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GETADDRINFO_A(3)	   Linux Programmer's Manual	      GETADDRINFO_A(3)

NAME
       getaddrinfo_a,  gai_suspend,  gai_error, gai_cancel - asynchronous net‐
       work address and service translation

SYNOPSIS
       #define _GNU_SOURCE	   /* See feature_test_macros(7) */
       #include <netdb.h>

       int getaddrinfo_a(int mode, struct gaicb *list[],
		       int nitems, struct sigevent *sevp);

       int gai_suspend(struct gaicb *list[], int nitems,
		       struct timespec *timeout);

       int gai_error(struct gaicb *req);

       int gai_cancel(struct gaicb *req);

       Link with -lanl.

DESCRIPTION
       The getaddrinfo_a() function performs the same task as  getaddrinfo(3),
       but  allows multiple name look-ups to be performed asynchronously, with
       optional notification on completion of look-up operations.

       The mode argument has one of the following values:

       GAI_WAIT
	      Perform the look-ups synchronously.  The call blocks  until  the
	      look-ups have completed.

       GAI_NOWAIT
	      Perform  the  look-ups asynchronously.  The call returns immedi‐
	      ately, and the requests are resolved in the background.  See the
	      discussion of the sevp argument below.

       The  array  list specifies the look-up requests to process.  The nitems
       argument specifies the number of elements in list.  The requested look-
       up  operations  are  started  in	 parallel.   NULL elements in list are
       ignored.	 Each request is described by a gaicb  structure,  defined  as
       follows:

	   struct gaicb {
	       const char	     *ar_name;
	       const char	     *ar_service;
	       const struct addrinfo *ar_request;
	       struct addrinfo	     *ar_result;
	   };

       The  elements  of  this structure correspond to the arguments of getad‐
       drinfo(3).  Thus, ar_name corresponds to the node argument and  ar_ser‐
       vice  to	 the service argument, identifying an Internet host and a ser‐
       vice.  The ar_request element corresponds to the hints argument, speci‐
       fying  the  criteria  for  selecting the returned socket address struc‐
       tures.  Finally, ar_result corresponds to the res argument; you do  not
       need  to initialize this element, it will be automatically set when the
       request is resolved.  The addrinfo structure referenced by the last two
       elements is described in getaddrinfo(3).

       When  mode  is  specified  as  GAI_NOWAIT, notifications about resolved
       requests can be obtained by employing the sigevent structure pointed to
       by  the	sevp argument.	For the definition and general details of this
       structure, see sigevent(7).  The sevp->sigev_notify field can have  the
       following values:

       SIGEV_NONE
	      Don't provide any notification.

       SIGEV_SIGNAL
	      When  a  look-up	completes, generate the signal sigev_signo for
	      the process.  See sigevent(7) for general details.  The  si_code
	      field of the siginfo_t structure will be set to SI_ASYNCNL.

       SIGEV_THREAD
	      When  a look-up completes, invoke sigev_notify_function as if it
	      were the start function of a new thread.	 See  sigevent(7)  for
	      details.

       For   SIGEV_SIGNAL   and	 SIGEV_THREAD,	it  may	 be  useful  to	 point
       sevp->sigev_value.sival_ptr to list.

       The gai_suspend() function suspends execution of	 the  calling  thread,
       waiting	for  the completion of one or more requests in the array list.
       The nitems argument specifies the size of the  array  list.   The  call
       blocks until one of the following occurs:

       *  One or more of the operations in list completes.

       *  The call is interrupted by a signal that is caught.

       *  The time interval specified in timeout elapses.  This argument spec‐
	  ifies a timeout in seconds plus nanoseconds  (see  nanosleep(2)  for
	  details  of  the  timespec structure).  If timeout is NULL, then the
	  call blocks indefinitely (until one of the events above occurs).

       No explicit indication of which request was  completed  is  given;  you
       must  determine	which  request(s)  have	 completed  by	iterating with
       gai_error() over the list of requests.

       The gai_error() function returns the status of the request req:	either
       EAI_INPROGRESS  if  the request was not completed yet, 0 if it was han‐
       dled successfully, or an	 error	code  if  the  request	could  not  be
       resolved.

       The  gai_cancel() function cancels the request req.  If the request has
       been canceled successfully, the error status of the request will be set
       to  EAI_CANCELLED  and  normal  asynchronous  notification will be per‐
       formed.	The request cannot be canceled if it is currently  being  pro‐
       cessed;	in  that case, it will be handled as if gai_cancel() has never
       been called.  If req is NULL, an attempt is made	 to  cancel  all  out‐
       standing requests that the process has made.

