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FMTMSG(3P)		   POSIX Programmer's Manual		    FMTMSG(3P)

       This  manual  page is part of the POSIX Programmer's Manual.  The Linux
       implementation of this interface may differ (consult the	 corresponding
       Linux  manual page for details of Linux behavior), or the interface may
       not be implemented on Linux.

       fmtmsg — display a message in the specified format  on  standard	 error
       and/or a system console

       #include <fmtmsg.h>

       int fmtmsg(long classification, const char *label, int severity,
	   const char *text, const char *action, const char *tag);

       The  fmtmsg()  function	shall  display	messages in a specified format
       instead of the traditional printf() function.

       Based on a message's classification component, fmtmsg() shall  write  a
       formatted message either to standard error, to the console, or to both.

       A formatted message consists of up to five components as defined below.
       The component classification is not part of a message displayed to  the
       user,  but defines the source of the message and directs the display of
       the formatted message.

		   Contains the sum of identifying values constructed from the
		   constants defined below. Any one identifier from a subclass
		   may be used in combination with a single identifier from  a
		   different  subclass.	 Two or more identifiers from the same
		   subclass should not be used together, with the exception of
		   identifiers	from  the display subclass. (Both display sub‐
		   class identifiers may be used so that messages can be  dis‐
		   played to both standard error and the system console.)

		   Major Classifications
			 Identifies  the  source of the condition. Identifiers
			 are:  MM_HARD	(hardware),  MM_SOFT  (software),  and
			 MM_FIRM (firmware).

		   Message Source Subclassifications
			 Identifies  the type of software in which the problem
			 is detected.  Identifiers are: MM_APPL (application),
			 MM_UTIL (utility), and MM_OPSYS (operating system).

		   Display Subclassifications
			 Indicates where the message is to be displayed. Iden‐
			 tifiers are: MM_PRINT to display the message  on  the
			 standard error stream, MM_CONSOLE to display the mes‐
			 sage on the system console. One or  both  identifiers
			 may be used.

		   Status Subclassifications
			 Indicates  whether  the  application can recover from
			 the condition.	 Identifiers are: MM_RECOVER (recover‐
			 able) and MM_NRECOV (non-recoverable).

		   An  additional  identifier,	MM_NULLMC,  indicates  that no
		   classification component is supplied for the message.

       label	   Identifies the source of the message.  The  format  is  two
		   fields separated by a <colon>.  The first field is up to 10
		   bytes, the second is up to 14 bytes.

       severity	   Indicates the seriousness of the condition. Identifiers for
		   the levels of severity are:

		   MM_HALT     Indicates  that the application has encountered
			       a severe fault and  is  halting.	 Produces  the
			       string "HALT".

		   MM_ERROR    Indicates  that	the application has detected a
			       fault. Produces the string "ERROR".

		   MM_WARNING  Indicates a condition that is out of the	 ordi‐
			       nary,  that  might  be a problem, and should be
			       watched. Produces the string "WARNING".

		   MM_INFO     Provides information about a condition that  is
			       not in error. Produces the string "INFO".

		   MM_NOSEV    Indicates  that	no  severity level is supplied
			       for the message.

       text	   Describes the error condition that  produced	 the  message.
		   The	character string is not limited to a specific size. If
		   the character string is empty, then the  text  produced  is

       action	   Describes  the first step to be taken in the error-recovery
		   process.  The fmtmsg() function precedes the action	string
		   with	 the  prefix: "TOFIX:".	 The action string is not lim‐
		   ited to a specific size.

       tag	   An identifier that references on-line documentation for the
		   message.   Suggested	 usage	is that tag includes the label
		   and	a  unique  identifying	number.	 A   sample   tag   is

       The  MSGVERB  environment variable (for message verbosity) shall deter‐
       mine for fmtmsg() which message components it is to select when writing
       messages	  to   standard	 error.	 The  value  of	 MSGVERB  shall	 be  a
       <colon>-separated list of optional keywords. Valid keywords are: label,
       severity,  text,	 action,  and tag. If MSGVERB contains a keyword for a
       component and the component's value is not the component's null	value,
       fmtmsg()	 shall	include that component in the message when writing the
       message to standard error. If MSGVERB does not include a keyword for  a
       message	component, that component shall not be included in the display
       of the message. The keywords may appear in any order. If MSGVERB is not
       defined,	 if  its  value is the null string, if its value is not of the
       correct format, or if it contains keywords other than  the  valid  ones
       listed above, fmtmsg() shall select all components.

       MSGVERB	shall  determine  which components are selected for display to
       standard error. All message components shall  be	 included  in  console

       The fmtmsg() function shall return one of the following values:

       MM_OK	   The function succeeded.

       MM_NOTOK	   The function failed completely.

       MM_NOMSG	   The	function  was unable to generate a message on standard
		   error, but otherwise succeeded.

       MM_NOCON	   The function was unable to generate a console message,  but
		   otherwise succeeded.


       The following sections are informative.

	1. The following example of fmtmsg():

	       fmtmsg(MM_PRINT, "XSI:cat", MM_ERROR, "illegal option",
	       "refer to cat in user's reference manual", "XSI:cat:001")

	   produces a complete message in the specified message format:

	       XSI:cat: ERROR: illegal option
	       TO FIX: refer to cat in user's reference manual XSI:cat:001

	2. When the environment variable MSGVERB is set as follows:


	   and Example 1 is used, fmtmsg() produces:

	       ERROR: illegal option
	       TO FIX: refer to cat in user's reference manual

       One  or more message components may be systematically omitted from mes‐
       sages generated by an application by using the null value of the	 argu‐
       ment for that component.




       The Base Definitions volume of POSIX.1‐2008, <fmtmsg.h>

       Portions	 of  this text are reprinted and reproduced in electronic form
       from IEEE Std 1003.1, 2013 Edition, Standard for Information Technology
       --  Portable  Operating	System	Interface (POSIX), The Open Group Base
       Specifications Issue 7, Copyright (C) 2013 by the Institute of Electri‐
       cal  and	 Electronics  Engineers,  Inc  and  The	 Open Group.  (This is
       POSIX.1-2008 with the 2013 Technical Corrigendum	 1  applied.)  In  the
       event of any discrepancy between this version and the original IEEE and
       The Open Group Standard, the original IEEE and The Open Group  Standard
       is  the	referee document. The original Standard can be obtained online
       at .

       Any typographical or formatting errors that appear  in  this  page  are
       most likely to have been introduced during the conversion of the source
       files to man page format. To report such errors,	 see  https://www.ker‐ .

IEEE/The Open Group		     2013			    FMTMSG(3P)

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