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FTP(1)									FTP(1)

NAME
       ftp - ARPANET file transfer program

SYNOPSIS
       ftp [-v] [-d] [-i] [-n] [-g] [-k realm] [-f] [-x] [-u] [-t] [host]

DESCRIPTION
       FTP  is the user interface to the ARPANET standard File Transfer Proto‐
       col.  The program allows a user to transfer files to and from a	remote
       network site.

OPTIONS
       Options	may be specified at the command line, or to the command inter‐
       preter.

       -v     Verbose option forces ftp to show all responses from the	remote
	      server, as well as report on data transfer statistics.

       -n     Restrains	 ftp  from attempting ``auto-login'' upon initial con‐
	      nection.	If auto-login is enabled, ftp will  check  the	.netrc
	      (see  below)  file  in  the  user's  home directory for an entry
	      describing an account  on	 the  remote  machine.	 If  no	 entry
	      exists,  ftp  will  prompt  for  the  remote  machine login name
	      (default is the user identity on the  local  machine),  and,  if
	      necessary,  prompt  for  a password and an account with which to
	      login.

       -u     Restrains ftp from attempting ``auto-authentication'' upon  ini‐
	      tial   connection.    If	auto-authentication  is	 enabled,  ftp
	      attempts to authenticate to the FTP server by sending  the  AUTH
	      command,	using  whichever authentication types are locally sup‐
	      ported.  Once an authentication type is accepted, an authentica‐
	      tion  protocol  will  proceed  by	 issuing  ADAT commands.  This
	      option also disables auto-login.

       -i     Turns off interactive prompting during multiple file transfers.

       -d     Enables debugging.

       -g     Disables file name globbing.

       -k realm
	      When using Kerberos v4 authentication, gets tickets in realm.

       -f     Causes credentials to be forwarded to the remote host.

       -x     Causes the client to attempt to negotiate encryption  (data  and
	      command  protection  levels  ``private'') immediately after suc‐
	      cessfully authenticating.

       -t     Enables packet tracing.

COMMANDS
       The client host with which ftp is to communicate may  be	 specified  on
       the  command  line.   If	 this is done, ftp will immediately attempt to
       establish a connection to an FTP server on that	host;  otherwise,  ftp
       will  enter  its	 command  interpreter  and await instructions from the
       user.  When ftp is awaiting commands from the user the prompt  ``ftp>''
       is provided to the user.	 The following commands are recognized by ftp:

       ! [command] [args]]
	      Invoke  an interactive shell on the local machine.  If there are
	      arguments, the first  is	taken  to  be  a  command  to  execute
	      directly, with the rest of the arguments as its arguments.

       $ macro-name [args]
	      Execute  the  macro  macro-name that was defined with the macdef
	      command.	Arguments are passed to the macro unglobbed.

       account [passwd]
	      Supply a supplemental password required by a remote  system  for
	      access  to  resources  once  a  login has been successfully com‐
	      pleted.  If no argument is included, the user will  be  prompted
	      for an account password in a non-echoing input mode.

       append local-file [remote-file]
	      Append a local file to a file on the remote machine.  If remote-
	      file is left unspecified, the local file name is used in	naming
	      the  remote  file after being altered by any ntrans or nmap set‐
	      ting.  File transfer uses the current settings for type, format,
	      mode, and structure.

       ascii  Set  the	file  transfer	type  to  network ASCII .  This is the
	      default type.

       bell   Arrange that a bell be sounded after each file transfer  command
	      is completed.

       binary Set the file transfer type to support binary file transfer.

       bye    Terminate	 the  FTP session with the remote server and exit ftp.
	      An end of file will also terminate the session and exit.

       case   Toggle remote computer file name case mapping during  mget  com‐
	      mands.   When  case is on (default is off), remote computer file
	      names with all letters in upper case are written	in  the	 local
	      directory with the letters mapped to lower case.

       ccc    Turn off integrity protection on the command channel.  This com‐
	      mand must be sent integrity protected, and must be proceeded  by
	      a	 successful ADAT command.  Since turning off integrity protec‐
	      tion potentially allows an attacker to insert commands onto  the
	      command  channel, some FTP servers may refuse to honor this com‐
	      mand.

