frecover man page on HP-UX

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frecover(1M)							  frecover(1M)

       frecover - selectively recover files

       config] device] skip] extarg]


       config] path] device] graph] path] skip] extarg]

       device] config]

       device] config]

       Note:  The  and commands are deprecated for creating new archives.  See
       for more information.

       reads media written by the command.  Its actions are controlled by  the
       selected function or

       The function performed by is specified by one of the following options:

       The backup media is read and the contents are loaded
		   into	 the directories from which they were backed up.  This
		   option should only be used to  recover  a  complete	backup
		   onto	 a clear directory or to recover an incremental backup
		   after a full level-zero recovery (see  fbackup(1M)).	  This
		   is the default behavior.

       The files identified by the
		   and options (see below) are extracted or not extracted from
		   the backup media.  If a file	 to  be	 extracted  matches  a
		   directory  whose  contents  have been written to the backup
		   media, and the option is not specified,  the	 directory  is
		   recursively	extracted.   The owner, modification time, and
		   access control list (including optional entries, unless the
		   option is specified) are recovered.	If no file argument is
		   given (including an empty graph file),  all	files  on  the
		   backup media are extracted, unless the option is specified.

       The index on the current volume is extracted
		   from the backup media and is written to path.

       The volume header on the current volume
		   is  extracted from the backup media and is written to path.
		   The following fields from the header are extracted  in  the
		   format label:value with one pair per line.

		   On valid		       media,  it  contains  the value
					       (HP-UX  11i   Version   3   and
					       beyond).	  Previous  values  of
					       this field were (between	 HP-UX
					       10.20  and  HP-UX 11i Version 2
					       inclusive)  and	(before	 HP-UX

		   This field contains the result of

		   This field contains the result of

		   This field contains the result of

		   This field contains the result of

		   This field contains the result of

		   This	 field	contains the maximum length in bytes of a data

		   This field contains the time
					       was started.

		   This field contains the number of times
					       the media  has  been  used  for

		   This field contains a       character followed by 3 digits,
					       and identifies the current vol‐
					       ume in the backup.

		   This	 field	contains  the  number  of data records between

		   This field contains the number of files between
					       for backups made with DDS  tape

		   This field contains the size of the index.

		   This field is composed of 2 items: the process
					       ID (pid), and the start time of
					       that process.

		   This field contains the language used to make the backup.

       An interrupted full recovery can be continued using this option.
		   uses the information in file path to continue the  recovery
		   from	 where	it  was	 interrupted.	The  only command line
		   option used by with this option is The values in path over‐
		   ride all other options to Note also that only full recover‐
		   ies are restarted with this option, because no  history  of
		   include or exclude lists is stored in the restart file.  If
		   a partial recovery (i.e., using the option) is  interrupted
		   then restarted with this option, continues recovering where
		   the partial recovery left off, but restores	all  files  on
		   the backup media beyond this point.

       The  following options can be used in addition to the option above that
       selects the desired function:

       config	   specifies the name of a configuration file to  be  used  to
		   alter  the  behavior	 of  The configuration file allows the
		   user to specify the action to be taken on all  errors,  the
		   maximum  number  of	attempts  at  resynchronizing on media
		   errors option), and the action to be taken on media errors.
		   Each	 entry	of  a configuration file consists of an action
		   identifier followed by a separator followed by  the	speci‐
		   fied	 action.   Valid action identifiers are and Separators
		   can be either tabs or spaces.  In the following sample con‐
		   figuration  file,  each  time  an error is encountered, the
		   script is executed.	The script is executed each  time  the
		   backup  media  is  to  be  changed.	 The maximum number of
		   resynchronization attempts is five.

       path	   is interpreted as a graph to be excluded from the recovery.
		   There is no limit on how many times the option can be spec‐

       device	   identifies the backup device to  be	used  instead  of  the
		   default  or	on  systems  where legacy Device Special Files
		   (DSF) is disabled.  If device is reads from standard input.
		   Thus	 and can be used in a pipeline to backup and recover a
		   file system as follows:

		   If more than one output file is specified,  uses  each  one
		   successively	 and then repeats in a cyclical pattern.  Pat‐
		   terns can be used in the device name in a  way  similar  to
		   file name expansion as done by The expansion of the pattern
		   results in all matching names being in the list of  devices
		   used.   A  device on the remote machine can be specified in
		   the form creates a server process, on the remote machine to
		   access  the	tape  device.  If does not exist on the remote
		   system, creates a server process from on the remote machine
		   to access the tape device.  The pattern matching capability
		   does not apply to remote devices.  Only raw magnetic	 tapes
		   can	be  remote  devices.   The capability is not used when
		   accessing remote DDS devices.