RETURN VALUE
       The getaddrinfo_a() function returns 0 if all of the requests have been
       enqueued successfully, or one of the following nonzero error codes:

       EAI_AGAIN
	      The resources necessary to enqueue the look-up requests were not
	      available.   The	application may check the error status of each
	      request to determine which ones failed.

       EAI_MEMORY
	      Out of memory.

       EAI_SYSTEM
	      mode is invalid.

       The gai_suspend() function returns 0 if at  least  one  of  the	listed
       requests	 has been completed.  Otherwise, it returns one of the follow‐
       ing nonzero error codes:

       EAI_AGAIN
	      The given timeout expired before any of the  requests  could  be
	      completed.

       EAI_ALLDONE
	      There were no actual requests given to the function.

       EAI_INTR
	      A signal has interrupted the function.  Note that this interrup‐
	      tion might have been caused by signal notification of some  com‐
	      pleted look-up request.

       The  gai_error()	 function  can return EAI_INPROGRESS for an unfinished
       look-up request, 0 for a successfully completed look-up	(as  described
       above),	one  of	 the  error  codes  that  could	 be returned by getad‐
       drinfo(3), or the error code EAI_CANCELLED if the request has been can‐
       celed explicitly before it could be finished.

       The gai_cancel() function can return one of these values:

       EAI_CANCELLED
	      The request has been canceled successfully.

       EAI_NOTCANCELLED
	      The request has not been canceled.

       EAI_ALLDONE
	      The request has already completed.

       The  gai_strerror(3)  function  translates these error codes to a human
       readable string, suitable for error reporting.

CONFORMING TO
       These functions are GNU extensions; they first  appeared	 in  glibc  in
       version 2.2.3.

NOTES
       The  interface  of  getaddrinfo_a() was modeled after the lio_listio(3)
       interface.

EXAMPLE
       Two examples are provided:  a  simple  example  that  resolves  several
       requests	 in parallel synchronously, and a complex example showing some
       of the asynchronous capabilities.

   Synchronous example
       The program below simply resolves several hostnames in parallel, giving
       a  speed-up  compared  to  resolving  the  hostnames sequentially using
       getaddrinfo(3).	The program might be used like this:

	   $ ./a.out ftp.us.kernel.org enoent.linuxfoundation.org gnu.cz
	   ftp.us.kernel.org: 128.30.2.36
	   enoent.linuxfoundation.org: Name or service not known
	   gnu.cz: 87.236.197.13

       Here is the program source code

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <netdb.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <string.h>

       int
       main(int argc, char *argv[])
       {
	   int i, ret;
	   struct gaicb *reqs[argc - 1];
	   char host[NI_MAXHOST];
	   struct addrinfo *res;

	   if (argc < 2) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "Usage: %s HOST...\n", argv[0]);
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	   }

	   for (i = 0; i < argc - 1; i++) {
	       reqs[i] = malloc(sizeof(*reqs[0]));
	       if (reqs[i] == NULL) {
		   perror("malloc");
		   exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	       }
	       memset(reqs[i], 0, sizeof(*reqs[0]));
	       reqs[i]->ar_name = argv[i + 1];
	   }

	   ret = getaddrinfo_a(GAI_WAIT, reqs, argc - 1, NULL);
	   if (ret != 0) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo_a() failed: %s\n",
		       gai_strerror(ret));
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	   }

	   for (i = 0; i < argc - 1; i++) {
	       printf("%s: ", reqs[i]->ar_name);
	       ret = gai_error(reqs[i]);
	       if (ret == 0) {
		   res = reqs[i]->ar_result;

		   ret = getnameinfo(res->ai_addr, res->ai_addrlen,
			   host, sizeof(host),
			   NULL, 0, NI_NUMERICHOST);
		   if (ret != 0) {
		       fprintf(stderr, "getnameinfo() failed: %s\n",
			       gai_strerror(ret));
		       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
		   }
		   puts(host);

	       } else {
		   puts(gai_strerror(ret));
	       }
	   }
	   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

   Asynchronous example
       This example shows a simple interactive getaddrinfo_a() front-end.  The
       notification facility is not demonstrated.

       An example session might look like this:

	   $ ./a.out
	   > a ftp.us.kernel.org enoent.linuxfoundation.org gnu.cz
	   > c 2
	   [2] gnu.cz: Request not canceled
	   > w 0 1
	   [00] ftp.us.kernel.org: Finished
	   > l
	   [00] ftp.us.kernel.org: 216.165.129.139
	   [01] enoent.linuxfoundation.org: Processing request in progress
	   [02] gnu.cz: 87.236.197.13
	   > l
	   [00] ftp.us.kernel.org: 216.165.129.139
	   [01] enoent.linuxfoundation.org: Name or service not known
	   [02] gnu.cz: 87.236.197.13

       The program source is as follows:

       #define _GNU_SOURCE
       #include <netdb.h>
       #include <stdio.h>
       #include <stdlib.h>
       #include <string.h>

       static struct gaicb **reqs = NULL;
       static int nreqs = 0;

       static char *
       getcmd(void)
       {
	   static char buf[256];

	   fputs("> ", stdout); fflush(stdout);
	   if (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), stdin) == NULL)
	       return NULL;

	   if (buf[strlen(buf) - 1] == '\n')
	       buf[strlen(buf) - 1] = 0;

	   return buf;
       }

       /* Add requests for specified hostnames */
       static void
       add_requests(void)
       {
	   int nreqs_base = nreqs;
	   char *host;
	   int ret;

	   while ((host = strtok(NULL, " "))) {
	       nreqs++;
	       reqs = realloc(reqs, nreqs * sizeof(reqs[0]));

	       reqs[nreqs - 1] = calloc(1, sizeof(*reqs[0]));
	       reqs[nreqs - 1]->ar_name = strdup(host);
	   }

	   /* Queue nreqs_base..nreqs requests. */

	   ret = getaddrinfo_a(GAI_NOWAIT, &reqs[nreqs_base],
			       nreqs - nreqs_base, NULL);
	   if (ret) {
	       fprintf(stderr, "getaddrinfo_a() failed: %s\n",
		       gai_strerror(ret));
	       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
	   }
       }

       /* Wait until at least one of specified requests completes */
       static void
       wait_requests(void)
       {
	   char *id;
	   int i, ret, n;
	   struct gaicb const **wait_reqs = calloc(nreqs, sizeof(*wait_reqs));
		       /* NULL elements are ignored by gai_suspend(). */

	   while ((id = strtok(NULL, " ")) != NULL) {
	       n = atoi(id);

	       if (n >= nreqs) {
		   printf("Bad request number: %s\n", id);
		   return;
	       }

	       wait_reqs[n] = reqs[n];
	   }

	   ret = gai_suspend(wait_reqs, nreqs, NULL);
	   if (ret) {
	       printf("gai_suspend(): %s\n", gai_strerror(ret));
	       return;
	   }

	   for (i = 0; i < nreqs; i++) {
	       if (wait_reqs[i] == NULL)
		   continue;

	       ret = gai_error(reqs[i]);
	       if (ret == EAI_INPROGRESS)
		   continue;

	       printf("[%02d] %s: %s\n", i, reqs[i]->ar_name,
		      ret == 0 ? "Finished" : gai_strerror(ret));
	   }
       }

       /* Cancel specified requests */
       static void
       cancel_requests(void)
       {
	   char *id;
	   int ret, n;

	   while ((id = strtok(NULL, " ")) != NULL) {
	       n = atoi(id);

	       if (n >= nreqs) {
		   printf("Bad request number: %s\n", id);
		   return;
	       }

	       ret = gai_cancel(reqs[n]);
	       printf("[%s] %s: %s\n", id, reqs[atoi(id)]->ar_name,
		      gai_strerror(ret));
	   }
       }

       /* List all requests */
       static void
       list_requests(void)
       {
	   int i, ret;
	   char host[NI_MAXHOST];
	   struct addrinfo *res;

	   for (i = 0; i < nreqs; i++) {
	       printf("[%02d] %s: ", i, reqs[i]->ar_name);
	       ret = gai_error(reqs[i]);

	       if (!ret) {
		   res = reqs[i]->ar_result;

		   ret = getnameinfo(res->ai_addr, res->ai_addrlen,
				     host, sizeof(host),
				     NULL, 0, NI_NUMERICHOST);
		   if (ret) {
		       fprintf(stderr, "getnameinfo() failed: %s\n",
			       gai_strerror(ret));
		       exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
		   }
		   puts(host);
	       } else {
		   puts(gai_strerror(ret));
	       }
	   }
       }

       int
       main(int argc, char *argv[])
       {
	   char *cmdline;
	   char *cmd;

	   while ((cmdline = getcmd()) != NULL) {
	       cmd = strtok(cmdline, " ");

	       if (cmd == NULL) {
		   list_requests();
	       } else {
		   switch (cmd[0]) {
		   case 'a':
		       add_requests();
		       break;
		   case 'w':
		       wait_requests();
		       break;
		   case 'c':
		       cancel_requests();
		       break;
		   case 'l':
		       list_requests();
		       break;
		   default:
		       fprintf(stderr, "Bad command: %c\n", cmd[0]);
		       break;
		   }
	       }
	   }
	   exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
       }

SEE ALSO
       getaddrinfo(3), inet(3), lio_listio(3), hostname(7), ip(7), sigevent(7)

COLOPHON
       This  page  is  part of release 3.54 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting  bugs,  can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU				  2010-09-27		      GETADDRINFO_A(3)
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