       cd remote-directory
	      Change the working directory on the remote  machine  to  remote-
	      directory.

       cdup   Change the remote machine working directory to the parent of the
	      current remote machine working directory.

       chmod mode file-name
	      Change the permission modes of the file file-name on the	remote
	      system to mode.

       clear  Set  the protection level on data transfers to ``clear''.	 If no
	      ADAT command succeeded, then  this  is  the  default  protection
	      level.

       close  Terminate	 the FTP session with the remote server, and return to
	      the command interpreter.	Any defined macros are erased.

       cprotect [protection-level]
	      Set the protection level on commands to  protection-level.   The
	      valid  protection levels are ``clear'' for unprotected commands,
	      ``safe''	for  commands  integrity  protected  by	 cryptographic
	      checksum,	 and  ``private''  for	commands  confidentiality  and
	      integrity protected by encryption.   If  an  ADAT	 command  suc‐
	      ceeded,  then  the default command protection level is ``safe'',
	      otherwise the only possible level is ``clear''.  If no level  is
	      specified,  the  current	level  is  printed.  cprotect clear is
	      equivalent to the ccc command.

       cr     Toggle  carriage	return	stripping  during  ascii   type	  file
	      retrieval.   Records  are	 denoted by a carriage return/linefeed
	      sequence during ascii type file transfer.	 When cr  is  on  (the
	      default),	 carriage  returns  are stripped from this sequence to
	      conform with the UNIX single linefeed record delimiter.  Records
	      on non-UNIX remote systems may contain single linefeeds; when an
	      ascii type transfer is made,  these  linefeeds  may  be  distin‐
	      guished from a record delimiter only when cr is off.

       delete remote-file
	      Delete the file remote-file on the remote machine.

       debug [debug-value]
	      Toggle  debugging mode.  If an optional debug-value is specified
	      it is used to set the debugging level.  When  debugging  is  on,
	      ftp  prints each command sent to the remote machine, preceded by
	      the string `-->'

       dir [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print a listing of the  directory	 contents  in  the  directory,
	      remote-directory,	 and, optionally, placing the output in local-
	      file.  If interactive prompting is on, ftp will prompt the  user
	      to verify that the last argument is indeed the target local file
	      for receiving dir output.	 If no	directory  is  specified,  the
	      current  working directory on the remote machine is used.	 If no
	      local file is specified, or local-file is `-', output  comes  to
	      the terminal.

       disconnect
	      A synonym for close.

       form format
	      Set  the	file  transfer	form to format.	 The default format is
	      ``file''.

       get remote-file [local-file]
	      Retrieve the file remote-file and store it on the local machine.
	      If  the  local  file name is not specified, it is given the same
	      name it has on the remote machine, subject to alteration by  the
	      current  case,  ntrans, and nmap settings.  The current settings
	      for type, form, mode, and structure are used while  transferring
	      the file.

       glob   Toggle filename expansion for mdelete, mget, and mput.  If glob‐
	      bing is turned off with glob, the file name arguments are	 taken
	      literally	 and  not  expanded.   Globbing for mput is done as in
	      csh(1).  For mdelete and mget, each remote file name is expanded
	      separately  on  the remote machine and the lists are not merged.
	      Expansion of a directory name is likely  to  be  different  from
	      expansion	 of  the  name	of  an ordinary file: the exact result
	      depends on the foreign operating system and ftp server, and  can
	      be  previewed  by doing `mls remote-files -' Note: mget and mput
	      are not meant to transfer entire directory  subtrees  of	files.
	      That can be done by transferring a tar(1) archive of the subtree
	      (in binary mode).

       hash   Toggle hash-sign (``#'') printing for  each  data	 block	trans‐
	      ferred.  The size of a data block is 1024 bytes.

       help [command]
	      Print  an	 informative message about the meaning of command.  If
	      no argument is given, ftp prints a list of the known commands.

