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CC(1)				   GNU Tools				 CC(1)

NAME
       cc, g++ - GNU project C and C++ Compiler (v2 preliminary)

SYNOPSIS
       cc [option | filename ]...
       g++ [option | filename ]...

WARNING
       The information in this man page is an extract from the full documenta‐
       tion of the GNU C compiler, and	is  limited  to	 the  meaning  of  the
       options.	  This	man page is not kept up to date except when volunteers
       want to maintain it.

       For complete and current documentation, refer to the Info file `gcc' or
       the  manual  Using and Porting GNU CC (for version 2.0).	 Both are made
       from the Texinfo source file gcc.texinfo.

DESCRIPTION
       The C and C++ compilers	are  integrated.   Both	 process  input	 files
       through	one or more of four stages: preprocessing, compilation, assem‐
       bly, and linking.  Source filename suffixes identify  the  source  lan‐
       guage,  but which name you use for the compiler governs default assump‐
       tions:

       gcc    assumes preprocessed (.i) files are C and assumes C style	 link‐
	      ing.

       g++    assumes  preprocessed  (.i)  files are C++ and assumes C++ style
	      linking.

       Suffixes of source file names indicate the language and	kind  of  pro‐
       cessing to be done:

       .c     C source; preprocess, compile, assemble
       .C     C++ source; preprocess, compile, assemble
       .cc     C++ source; preprocess, compile, assemble
       .cxx	C++ source; preprocess, compile, assemble
       .m     Objective-C source; preprocess, compile, assemble
       .i     preprocessed C; compile, assemble
       .ii     preprocessed C++; compile, assemble
       .s     Assembler source; assemble
       .S     Assembler source; preprocess, assemble
       .h     Preprocessor file; not usually named on command line

       ??     Other (unrecognized) files passed to linker.
	    Common cases:
       .o     Object file
       .a     Archive file

       Linking	is  always the last stage unless you use one of the -c, -S, or
       -E options to avoid it (or unless compilation  errors  stop  the	 whole
       process).   For	the  link  stage, all .o files corresponding to source
       files, -l libraries, unrecognized filenames (including named .o	object
       files and .a archives) are passed to the linker in command-line order.

OPTIONS
       Options must be separate: `-dr' is quite different from `-d -r '.

       Most  `-f'  and	`-W'  options  have  two  contrary  forms:  -fname and
       -fno-name (or -Wname and -Wno-name). Only  the  non-default  forms  are
       shown here.

       Here  is	 a  summary of all the options, grouped by type.  Explanations
       are in the following sections.

       Overall Options
	      -c -S -E -o file -pipe -v -x language

       Language Options
	      -ansi -fall-virtual -fcond-mismatch -fdollars-in-identifiers
	      -fenum-int-equiv -fno-asm -fno-builtin -fno-strict-prototype
	      -fsigned-bitfields -fsigned-char -fthis-is-variable
	      -funsigned-bitfields -funsigned-char -fwritable-strings
	      -traditional -traditional-cpp -trigraphs

       Warning Options
	      -fsyntax-only -pedantic -pedantic-errors -w -W -Wall
	      -Waggregate-return -Wcast-align -Wcast-qual -Wcomment
	      -Wconversion -Wenum-clash -Werror -Wformat -Wid-clash-len
	      -Wimplicit -Winline -Wmissing-prototypes -Wparentheses
	      -Wpointer-arith -Wreturn-type -Wshadow -Wstrict-prototypes
	      -Wswitch -Wtraditional -Wtrigraphs -Wuninitialized -Wunused
	      -Wwrite-strings

       Debugging Options
	      -a -dletters -fpretend-float -g -gstabs -gdwarf -ggdb -gsdb -p
	      -pg -save-temps

       Optimization Options
	      -fcaller-saves -fcse-follow-jumps -fdelayed-branch
	      -felide-constructors -fexpensive-optimizations -ffloat-store
	      -fforce-addr -fforce-mem -finline -finline-functions
	      -fkeep-inline-functions -fmemoize-lookups -fno-default-inline
	      -fno-defer-pop -fno-function-cse -fomit-frame-pointer
	      -frerun-cse-after-loop -fschedule-insns -fschedule-insns2
	      -fstrength-reduce -fthread-jumps -funroll-all-loops
	      -funroll-loops -O -O2

       Preprocessor Options
	      -C -dD -dM -dN -Dmacro[=defn] -E -H -i file -M -MD -MM -MMD
	      -nostdinc -P -Umacro -undef