       graph	   defines a graph file.  Graph files are text files and  con‐
		   tain	 the  list  of	file names (graphs) to be recovered or
		   skipped.  Files are recovered using	the  option;  so,  for
		   example, if the user wants to recover all of the graph file
		   contains one entry:

		   It is also possible to skip files by using the option.  For
		   example,  if	 a user wants to recover all of except for the
		   subgraph the graph file contains two entries:

		   If the graph file is missing, exits with an error  message.
		   An  empty graph file results in recovering all files on the

       Extract the actual directory, rather than the files that it references.
		   This prevents hierarchical restoration of complete subtrees
		   from the backup media.

       path	   is  interpreted  as a graph to be included in the recovery.
		   There is no limit on how many times the option can be spec‐

       Print a message each time a file marker is encountered.
		   Using  this option, prints a message each time either a DDS
		   a filemark (EOF), or a checkpoint record is read.  Although
		   useful  primarily  for  troubleshooting, these messages can
		   also be used to reassure the user that the backup  is  pro‐
		   gressing  during long, and otherwise silent, periods during
		   the recovery.

       Recover the file from the backup media irrespective of age.
		   Normally does not overwrite an existing file with an	 older
		   version of the file.

       Attempt to optimize disk usage by not writing
		   null blocks of data to sparse files.

       Normally	   works  silently.   Verbose option.	Displays the file type
		   and name of each file processed.

       Automatically answer
		   to any inquiries.

       Do not recover any optional entries in access control lists
		   (ACLs).  Normally, all access control information,  includ‐
		   ing	optional ACL entries, is recovered.  This option drops
		   any optional entries and sets the permissions of the recov‐
		   ered	 file  to  the permissions of the backed up file.  Use
		   this option when recovering files backed up from  a	system
		   with	 ACLs  on  a  system  where  ACLs are not present (see

       Recover files without recovering leading directories.
		   For example, this option would be used if a user  wants  to
		   recover  and	 to a local directory without creating each of
		   the graph structures.

       Specifies the handling of any extent attributes backed up by
		   The option takes the following keywords as arguments:

		   Issue a warning message if extent attributes cannot
			     be restored, but restore the file anyway.

		   Do not restore extent attributes.

		   Issue an error message and do not restore the file
			     if extent attributes cannot be restored.

			     Extent attributes cannot be restored if the files
			     are  being	 restored  to a file system which does
			     not support extent attributes or if the file sys‐
			     tem's  block size is incompatible with the extent
			     attributes.  If is not specified, extarg defaults

       (no recovery)
		   Prevent  from  actually recovering any files onto disk, but
		   read the backup as if it was, in fact, recovering the  data
		   from the backup, producing the same output that it would on
		   a normal recovery.  This option  is	useful	for  verifying
		   backup  media contents in terms of validity (block checksum
		   errors are reported), and contents (a listing of files  can
		   be  produced by using the and options together).  Note that
		   the listing of files produced with the and options requires
		   the	reading	 of the entire backup, but is therefore a more
		   accurate reflection of the backup's contents than the index
		   stored at the beginning of the backup (which was created at
		   the start of the backup session, and is not changed	during
		   the course of the backup).

       Use the effective uid and gid for the owner and group
		   of  the  recovered file instead of the values on the backup

       does not ask whether it should abort the recovery
		   if it gets a media error.  It tries to skip the  bad	 block
		   or  blocks  and continue.  Residual or lost data is written
		   to the file named by skip.  The user	 can  then  edit  this
		   file and recover otherwise irretrievable data.

       Recover files relative to the current working directory.
		   Normally recovers files to their absolute path name.

   Environment Variables
       determines  the order in which expects files to be stored on the backup
       device and the order in which file names are output by the option.

       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If and are not specified in the environment or are  set	to  the	 empty
       string, the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty
       variable.  If is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default
       of  "C"	(see  lang(5))	is used instead of If any internationalization
       variable contains an invalid setting, behaves as if all	international‐
       ization variables are set to "C".  See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

       The and commands are deprecated for creating new archives.  In a future
       HP-UX release, creation of new archives with these commands will not be
       supported.   Support  will be continued for archive retrieval.  Use the
       standard command (portable archive  interchange)	 to  create  archives.
       See pax(1).