       idle [seconds]
	      Set the inactivity timer on the remote server  to	 seconds  sec‐
	      onds.   If  seconds  is omitted, the current inactivity timer is
	      printed.

       lcd [directory]
	      Change the working directory on the local machine.  If no direc‐
	      tory is specified, the user's home directory is used.

       ls [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print  a	listing	 of  the contents of a directory on the remote
	      machine.	The listing includes any system-dependent  information
	      that  the server chooses to include; for example, most UNIX sys‐
	      tems will produce output from the command `ls  -l'.   (See  also
	      nlist.)	If  remote-directory  is left unspecified, the current
	      working directory is used.  If interactive prompting is on,  ftp
	      will  prompt the user to verify that the last argument is indeed
	      the target local file for receiving ls output.  If no local file
	      is specified, or if local-file is `-', the output is sent to the
	      terminal.

       macdefmacro-name
	      Define a macro.  Subsequent lines are stored as the macro macro-
	      name;  a	null line (consecutive newline characters in a file or
	      carriage returns from the terminal) terminates macro input mode.
	      There  is	 a limit of 16 macros and 4096 total characters in all
	      defined macros.  Macros remain defined until a close command  is
	      executed.	 The macro processor interprets `$' and `\' as special
	      characters.  A `$' followed by a number (or numbers) is replaced
	      by  the  corresponding  argument on the macro invocation command
	      line.  A `$' followed by an `i'  signals	that  macro  processor
	      that  the	 executing  macro  is to be looped.  On the first pass
	      `$i' is replaced by the first argument on the  macro  invocation
	      command  line,  on  the second pass it is replaced by the second
	      argument, and so	on.   A	 `\'  followed	by  any	 character  is
	      replaced	by  that  character.   Use  the `\' to prevent special
	      treatment of the `$'.

       mdelete [remote-files]
	      Delete remote-files on the remote machine.

       mdir remote-files local-file
	      Like dir, except multiple remote files  may  be  specified.   If
	      interactive  prompting is on, ftp will prompt the user to verify
	      that the last argument is	 indeed	 the  target  local  file  for
	      receiving mdir output.

       mget remote-files
	      Expand  the  remote-files on the remote machine and do a get for
	      each file name thus produced.  See glob for details on the file‐
	      name  expansion.	 Resulting  file  names will then be processed
	      according to case, ntrans, and nmap settings.  Files are	trans‐
	      ferred  into  the	 local working directory, which can be changed
	      with `lcd directory'; new local directories can be created  with
	      `! mkdir directory'.

       mkdir directory-name
	      Make a directory on the remote machine.

       mls remote-files local-file
	      Like  nlist,  except multiple remote files may be specified, and
	      the local-file must be specified.	 If interactive	 prompting  is
	      on, ftp will prompt the user to verify that the last argument is
	      indeed the target local file for receiving mls output.

       mode [mode-name]
	      Set the file transfer mode to mode-name.	The  default  mode  is
	      ``stream'' mode.

       modtime file-name
	      Show  the	 last  modification  time  of  the  file on the remote
	      machine.

       mput local-files
	      Expand wild cards in the list of local files given as  arguments
	      and  do a put for each file in the resulting list.  See glob for
	      details of filename expansion.  Resulting file names  will  then
	      be processed according to ntrans and nmap settings.

       newer file-name
	      Get the file only if the modification time of the remote file is
	      more recent that the file on the current system.	 If  the  file
	      does not exist on the current system, the remote file is consid‐
	      ered newer.  Otherwise, this command is identical to get.

       nlist [remote-directory] [local-file]
	      Print a list of the files in a directory on the remote  machine.
	      If  remote-directory  is	left  unspecified, the current working
	      directory is used.  If interactive prompting  is	on,  ftp  will
	      prompt  the  user to verify that the last argument is indeed the
	      target local file for receiving nlist output.  If no local  file
	      is specified, or if local-file is `-', the output is sent to the
	      terminal.