       Linker Options
	      -llibrary -nostdlib -static

       Directory Options
	      -Bprefix -Idir -I- -Ldir

       Target Options
	      -b  machine -V version

       Machine Dependent Options
	      M680x0 Options
	      -m68000 -m68020 -m68881 -mbitfield -mc68000 -mc68020 -mfpa
	      -mnobitfield -mrtd -mshort -msoft-float
	      VAX Options
	      -mg -mgnu -munix
	      SPARC Options
	      -mfpu -mno-epilogue
	      Convex Options
	      -margcount -mc1 -mc2 -mnoargcount
	      AMD29K Options
	      -m29000 -m29050 -mbw -mdw -mkernel-registers -mlarge -mnbw
	      -mnodw -msmall -mstack-check -muser-registers
	      M88K Options
	      -mbig-pic -mcheck-zero-division -mhandle-large-shift
	      -midentify-revision -mno-check-zero-division -mno-ocs-debug-info
	      -mno-ocs-frame-position -mno-optimize-arg-area -mno-underscores
	      -mocs-debug-info -mocs-frame-position -moptimize-arg-area
	      -mshort-data-num -msvr3 -msvr4 -mtrap-large-shift
	      -muse-div-instruction -mversion-03.00 -mwarn-passed-structs
	      RS6000 Options
	      -mfp-in-toc -mno-fop-in-toc
	      RT Options
	      -mcall-lib-mul -mfp-arg-in-fpregs -mfp-arg-in-gregs
	      -mfull-fp-blocks -mhc-struct-return -min-line-mul
	      -mminimum-fp-blocks -mnohc-struct-return
	      MIPS Options
	      -mcpu=cpu type -mips2 -mips3 -mint64 -mlong64 -mlonglong128
	      -mmips-as -mgas -mrnames -mno-rnames -mgpopt -mno-gpopt -mstats
	      -mno-stats -mmemcpy -mno-memcpy -mno-mips-tfile -mmips-tfile
	      -msoft-float -mhard-float -mabicalls -mno-abicalls -mhalf-pic
	      -mno-half-pic -G num
	      i386 Options
	      -m486 -mno486 -msoft-float

       Code Generation Options
	      +eN -fcall-saved-reg -fcall-used-reg -ffixed-reg -fno-common
	      -fno-gnu-binutils -fnonnull-objects -fpcc-struct-return -fpic
	      -fPIC -fshared-data -fshort-enums -fshort-double -fvolatile


OVERALL OPTIONS
       -x language
	      Specify explicitly the language for the  following  input	 files
	      (rather than choosing a default based on the file name suffix) .
	      This option applies to all following input files until the  next
	      `-x'  option.   Possible	values	of  language  are `c', `objec‐
	      tive-c', `c-header', `c++', `cpp-output', `assembler', and  `as‐
	      sembler-with-cpp'.

       -x none
	      Turn  off	 any  specification  of a language, so that subsequent
	      files are handled according to their file name suffixes (as they
	      are if `-x' has not been used at all).

       If  you	want only some of the four stages (preprocess, compile, assem‐
       ble, link), you can use `-x' (or filename suffixes) to tell  gcc	 where
       to  start,  and one of the options `-c', `-S', or `-E' to say where gcc
       is to stop.  Note that some combinations (for example,  `-x  cpp-output
       -E') instruct gcc to do nothing at all.

       -c     Compile or assemble the source files, but do not link.  The com‐
	      piler output is an object	 file  corresponding  to  each	source
	      file.

	      By  default, GCC makes the object file name for a source file by
	      replacing the suffix `.c', `.i', `.s', etc., with `.o'.  Use  -o
	      to select another name.

	      GCC  ignores any unrecognized input files (those that do not re‐
	      quire compilation or assembly) with the -c option.

       -S     Stop after the stage of compilation  proper;  do	not  assemble.
	      The  output is an assembler code file for each non-assembler in‐
	      put file specified.

	      By default, GCC makes the assembler file name for a source  file
	      by  replacing the suffix `.c', `.i', etc., with `.s'.  Use -o to
	      select another name.

	      GCC ignores any input files that don't require compilation.

       -E     Stop after the preprocessing stage;  do  not  run	 the  compiler
	      proper.	The  output is preprocessed source code, which is sent
	      to the standard output.

	      GCC ignores input files which don't require preprocessing.