       For  incremental backups created prior to installing HP-UX Release 8.0,
       or for recoveries that do not begin with the first volume (such as when
       reading	tape 3 first), it is possible for the preceding directories to
       a recoverable file to not be on the media.  This can happen, for	 exam‐
       ple,  if the directories did not change since the last full backup.  If
       encounters a file on the backup that should be recovered,  but  it  has
       not  recovered the file's parent directories from the backup, it prints
       a message stating that the recovery will continue with that  file,  and
       attempts to create the file's parent directories as needed.

       Use  of	does  not require special privileges.  However, if a user does
       not have access permission to a given file, the file is not recovered.

       In HP-UX 11i Version 3, the maximum value for fields returned from  was
       increased  (from	 8  to 256).  To accommodate the larger size, a format
       change was necessary.  A new magic number, was created  to  distinguish
       this new format.

       Likewise with HP-UX 10.20, HP-UX added support for large files (greater
       than 2GB) and increased UID/GIDs (greater than 60,000).	The magic num‐
       ber  associated	with  this release through HP-UX 11i Version 2 (inclu‐
       sive) is

       Archives and files with formats and attributes that are unsupported  on
       previous	 HP-UX	releases  could cause severe problems or unpredictable
       behavior if attempts were made to restore onto these systems.  For this
       reason,	creates	 tapes	with a magic number that is only recognized on
       releases which support the features and format  being  archived.	  This
       prevents	 tape  archives	 from  being restored on earlier HP-UX systems
       than are supported.  still reads all tape formats so that tape archives
       created on earlier HP-UX systems can be restored.

       The  index  format  now	includes the file size in the first field; the
       previous format simply had the '#' character in that field.  The imple‐
       mentation  provides both forward and backward compatibility between the
       old and new index formats.  However, the file sizes are	used  in  con‐
       junction	 with  the checkpoints to increase selective recovery speed on
       DLT devices, so recovery of an volume that does not have the new	 index
       format will not see that performance gain.

       When  using a DDS tape written with the current release of to do a par‐
       tial recovery, attempts to use the DDS fast-search capability  to  find
       files on the tape more quickly.	In order to do this, however, needs to
       create an in-memory copy of the index, and mark the files on that index
       which  it  needs to recover before actually reading through the tape to
       find the files.	This is done when the first index  is  read  from  the
       tape,  and  accounts  for a period of time just after recovery is begun
       where the tape is inactive while this in-memory index  is  constructed.
       The larger the index is, the longer this period lasts.

       The  utility  set  comprised  of and was originally designed for use on
       systems equipped with not more than one gigabyte of total  file	system
       storage.	  Although  the utilities have no programming limitations that
       restrict users to this size, complete backups and  recoveries  of  sub‐
       stantially  larger  systems can cause a large amount of system activity
       due to the amount of virtual memory (swap  space)  used	to  store  the
       indices.	  Users who want to use these utilities, but are noticing poor
       system-wide performance due to the size of the backup,  are  encouraged
       to  back	 up  their  systems  in multiple smaller sessions, rather than
       attempting to back up the entire system at one time.  However,  if  the
       entire  backup  must  be	 done  with  a	single	session,  the user may
       encounter an error in if there is not enough virtual memory  available.
       If  this happens, the user might consider adjusting the maxdsiz parame‐
       ter or the swap space; both of these require a reboot.

       Note that when recovering files with  access  control  lists,  the  ACL
       entries	are stored on the backup as user login names.  If a login name
       cannot be found in the password file, the file is recovered without its
       ACL,  and  an error is printed.	In order to fully recover files backed
       up with ACLs, the password file must be recovered before attempting  to
       recover any desired ACLs.

       Network	special	 files	are obsolete.  Therefore, cannot restore these
       files.  A warning message is issued if an attempt is made to recover  a
       network special file, and the file is skipped.

       Care  should  be	 taken to match the names specified by the include and
       exclude options with the names in the index on  the  tape.   Since  the
       files  are  stored on the backup in lexographic order as defined by the
       or environment variable, uses the exact path names to determine when  a
       partial	recovery  is  complete,	 and  when an earlier tape needs to be
       loaded.	If a user's specification of a file to be  recovered  is  mis‐
       spelled, this may cause confusing messages, such as asking for the pre‐
       vious volume, when volume one is mounted.

       does not support QIC-120 and QIC-150 formats on	QIC  devices.	If  is
       attempted  for  these  formats, fails and the following message is dis‐
       played :

       was developed by HP.

       Default backup device.

       Default backup device if legacy DSF is disabled.

       cpio(1), pax(1), dump(1M), fbackup(1M), restore(1M), rmt(1M), acl(5).

				TO BE OBSOLETED			  frecover(1M)

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