       nmap [inpattern outpattern]
	      Set or unset the filename mapping mechanism.   If	 no  arguments
	      are  specified,  the  filename  mapping  mechanism is unset.  If
	      arguments are specified, remote filenames are mapped during mput
	      commands and put commands issued without a specified remote tar‐
	      get filename.  If arguments are specified, local	filenames  are
	      mapped  during  mget  commands and get commands issued without a
	      specified local target filename.	This command  is  useful  when
	      connecting  to non-UNIX remote computer with different file nam‐
	      ing conventions or practices.  The mapping follows  the  pattern
	      set  by inpattern and outpattern.	 [Inpattern] is a template for
	      incoming	filenames  (which  may	have  already  been  processed
	      according to the ntrans and case settings).  Variable templating
	      is accomplished by including the sequences `$1', `$2', ..., `$9'
	      in  inpattern.  Use `\' to prevent this special treatment of the
	      `$' character.  All other characters are treated literally,  and
	      are used to determine the nmap [inpattern] variable values.  For
	      example,	given  inpattern  $1.$2	 and  the  remote  file	  name
	      "mydata.data",  $1  would	 have the value "mydata", and $2 would
	      have the value "data".  The outpattern determines the  resulting
	      mapped  filename.	 The sequences `$1', `$2', inpattern template.
	      The sequence `$0' is replace by the  original  filename.	 Addi‐
	      tionally,	 the  sequence `[seq1, seq2]' is replaced by [seq1] if
	      seq1 is not a null string; otherwise it  is  replaced  by	 seq2.
	      For example, the command

		   nmap $1.$2.$3 [$1,$2].[$2,file]

	      would  yield  the	 output filename "myfile.data" for input file‐
	      names "myfile.data" and "myfile.data.old", "myfile.file" for the
	      input filename "myfile", and "myfile.myfile" for the input file‐
	      name ".myfile".  Spaces may be included in outpattern, as in the
	      example: `nmap $1 sed "s/ *$//" > $1'.  Use the `\' character to
	      prevent special treatment of the `$','[',']',  and  `,'  charac‐
	      ters.

       ntrans [inchars [outchars]]
	      Set  or  unset the filename character translation mechanism.  If
	      no arguments are specified, the filename	character  translation
	      mechanism	 is  unset.  If arguments are specified, characters in
	      remote filenames are translated during  mput  commands  and  put
	      commands	issued without a specified remote target filename.  If
	      arguments are  specified,	 characters  in	 local	filenames  are
	      translated  during mget commands and get commands issued without
	      a specified local target filename.  This command is useful  when
	      connecting  to  a	 non-UNIX  remote computer with different file
	      naming conventions  or  practices.   Characters  in  a  filename
	      matching	a  character  in  inchars are replaced with the corre‐
	      sponding character in outchars.  If the character's position  in
	      inchars  is longer than the length of outchars, the character is
	      deleted from the file name.

       open host [port] [-forward]
	      Establish a connection to the specified  host  FTP  server.   An
	      optional	port  number  may be supplied, in which case, ftp will
	      attempt to contact an FTP server at that	port.	If  the	 auto-
	      authenticate option is on (default), ftp will attempt to authen‐
	      ticate to the FTP server by  sending  the	 AUTH  command,	 using
	      whichever	 authentication	 types	which  are  locally supported.
	      Once an authentication type is accepted, an authentication  pro‐
	      tocol  will proceed by issuing ADAT commands.  If the auto-login
	      option is on (default), ftp will also attempt  to	 automatically
	      log  the user in to the FTP server (see below).  If the -forward
	      option is specified, ftp will forward a copy of the user's  Ker‐
	      beros tickets to the remote host.

       passive
	      Toggle  passive data transfer mode.  In passive mode, the client
	      initiates the data connection by listening  on  the  data	 port.
	      Passive  mode  may  be necessary for operation from behind fire‐
	      walls which do not permit incoming connections.

       private
	      Set the protection level on data transfers to ``private''.  Data
	      transmissions  are  confidentiality  and	integrity protected by
	      encryption.  If no ADAT command succeeded, then the only	possi‐
	      ble level is ``clear''.

