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gated(1M)							     gated(1M)

       gated - gateway routing daemon

       buffer_size] trace_options] config_file] [trace_file]

       is  a  routing  daemon  that  handles  multiple	routing	 protocols and
       replaces routed, egpup, and any routing daemon that  speaks  the	 HELLO
       routing protocol.  currently handles the RIP, BGP, EGP, HELLO, and OSPF
       routing protocols.  The process can be configured to perform all	 rout‐
       ing protocols or any subset of them (see below).

       The command-line options are:
       Specifies  a  buffer  size for the socket read/write buffer. The buffer
       size should not be less than one MB (megabyte) and  should  not	exceed
       the  available system memory. If this option is not specified, the buf‐
       fer size will be set to the available system memory.

       Specifies that the configuration file will be parsed for syntax errors
	      and then will exit.  will leave a dump file in if there were  no
	      errors.	does  not  need	 to be run as the superuser to use the
	      option but it may not be possible to read the kernel  forwarding
	      table  and interface configuration if not run as superuser.  The
	      option implies All trace_option  clauses	in  the	 configuration
	      file will be ignored.

       Specifies that the configuration file will just be parsed for syntax
	      errors.	will exit with a status 1 if there were any errors and
	      0 (zero) if there were not.  does not need  to  be  run  as  the
	      superuser	 to  use the option but it may not be possible to read
	      the kernel forwarding table and interface configuration  if  not
	      run as the superuser.

       Specifies that
	      will  not	 modify the kernel forwarding table.  This is used for
	      testing configurations with actual routing data.

       Specifies that
	      will not daemonize.  Normally, if tracing to stderr is not spec‐
	      ified will daemonize if the parent process ID is not that of the
	      initialization process (aka This allows the use of an method  of
	      invoking that does not have a PID of the initialization process.

       Specifies that
	      will  add	 routes	 to  the  kernel in the decreasing order of IP
	      addresses of gateways when there are multiple routes to a desti‐

       Specifies a comma separated list of
	      trace  options to be enabled on startup.	If no flags are speci‐
	      fied, is assumed.	 No space is allowed between this  option  and
	      it's arguments.

	      This  option must be used to trace events that take place before
	      the configuration file is parsed, such as determining the inter‐
	      face configuration and reading routes from the kernel.

	      See  the for valid trace options and a more detailed explanation
	      of tracing.

       Use an alternate config file.  By default,

	      Trace file in which to place trace information.

	      If a trace file is specified on the command line,	 or  no	 trace
	      flags  are specified on the command line, detaches from the ter‐
	      minal and runs in the background.	 If trace flags are  specified
	      without specifying a trace file, assumes that tracing is desired
	      to stderr and remains in the foreground.

   Signal Processing
       The following signals may be used to control

	      Re-read configuration.
			  A causes to reread the  configuration	 file.	 first
			  performs  a  clean-up of all allocated policy struc‐
			  tures.  All BGP and EGP peers are flagged for	 dele‐
			  tion and the configuration file is re-parsed.

			  If the re-parse is successful, any BGP and EGP peers
			  that are no longer in	 the  configuration  are  shut
			  down, and new peers are started.  attempts to deter‐
			  mine if changes to existing peers require a shutdown
			  and  restart.	 OSPF is not capable of reconfiguring;
			  it is shutdown and restarted during  a  reconfigura‐
			  tion. This may have an adverse impact on the routing

			  It should also be  possible  to  enable/disable  any
			  protocol without restarting

	      Snap-shot of current state.

			  The  current	state  of all tasks, timers, protocols
			  and tables are written to

			  On systems supporting this is done by forking a sub‐
			  process  to  dump the table information so as not to
			  impact routing functions.  On systems	 where	memory
			  management does not support copy-on-write, this will
			  cause the address space to be duplicated;  this  may
			  cause	 a noticeable impact on the system.  On system
			  not supporting the  main  process  immediately  pro‐
			  cesses the dump, which may impact routing functions.

	      Graceful shutdown.

			  On  receipt  of a attempts a graceful shutdown.  All
			  tasks and protocols are  asked  to  shutdown.	  Most
			  will	terminate immediately, the exception being EGP
			  peers which wait for confirmation.  It may be neces‐
			  sary	to repeat the once or twice if it this process
			  takes too long.

			  All protocol routes are removed  from	 the  kernel's
			  routing  table  on  receipt  of  a Interface routes,
			  routes with RTF_STATIC set (from the	route  command
			  where	 supported)  and static routes specifying will
			  remain.   To	terminate  with	 the  exterior	routes
			  intact, use

	      Toggle tracing.

			  On receipt of a will close the trace file.  A subse‐
			  quent will cause it to be reopened.  This will allow
			  the file to be moved regularly.

			  It  is  not  possible to use if a trace file has not
			  been specified, or tracing  is  being	 performed  to

	      Check for interface changes.

			  On  receipt  of  a  will rescan the kernel interface
			  list looking for changes.

       contains provisions for BGP protocol, but it  is	 not  officially  sup‐
       ported  by  HP  at  the	present	 time.	 Some  RIP  version 2 features
       (RFC1388) are not currently supported: MIB and route tag.  The optional
       OSPF version 2 (RFC1247) feature of TOS (type of service) based routing
       is not supported.   The route aggregation, generating  a	 more  general
       route from compressing the specific routes through the explicit config‐
       uration, is not supported in this release.

       was primarily developed by Cornell University which includes code  from
       the Regents of the University of California and the University of Mary‐

       This software and associated documentation  is  Copyright  1990,	 1991,
       1992 by Cornell University.

       gated.conf(4),  arp(1M),	 fork(2),  gdc(1M),  ifconfig(1M), netstat(1),
       ospf_monitor(1M), ripquery(1M),

       RFC 891	      DCN Local-Network Protocols (HELLO)
       RFC 904	      Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification
       RFC 1058	      Routing Information Protocol
       RFC 1163	      A Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
       RFC 1164	      Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Inter‐
       RFC 1247	      OSPF Specification, Version 2.


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