      %l, %p and %P are quoted.	 This quoting is performed in the same
	      way  as  for  GNU ls.  This is not the same quoting mechanism as
	      the one used for	-ls and -fls.	If you are able to decide what
	      format  to use for the output of find then it is normally better
	      to use '\0' as a terminator than to use newline, as  file	 names
	      can contain white space and newline characters.

       -print, -fprint
	      Quoting  is handled in the same way as for -printf and -fprintf.
	      If you are using find in a script or in a	 situation  where  the
	      matched  files  might  have arbitrary names, you should consider
	      using -print0 instead of -print.

       The -ok and -okdir actions print the current filename as-is.  This  may
       change in a future release.

   OPERATORS
       Listed in order of decreasing precedence:

       ( expr )
	      Force precedence.

       ! expr True if expr is false.

       -not expr
	      Same as ! expr, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 expr2
	      Two  expressions in a row are taken to be joined with an implied
	      "and"; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is false.

       expr1 -a expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2.

       expr1 -and expr2
	      Same as expr1 expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 -o expr2
	      Or; expr2 is not evaluated if expr1 is true.

       expr1 -or expr2
	      Same as expr1 -o expr2, but not POSIX compliant.

       expr1 , expr2
	      List; both expr1 and expr2 are always evaluated.	The  value  of
	      expr1  is	 discarded;  the  value	 of  the  list is the value of
	      expr2.	  The comma operator can be useful for	searching  for
	      several  different types of thing, but traversing the filesystem
	      hierarchy only once.   The -fprintf action can be used  to  list
	      the various matched items into several different output files.

STANDARDS CONFORMANCE
       The  following  options	are  specified in the POSIX standard (IEEE Std
       1003.1, 2003 Edition):

       -H     This option is supported.

       -L     This option is supported.

       -name  This option is supported, but POSIX conformance depends  on  the
	      POSIX  conformance  of the system's fnmatch(3) library function.
	      As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters ('*'.	 '?'  or  '[]'
	      for  example) will match a leading '.', because IEEE PASC inter‐
	      pretation 126 requires this.   This is a	change	from  previous
	      versions of findutils.

       -type  Supported.    POSIX  specifies  `b', `c', `d', `l', `p', `f' and
	      `s'.  GNU find also supports `D', representing a Door, where the
	      OS provides these.

       -ok    Supported.   Interpretation of the response is not locale-depen‐
	      dent (see ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES).

       -newer Supported.  If the file specified is  a  symbolic	 link,	it  is
	      always  dereferenced.  This is a change from previous behaviour,
	      which used to take the relevant time from the symbolic link; see
	      the HISTORY section below.

       Other predicates
	      The predicates `-atime', `-ctime', `-depth', `-group', `-links',
	      `-mtime', `-nogroup', `-nouser',	`-perm',  `-print',  `-prune',
	      `-size', `-user' and `-xdev', are all supported.

       The POSIX standard specifies parentheses `(', `)', negation `!' and the
       `and' and `or' operators (`-a', `-o').

       All other options, predicates, expressions and so forth are  extensions
       beyond  the POSIX standard.  Many of these extensions are not unique to
       GNU find, however.

       The POSIX standard requires that

	      The find utility shall detect infinite loops; that is,  entering
	      a	 previously  visited directory that is an ancestor of the last
	      file encountered. When it detects an infinite loop,  find	 shall
	      write  a	diagnostic  message to standard error and shall either
	      recover its position in the hierarchy or terminate.

       The link count of directories which  contain  entries  which  are  hard
       links to an ancestor will often be lower than they otherwise should be.
       This can mean that GNU find will sometimes optimise away	 the  visiting
       of  a subdirectory which is actually a link to an ancestor.  Since find
       does not actually enter such a subdirectory, it	is  allowed  to	 avoid
       emitting a diagnostic message.  Although this behaviour may be somewhat
       confusing, it is unlikely that anybody actually depends on this	behav‐
       iour.   If  the leaf optimisation has been turned off with -noleaf, the
       directory entry will always be examined and the diagnostic message will
       be  issued  where  it is appropriate.  Symbolic links cannot be used to
       create filesystem cycles as such, but if the -L option or  the  -follow
       option is in use, a diagnostic message is issued when find encounters a
       loop of symbolic links.	As with loops containing hard links, the  leaf
       optimisation  will  often  mean that find knows that it doesn't need to
       call stat() or chdir() on the symbolic link, so this diagnostic is fre‐
       quently not necessary.

       The  -d	option is supported for comatibility with various BSD systems,
       but you should use the POSIX-compliant predicate -depth instead.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       LANG   Provides a default value for the internationalization  variables
	      that are unset or null.

       LC_ALL If  set  to a non-empty string value, override the values of all
	      the other internationalization variables.

       LC_COLLATE
	      The POSIX standard specifies that this variable affects the pat‐
	      tern matching to be used for the `-name' option.	 GNU find uses
	      the fnmatch(3) library function, and so support for `LC_COLLATE'
	      depends on the system library.