       -o file
	       Place output in file file.  This applies to  whatever  sort  of
	      output  GCC  is  producing, whether it be an executable file, an
	      object file, an assembler file or preprocessed C code.

	      Since only one output file can be specified, it  does  not  make
	      sense  to	 use `-o' when compiling more than one input file, un‐
	      less you are producing an executable file as output.

	      If you do not specify `-o', the default is to put an  executable
	      file   in	  `a.out',  an	object	file  for  `source.suffix'  in
	      `source.o', its assembler file in `source.s',  and  all  prepro‐
	      cessed C source on the standard output.

       -v     Print  (on  the  standard error output) the commands executed to
	      run the stages of compilation.  Also print the version number of
	      the compiler driver program and of the preprocessor and the com‐
	      piler proper.

       -pipe  Use pipes rather than temporary files for communication  between
	      the  various  stages of compilation.  This fails to work on some
	      systems where the assembler cannot read from a pipe; but the GNU
	      assembler has no trouble.

LANGUAGE OPTIONS
       The  following  options	control the dialect of C that the compiler ac‐
       cepts:

       -ansi  Support all ANSI standard C programs.

	      This turns off certain features of GNU C that  are  incompatible
	      with  ANSI  C,  such as the asm, inline and typeof keywords, and
	      predefined macros such as unix and vax that identify the type of
	      system  you  are	using.	 It  also  enables the undesirable and
	      rarely used ANSI trigraph feature, and  makes  the  preprocessor
	      accept `$' as part of identifiers.

	      The  alternate  keywords	__asm__, __extension__, __inline__ and
	      __typeof__ continue to work despite `-ansi'.  You would not want
	      to use them in an ANSI C program, of course, but it is useful to
	      put them in header files that might be included in  compilations
	      done with `-ansi'.  Alternate predefined macros such as __unix__
	      and __vax__ are also available, with or without `-ansi'.

	      The `-ansi' option does not cause non-ANSI programs  to  be  re‐
	      jected gratuitously.  For that, `-pedantic' is required in addi‐
	      tion to `-ansi'.

	      The preprocessor predefines a macro __STRICT_ANSI__ when you use
	      the `-ansi' option.  Some header files may notice this macro and
	      refrain from declaring certain  functions	 or  defining  certain
	      macros that the ANSI standard doesn't call for; this is to avoid
	      interfering with any programs that might	use  these  names  for
	      other things.

       -fno-asm
	      Do  not  recognize  asm,	inline	or typeof as a keyword.	 These
	      words may then be used as identifiers.   You  can	 use  __asm__,
	      __inline__ and __typeof__ instead.  `-ansi' implies `-fno-asm'.

       -fno-builtin
	      (Ignored for C++.)  Don't recognize non-ANSI built-in functions.
	      `-ansi' also has this effect. Currently, the only	 function  af‐
	      fected is alloca.

       -fno-strict-prototype
	      (C++ only.)  Consider the declaration int foo ();.  In C++, this
	      means that the function foo takes no arguments.  In ANSI C, this
	      is  declared  int foo(void);.  With the flag `-fno-strict-proto‐
	      type', declaring functions with no arguments  is	equivalent  to
	      declaring	 its argument list to be untyped, i.e., int foo (); is
	      equivalent to saying int foo (...);.

       -trigraphs
	      Support ANSI C trigraphs.	 The  `-ansi'  option  implies	`-tri‐
	      graphs'.

       -traditional
	      Attempt to support some aspects of traditional C compilers.  For
	      details, see the GNU C Manual; the duplicate list here has  been
	      deleted so that we won't get complaints when it is out of date.

	      But  one	note  about C++ programs only (not C).	`-traditional'
	      has one additional effect for C++: assignment to this is permit‐
	      ted.  This is the same as the effect of `-fthis-is-variable'.

       -traditional-cpp
	      Attempt  to support some aspects of traditional C preprocessors.
	      This includes the items that specifically mention the preproces‐
	      sor above, but none of the other effects of `-traditional'.

       -fdollars-in-identifiers
	      (C++ only.)  Permit the use of `$' in identifiers.   (For GNU C,
	      this is the default, and you can forbid it with `-ansi'.)	  Tra‐
	      ditional	C  allowed  the	 character `$' to form part of identi‐
	      fiers; by default, GNU C also allows this.  However, ANSI C for‐
	      bids  `$' in identifiers, and GNU C++ also forbids it by default
	      on most platforms (though on some platforms it's enabled by  de‐
	      fault for GNU C++ as well).

