fprintf man page on Ultrix

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printf(3s)							    printf(3s)

Name
       printf, fprintf, sprintf - formatted output conversion

Syntax
       #include <stdio.h>

       int printf( format [, arg ] ...	)
       char *format;

       int fprintf( stream, format [, arg ] ...
       FILE *stream;
       char *format;

   BSD Environment
       char *sprintf( s, format [, arg ] ...  )
       char *s, *format;

   System V and POSIX Environments
       int sprintf( s, format [, arg ] ...  )
       char *s, format;

Description
       The  function  places output on the standard output stream, The subrou‐
       tine places output on the named output stream.  The  subroutine	places
       output in the string s, and appends the null terminator `\0' to the end
       of the string.

       The first argument controls how each of these functions converts,  for‐
       mats, and prints the other arguments. The first argument is a character
       string that contains two types of objects,  characters  and  conversion
       specifications.	 These	functions  copy	 characters that appear in the
       first argument to the output stream.  Conversion	 specifications	 cause
       these  functions	 to  convert the next successive argument and send the
       formatted argument to the output stream.

       You introduce conversion specifications using  the  percent  sign  (%).
       Following the %, you can include:

       ·    Zero  or  more  flags,  which modify the meaning of the conversion
	    specification.

       ·    An optional minus sign (-), which specifies left adjustment of the
	    converted value in the indicated field.

       ·    An	optional  digit	 string	 that specifies a field width.	If the
	    converted value has fewer characters than the  field  width,  pads
	    the	 value	with  blanks.  By default, pads the value on the left.
	    If the conversion string specifies the  value  is  left-justified,
	    pads  the  value  on  the right.  If the field width begins with a
	    zero, pads the values with zeros, instead of blanks.

       ·    An optional period (.), which separates the field width  from  the
	    next digit string.

       ·    An	optional  digit	 string	 specifying a precision. The precision
	    controls the number of digits that appear after the radix  charac‐
	    ter,  exponential  and floating-point conversions.	Precision also
	    controls the maximum number of characters that are placed  in  the
	    converted value for a string.

       ·    The character h or l specifying that a following d, i, o, u, x, or
	    X corresponds to an integer or longword integer argument.  You can
	    use an uppercase L or a lowercase l.

       ·    A character that indicates the type of conversion to be applied.

       A  field	 width or precision can be an asterisk (*), instead of a digit
       string.	If you use an asterisk, you can include an argument that  sup‐
       plies the field width or precision.

       The flag characters and their meanings are as follows:

       -    The result of the conversion is left-justified within the field.

       +    The	 result of a signed conversion always begins with a sign (+ or
	    -).

       blank
	    If the first character of a signed conversion is not a sign,  pads
	    the	 value	on  the left with a blank.  If the blank and plus sign
	    (+) flags both appear, ignores the blank flag.

       The  The value is to be converted to an alternative form.

	    For c, d, s, and u conversions, this flag has no effect.

	    For o
	     conversions, this flag increases the precision to force the first
	    digit of the result to be a zero.

	    For x or X conversions, pads a non-zero result on the left with 0x
	    or 0X.

	    For e, E, f, g, and G conversions, the result  always  contains  a
	    radix  character,  even  if	 no  digits follow that character.  (A
	    radix character usually appears in the result of these conversions
	    only if a digit follows it.)

	    For	 g  and G conversions, does not remove trailing zeros from the
	    result.

       The conversion characters and their meanings are as follows:

       dox  Convert the integer argument to  decimal,  octal,  or  hexadecimal
	    notation, respectively.

       f    Convert the floating point or double precision argument to decimal
	    notation in the style [- ]ddd.ddd, where the number of ds  follow‐
	    ing	 the  radix  character is equal to the precision for the argu‐
	    ment.  If the precision is missing, prints six digits. If the pre‐
	    cision  is	explicitly  zero, the function prints no digits and no
	    radix characters.

       e    Convert the floating point or double  precision  argument  in  the
	    style  [-  ]d.   ddde±dd, where one digit appears before the radix
	    character and the number of digits that  appear  after  the	 radix
	    character is equal to the precision.  When you omit the precision,
	    prints six digits.

       g    Convert the floating point or double precision argument  to	 style
	    d,	style  f, or style e.  The style uses depends on the format of
	    the converted value.  The function removes trailing	 zeros	before
	    evaluating the format of the converted value.

	    If	a  radix character appears in the converted value that is fol‐
	    lowed by a digit, uses style d.  If the converted  value  contains
	    an exponent that is is less than -4 or greater than the precision,
	    the function uses style .BR e  .   Otherwise,  the	function  uses
	    style f.

       c    Print the character argument.

       s    Print  the	character  argument.  The function prints the argument
	    until it encounters a null characters or has printed the number of
	    characters	specified  by the precision.  If the precision is zero
	    or has not been specified, prints the character argument until  it
	    encounters a null character.

       u    Convert  the  unsigned  integer  argument to a decimal value.  The
	    result must be in the range of 0  through  4294967295,  where  the
	    upper bound is defined by MAXUNIT.

       i    Convert  the integer argument to decimal. (This conversion charac‐
	    ter is the same as d.)

       n    Store the number of characters formatted in the integer argument.

       p    Print the pointer to the argument. (This conversion	 character  is
	    the same as %08X).

       %    Print a percent sign ( % ). The function converts no argument.

       A non-existent or small field width never causes truncation of a value.
       Padding takes place only if  the	 specified  field  width  exceeds  the
       length of the value.

       In  all cases, the radix character uses is defined by the last success‐
       ful call to category If category has not been called successfully or if
       the  radix  character  is  undefined, the radix character defaults to a
       period (.).

   International Environment
       LC_NUMERIC     If this environment is set and valid, uses the  interna‐
		      tional  language	database  named	 in  the definition to
		      determine radix character rules.

       LANG	      If this environment variable is set and valid  uses  the
		      international  language database named in the definition
		      to  determine  collation	and  character	classification
		      rules.   If  is  defined,	 its definition supercedes the
		      definition of LANG.

Restrictions
       The function cannot format values that exceed 128 characters.

Examples
       To print a date and time in the form Sunday, July 3, 10:02, where week‐
       day and month are pointers to null-terminated strings use the following
       function call:
       printf("%s, %s %d, %02d:%02d",
		      weekday, month, day, hour, min);
       To print pi to 5 decimal places use the following call:
       printf("pi = %.5f", 4*atan(1.0));

Return Values
       In the BSD environment, and return zero for success and EOF  for	 fail‐
       ure.  The subroutine returns its first argument for success and EOF for
       failure.

       In the System V and POSIX environments, and return the number of	 char‐
       acters transmitted for success.	The function ignores the null termina‐
       tor (\0) when calculating the number of characters transmitted.	If  an
       output error occurs, these routines return a negative value.

See Also
       ecvt(3),	  nl_printf(3int),   nl_scanf(3int),  setlocale(3),  putc(3s),
       scanf(3s), environ(5int)
       Guide to Developing International Software

								    printf(3s)
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