       prompt Toggle interactive prompting.  Interactive prompting occurs dur‐
	      ing multiple file transfers to allow  the	 user  to  selectively
	      retrieve or store files.	If prompting is turned off (default is
	      on), any mget or mput will transfer all files, and  any  mdelete
	      will delete all files.

       protect [protection-level]
	      Set  the protection level on data transfers to protection-level.
	      The valid protection levels are ``clear'' for  unprotected  data
	      transmissions,  ``safe''	for  data transmissions integrity pro‐
	      tected by	 cryptographic	checksum,  and	``private''  for  data
	      transmissions confidentiality and integrity protected by encryp‐
	      tion.  If no ADAT command	 succeeded,  then  the	only  possible
	      level is ``clear''.  If no level is specified, the current level
	      is printed.  The default protection level is ``clear''.

       proxy ftp-command
	      Execute an ftp command on a secondary control connection.	  This
	      command allows simultaneous connection to two remote ftp servers
	      for transferring files between the two servers.  The first proxy
	      command  should  be an open , to establish the secondary control
	      connection.  Enter the command "proxy ?" to see other  ftp  com‐
	      mands  executable	 on  the  secondary connection.	 The following
	      commands behave differently when prefaced by  proxy:  open  will
	      not  define new macros during the auto-login process, close will
	      not erase existing macro	definitions,  get  and	mget  transfer
	      files  from  the	host  on the primary control connection to the
	      host on the secondary control connection,	 and  put,  mput,  and
	      append  transfer	files  from  the host on the secondary control
	      connection to the host on the primary control connection.	 Third
	      party  file  transfers  depend  upon support of the ftp protocol
	      PASV command by the server on the secondary control connection.

       put local-file [remote-file]
	      Store a local file on the remote	machine.   If  remote-file  is
	      left  unspecified,  the local file name is used after processing
	      according to any ntrans or nmap settings in  naming  the	remote
	      file.  File transfer uses the current settings for type, format,
	      mode, and structure.

       pwd    Print the name of the current working directory  on  the	remote
	      machine.

       quit   A synonym for bye.

       quote arg1 [arg2] [...]
	      The  arguments  specified	 are sent, verbatim, to the remote FTP
	      server.

       recv remote-file [local-file]
	      A synonym for get.

       reget remote-file [local-file]
	      Reget acts like get, except that if  local-file  exists  and  is
	      smaller  than  remote-file,  local-file is presumed to be a par‐
	      tially transferred copy of remote-file and the transfer is  con‐
	      tinued from the apparent point of failure.  This command is use‐
	      ful when transferring very large files over  networks  that  are
	      prone to dropping connections.

       remotehelp [command-name]
	      Request  help  from the remote FTP server.  If a command-name is
	      specified it is supplied to the server as well.

       remotestatus [file-name]
	      With no arguments, show status of remote machine.	 If  file-name
	      is specified, show status of file-name on remote machine.

       rename [from] [to]
	      Rename the file from on the remote machine, to the file to.

       reset  Clear  reply  queue.  This command re-synchronizes command/reply
	      sequencing with the remote ftp server.  Resynchronization may be
	      necessary	 following  a  violation  of  the  ftp protocol by the
	      remote server.

       restart marker
	      Restart the immediately following get or put  at	the  indicated
	      marker.	On  UNIX systems, marker is usually a byte offset into
	      the file.

       rmdir directory-name
	      Delete a directory on the remote machine.

       runique
	      Toggle storing of files on the local system  with	 unique	 file‐
	      names.  If a file already exists with a name equal to the target
	      local filename for a get or mget command, a ".1" is appended  to
	      the  name.  If the resulting name matches another existing file,
	      a ".2" is appended to the original name.	If this	 process  con‐
	      tinues  up to ".99", an error message is printed, and the trans‐
	      fer does not take place.	The generated unique filename will  be
	      reported.	  Note that runique will not affect local files gener‐
	      ated from a shell command (see below).   The  default  value  is
	      off.

       safe   Set  the	protection  level on data transfers to ``safe''.  Data
	      transmissions are integrity-protected by cryptographic checksum.
	      If  no  ADAT  command succeeded, then the only possible level is
	      ``clear''.