	      POSIX  also specifies that the `LC_COLLATE' environment variable
	      affects the interpretation of the user's response to  the	 query
	      issued by `-ok', but this is not the case for GNU find.

       LC_CTYPE
	      This  variable  affects  the treatment of character classes used
	      with the `-name' option,	if  the	 system's  fnmatch(3)  library
	      function	supports  this.	  It has no effect on the behaviour of
	      the `-ok' expression.

       LC_MESSAGES
	      Determines the locale to be used for internationalised messages.

       NLSPATH
	      Determines the location of the internationalisation message cat‐
	      alogues.

       PATH   Affects  the  directores which are searched to find the executa‐
	      bles invoked by `-exec' and `-ok'.

       POSIXLY_CORRECT
	      Determines the block size used by `-ls'.

       TZ     Affects the time zone used for some of the  time-related	format
	      directives of -printf and -fprintf.

EXAMPLES
       find /tmp -name core -type f -print | xargs /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them.
       Note that this will work incorrectly if there are  any  filenames  con‐
       taining newlines, single or double quotes, or spaces.

       find /tmp -name core -type f -print0 | xargs -0 /bin/rm -f

       Find  files  named core in or below the directory /tmp and delete them,
       processing filenames in such a way that file or	directory  names  con‐
       taining	single or double quotes, spaces or newlines are correctly han‐
       dled.  The -name test comes before the -type test  in  order  to	 avoid
       having to call stat(2) on every file.

       find . -type f -exec file '{}' \;

       Runs  `file'  on	 every file in or below the current directory.	Notice
       that the braces are enclosed in single quote marks to protect them from
       interpretation  as  shell  script punctuation.	The semicolon is simi‐
       larly protected by the use of a backslash, though ';' could  have  been
       used in that case also.

       find /	 ( -perm +4000 -fprintf /root/suid.txt '%#m %u %p\n' ) , \
		 ( -size +100M -fprintf /root/big.txt '%-10s %p\n' )

       Traverse the filesystem just once, listing setuid files and directories
       into /root/suid.txt and large files into /root/big/txt.

       find $HOME -mtime 0

       Search for files in your home directory which have been modified in the
       last  twenty-four  hours.  This command works this way because the time
       since each file was last accessed  is  divided  by  24  hours  and  any
       remainder is discarded.	That means that to match -atime 0, a file will
       have to have a modification in the past which is	 less  than  24	 hours
       ago.

       find . -perm 664

       Search  for files which have read and write permission for their owner,
       and group, but which the rest of the world can read but not  write  to.
       Files  which  meet  these  criteria but have other permissions bits set
       (for example if someone can execute the file) will not be matched.

       find . -perm -664

       Search for files which have read and write permission for their	owner,
       and  group,  but which the rest of the world can read but not write to,
       without regard to the presence of any extra permission bits (for	 exam‐
       ple  the	 executable bit).  This will match a file which has mode 0777,
       for example.

       find . -perm +222

       Search for files which are writeable by somebody (their owner, or their
       group, or anybody else).

       find . -perm +022
       find . -perm +g+w,o+w
       find . -perm +g=w,o=w

       All  three  of these commands do the same thing, but the first one uses
       the octal representation of the file mode, and the other	 two  use  the
       symbolic form.  These commands all search for files which are writeable
       by either their owner or their group.   The  files  don't  have	to  be
       writeable by both the owner and group to be matched; either will do.

       find . -perm -022
       find . -perm -g+w,o+w

       Both  these  commands  do  the  same  thing; search for files which are
       writeable by both their owner and their group.

EXIT STATUS
       find exits with status 0	 if  all  files	 are  processed	 successfully,
       greater	than  0	 if  errors occur.   This is deliberately a very broad
       description, but if the return value is non-zero, you should  not  rely
       on the correctness of the results of find.

SEE ALSO
       locate(1),  locatedb(5),	 updatedb(1),  xargs(1), fnmatch(3), regex(7),
       stat(2), lstat(2), ls(1),  printf(3),  strftime(3),  ctime(3),  Finding
       Files (on-line in Info, or printed),

HISTORY
       As of findutils-4.2.2, shell metacharacters ('*'. '?' or '[]' for exam‐
       ple) used in filename patterns will match a leading '.',	 because  IEEE
       POSIX interpretation 126 requires this.

BUGS
       There  are  security  problems inherent in the behaviour that the POSIX
       standard specifies for find, which  therefore  cannot  be  fixed.   For
       example,	 the  -exec action is inherently insecure, and -execdir should
       be used instead.	 Please see Finding Files for more information.

       The best way to report a bug  is	 to  use  the  form  at	 http://savan‐
       nah.gnu.org/bugs/?group=findutils.   The	 reason	 for  this is that you
       will then be able to track progress in fixing the problem.   Other com‐
       ments  about  find(1) and about the findutils package in general can be
       sent to the bug-findutils mailing list.	To join the list,  send	 email
       to bug-findutils-request@gnu.org.

								       FIND(1)
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