gated(1M)gated(1M)NAMEgated - gateway routing daemon
buffer_size] trace_options] config_file] [trace_file]
is a routing daemon that handles multiple routing protocols and
replaces routed, egpup, and any routing daemon that speaks the HELLO
routing protocol. currently handles the RIP, BGP, EGP, HELLO, and OSPF
routing protocols. The process can be configured to perform all rout‐
ing protocols or any subset of them (see below).
The command-line options are:
Specifies a buffer size for the socket read/write buffer. The buffer
size should not be less than one MB (megabyte) and should not exceed
the available system memory. If this option is not specified, the buf‐
fer size will be set to the available system memory.
Specifies that the configuration file will be parsed for syntax errors
and then will exit. will leave a dump file in if there were no
errors. does not need to be run as the superuser to use the
option but it may not be possible to read the kernel forwarding
table and interface configuration if not run as superuser. The
option implies All trace_option clauses in the configuration
file will be ignored.
Specifies that the configuration file will just be parsed for syntax
errors. will exit with a status 1 if there were any errors and
0 (zero) if there were not. does not need to be run as the
superuser to use the option but it may not be possible to read
the kernel forwarding table and interface configuration if not
run as the superuser.
will not modify the kernel forwarding table. This is used for
testing configurations with actual routing data.
will not daemonize. Normally, if tracing to stderr is not spec‐
ified will daemonize if the parent process ID is not that of the
initialization process (aka This allows the use of an method of
invoking that does not have a PID of the initialization process.
will add routes to the kernel in the decreasing order of IP
addresses of gateways when there are multiple routes to a desti‐
Specifies a comma separated list of
trace options to be enabled on startup. If no flags are speci‐
fied, is assumed. No space is allowed between this option and
This option must be used to trace events that take place before
the configuration file is parsed, such as determining the inter‐
face configuration and reading routes from the kernel.
See the for valid trace options and a more detailed explanation
Use an alternate config file. By default,
Trace file in which to place trace information.
If a trace file is specified on the command line, or no trace
flags are specified on the command line, detaches from the ter‐
minal and runs in the background. If trace flags are specified
without specifying a trace file, assumes that tracing is desired
to stderr and remains in the foreground.
The following signals may be used to control
A causes to reread the configuration file. first
performs a clean-up of all allocated policy struc‐
tures. All BGP and EGP peers are flagged for dele‐
tion and the configuration file is re-parsed.
If the re-parse is successful, any BGP and EGP peers
that are no longer in the configuration are shut
down, and new peers are started. attempts to deter‐
mine if changes to existing peers require a shutdown
and restart. OSPF is not capable of reconfiguring;
it is shutdown and restarted during a reconfigura‐
tion. This may have an adverse impact on the routing
It should also be possible to enable/disable any
protocol without restarting
Snap-shot of current state.
The current state of all tasks, timers, protocols
and tables are written to
On systems supporting this is done by forking a sub‐
process to dump the table information so as not to
impact routing functions. On systems where memory
management does not support copy-on-write, this will
cause the address space to be duplicated; this may
cause a noticeable impact on the system. On system
not supporting the main process immediately pro‐
cesses the dump, which may impact routing functions.
On receipt of a attempts a graceful shutdown. All
tasks and protocols are asked to shutdown. Most
will terminate immediately, the exception being EGP
peers which wait for confirmation. It may be neces‐
sary to repeat the once or twice if it this process
takes too long.
All protocol routes are removed from the kernel's
routing table on receipt of a Interface routes,
routes with RTF_STATIC set (from the route command
where supported) and static routes specifying will
remain. To terminate with the exterior routes
On receipt of a will close the trace file. A subse‐
quent will cause it to be reopened. This will allow
the file to be moved regularly.
It is not possible to use if a trace file has not
been specified, or tracing is being performed to
Check for interface changes.
On receipt of a will rescan the kernel interface
list looking for changes.
contains provisions for BGP protocol, but it is not officially sup‐
ported by HP at the present time. Some RIP version 2 features
(RFC1388) are not currently supported: MIB and route tag. The optional
OSPF version 2 (RFC1247) feature of TOS (type of service) based routing
is not supported. The route aggregation, generating a more general
route from compressing the specific routes through the explicit config‐
uration, is not supported in this release.
was primarily developed by Cornell University which includes code from
the Regents of the University of California and the University of Mary‐
This software and associated documentation is Copyright 1990, 1991,
1992 by Cornell University.
SEE ALSOgated.conf(4), arp(1M), fork(2), gdc(1M), ifconfig(1M), netstat(1),
RFC 891 DCN Local-Network Protocols (HELLO)
RFC 904 Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification
RFC 1058 Routing Information Protocol
RFC 1163 A Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)
RFC 1164 Application of the Border Gateway Protocol in the Inter‐
RFC 1247 OSPF Specification, Version 2.