       send local-file [remote-file]
	      A synonym for put.

       sendport
	      Toggle the use of PORT commands.	By default, ftp	 will  attempt
	      to  use  a  PORT command when establishing a connection for each
	      data transfer.  The use of PORT commands can prevent delays when
	      performing  multiple file transfers.  If the PORT command fails,
	      ftp will use the default data port.  When the use of  PORT  com‐
	      mands  is disabled, no attempt will be made to use PORT commands
	      for each data transfer.  This is useful for certain  FTP	imple‐
	      mentations which do ignore PORT commands but, incorrectly, indi‐
	      cate they've been accepted.

       site arg1 [arg2] [...]
	      The arguments specified are sent, verbatim, to  the  remote  FTP
	      server as a SITE command.

       size file-name
	      Return size of file-name on remote machine.

       status Show the current status of ftp.

       struct struct-name
	      Set  the	file  transfer	structure  to struct-name.  By default
	      ``stream'' structure is used.

       sunique
	      Toggle storing of files on  remote  machine  under  unique  file
	      names.  Remote ftp server must support ftp protocol STOU command
	      for successful completion.  The remote server will report unique
	      name.  Default value is off.

       system Show the type of operating system running on the remote machine.

       tenex  Set  the	file  transfer	type  to  that needed to talk to TENEX
	      machines.

       trace  Toggle packet tracing.

       type [type-name]
	      Set the file transfer type to type-name.	If no type  is	speci‐
	      fied,  the current type is printed.  The default type is network
	      ASCII.

       umask [newmask]
	      Set the default umask on the remote server to newmask.  If  new‐
	      mask is omitted, the current umask is printed.

       user user-name [password] [account]
	      Identify	yourself to the remote FTP server.  If the password is
	      not specified and the server requires it, ftp  will  prompt  the
	      user  for	 it (after disabling local echo).  If an account field
	      is not specified, and the FTP server requires it, the user  will
	      be  prompted  for	 it.   If  an  account	field is specified, an
	      account command will be relayed to the remote server  after  the
	      login sequence is completed if the remote server did not require
	      it for logging in.  Unless ftp is	 invoked  with	``auto-login''
	      disabled,	 this process is done automatically on initial connec‐
	      tion to the FTP server.

       verbose
	      Toggle verbose mode.  In verbose mode, all  responses  from  the
	      FTP  server  are displayed to the user.  In addition, if verbose
	      is on, when a file transfer completes, statistics regarding  the
	      efficiency of the transfer are reported.	By default, verbose is
	      on.

	? [command]
	      A synonym for help.

       Command arguments which have embedded spaces may be quoted  with	 quote
       `"' marks.

ABORTING A FILE TRANSFER
       To abort a file transfer, use the terminal interrupt key (usually Ctrl-
       C).  Sending transfers will be immediately halted.  Receiving transfers
       will  be	 halted	 by  sending a FTP protocol ABOR command to the remote
       server, and discarding any further data received.  The speed  at	 which
       this  is accomplished depends upon the remote server's support for ABOR
       processing.  If the remote server does not support the ABOR command, an
       `ftp>'  prompt  will  not  appear until the remote server has completed
       sending the requested file.

       The terminal interrupt key sequence will be ignored when ftp  has  com‐
       pleted  any  local  processing  and is awaiting a reply from the remote
       server.	A long delay in this mode may result from the ABOR  processing
       described  above,  or  from  unexpected	behavior by the remote server,
       including violations of the ftp protocol.  If the  delay	 results  from
       unexpected remote server behavior, the local ftp program must be killed
       by hand.

FILE NAMING CONVENTIONS
       Files specified as arguments to ftp commands are processed according to
       the following rules.

       1.     If the file name `-' is specified, stdin (for reading) or stdout
	      (for writing) is used.

       2.     If the first character of the file name is `|', the remainder of
	      the  argument is interpreted as a shell command.	Ftp then forks
	      a shell, using popen(3) with the argument	 supplied,  and	 reads
	      from  (writes to) stdout (stdin).	 If the shell command includes
	      spaces, the argument must be quoted; e.g.	  ``"  ls  -lt"''.   A
	      particularly useful example of this mechanism is: ``dir more''.

       3.     Failing the above checks, if ``globbing'' is enabled, local file
	      names are expanded according to the rules used in	 csh(1);  c.f.
	      the  glob	 command.   If	the ftp command expects a single local
	      file (.e.g.  put), only the  first  filename  generated  by  the
	      ``globbing'' operation is used.

       4.     For  mget	 commands and get commands with unspecified local file
	      names, the local filename is the remote filename, which  may  be
	      altered by a case, ntrans, or nmap setting.  The resulting file‐
	      name may then be altered if runique is on.

       5.     For mput commands and put commands with unspecified remote  file
	      names,  the  remote filename is the local filename, which may be
	      altered by a ntrans or nmap setting.  The resulting filename may
	      then be altered by the remote server if sunique is on.

FILE TRANSFER PARAMETERS
       The FTP specification specifies many parameters which may affect a file
       transfer.  The type  may	 be  one  of  ``ascii'',  ``image''  (binary),
       ``ebcdic'', and ``local byte size'' (mostly for PDP-10's and PDP-20's).
       Ftp supports the ascii and image types of  file	transfer,  plus	 local
       byte size 8 for tenex mode transfers.

       Ftp  supports  only  the default values for the remaining file transfer
       parameters: mode, form, and struct.

THE .netrc FILE
       The .netrc file contains login and initialization information  used  by
       the  auto-login process.	 It resides in the user's home directory.  The
       following tokens are recognized; they may be separated by spaces, tabs,
       or new-lines:

       machine name
	      Identify a remote machine name.  The auto-login process searches
	      the .netrc file for a machine  token  that  matches  the	remote
	      machine  specified on the ftp command line or as an open command
	      argument.	 Once a match is made, the  subsequent	.netrc	tokens
	      are  processed,  stopping	 when  the  end	 of file is reached or
	      another machine or a default token is encountered.

       default
	      This is the same as machine name except that default matches any
	      name.  There can be only one default token, and it must be after
	      all machine tokens.  This is normally used as:

		   default login anonymous password user@site

	      thereby  giving  the  user  automatic  anonymous	ftp  login  to
	      machines	not  specified	in  .netrc.  This can be overridden by
	      using the -n flag to disable auto-login.

       login name
	      Identify a user  on  the	remote	machine.   If  this  token  is
	      present,	the auto-login process will initiate a login using the
	      specified name.

       password string
	      Supply a password.  If this token	 is  present,  the  auto-login
	      process  will  supply  the specified string if the remote server
	      requires a password as part of the login process.	 Note that  if
	      this token is present in the .netrc file for any user other than
	      anonymous, ftp will abort the auto-login process if  the	.netrc
	      is readable by anyone besides the user.

       account string
	      Supply  an  additional  account  password.   If  this  token  is
	      present, the auto-login process will supply the specified string
	      if the remote server requires an additional account password, or
	      the auto-login process will initiate an ACCT command if it  does
	      not.

       macdef name
	      Define  a	 macro.	 This token functions like the ftp macdef com‐
	      mand functions.  A macro is defined with the specified name; its
	      contents	begin  with  the next .netrc line and continue until a
	      null line (consecutive new-line characters) is encountered.   If
	      a	 macro	named init is defined, it is automatically executed as
	      the last step in the auto-login process.

ENVIRONMENT
       Ftp utilizes the following environment variables.

       HOME   For default location of a .netrc file, if one exists.

       SHELL  For default shell.

SEE ALSO
       ftpd(8)

       Lunt, S. J., FTP Security Extensions, Internet Draft, November 1993.

HISTORY
       The ftp command appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
       Correct execution of many commands depends upon proper behavior by  the
       remote server.

       An  error in the treatment of carriage returns in the 4.2BSD ascii-mode
       transfer code has been corrected.  This correction may result in incor‐
       rect  transfers	of  binary  files to and from 4.2BSD servers using the
       ascii type.  Avoid this problem by using the binary image type.

									FTP(1)
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