       -fenum-int-equiv
	      (C++  only.)  Normally GNU C++ allows conversion of enum to int,
	      but not the other way around.  Use this option if you  want  GNU
	      C++ to allow conversion of int to enum as well.

       -fall-virtual
	      (C++  only.)  When you use the `-fall-virtual', all member func‐
	      tions (except for constructor functions  and  new/delete	member
	      operators) declared in the same class with a ``method-call'' op‐
	      erator method are treated as  virtual  functions	of  the	 given
	      class.  In effect, all of these methods become ``implicitly vir‐
	      tual.''

	      This does not mean that all calls to these methods will be  made
	      through the internal table of virtual functions.	There are some
	      circumstances under which it is obvious that a call to  a	 given
	      virtual  function	 can  be made directly, and in these cases the
	      calls still go direct.

	      The effect of making all methods of a class with a declared `op‐
	      erator->()()'  implicitly	 virtual using `-fall-virtual' extends
	      also to all non-constructor methods of any  class	 derived  from
	      such a class.

       -fcond-mismatch
	      Allow  conditional expressions with mismatched types in the sec‐
	      ond and third arguments.	The value of  such  an	expression  is
	      void.

       -fthis-is-variable
	      (C++  only.)   The incorporation of user-defined free store man‐
	      agement into C++ has made assignment  to	this  an  anachronism.
	      Therefore,  by default GNU C++ treats the type of this in a mem‐
	      ber function of class X to be X *const.  In other words,	it  is
	      illegal  to assign to this within a class member function.  How‐
	      ever, for backwards compatibility, you can invoke the old behav‐
	      ior by using `-fthis-is-variable'.

       -funsigned-char
	      Let the type char be unsigned, like unsigned char.

	      Each  kind of machine has a default for what char should be.  It
	      is either like unsigned char by default or like signed  char  by
	      default.

	      Ideally, a portable program should always use signed char or un‐
	      signed char when it depends on the signedness of an object.  But
	      many  programs have been written to use plain char and expect it
	      to be signed, or expect it to be unsigned, depending on the  ma‐
	      chines they were written for.  This option, and its inverse, let
	      you make such a program work with the opposite default.

	      The type char is always a distinct type from each of signed char
	      and  unsigned char, even though its behavior is always just like
	      one of those two.

       -fsigned-char
	      Let the type char be signed, like signed char.
	      Note that this is equivalent to `-fno-unsigned-char',  which  is
	      the    negative	 form	 of    `-funsigned-char'.    Likewise,
	      `-fno-signed-char' is equivalent to `-funsigned-char'.

       -fsigned-bitfields

       -funsigned-bitfields

       -fno-signed-bitfields

       -fno-unsigned-bitfields
	      These options control whether a bitfield is signed or  unsigned,
	      when declared with no explicit `signed' or `unsigned' qualifier.
	      By default, such a bitfield is signed, because this  is  consis‐
	      tent: the basic integer types such as int are signed types.

	      However,	when you specify `-traditional', bitfields are all un‐
	      signed no matter what.

       -fwritable-strings
	      Store string constants in the writable data  segment  and	 don't
	      uniquize	them.	This  is  for  compatibility with old programs
	      which assume they can write into string constants.  `-tradition‐
	      al' also has this effect.

	      Writing  into string constants is a very bad idea; ``constants''
	      should be constant.

PREPROCESSOR OPTIONS
       These options control the C preprocessor, which is run on each C source
       file before actual compilation.

       If  you	use  the  `-E'	option, GCC does nothing except preprocessing.
       Some of these options make sense only together with `-E'	 because  they
       cause the preprocessor output to be unsuitable for actual compilation.

       -i file
		Process file as input, discarding the resulting output, before
	      processing the regular input file.  Because the output generated
	      from  file is discarded, the only effect of `-i file' is to make
	      the macros defined in file available for use in the main	input.
	      The preprocessor evaluates any `-D' and `-U' options on the com‐
	      mand line before processing `-i' file.

       -nostdinc
	      Do not search the standard system directories for header	files.
	      Only  the	 directories you have specified with `-I' options (and
	      the current directory, if appropriate) are searched.
	      By using both `-nostdinc' and `-I-', you can limit the  include-
	      file search file to only those directories you specify explicit‐
	      ly.

       -undef Do not predefine any nonstandard macros.	 (Including  architec‐
	      ture flags).

       -E     Run  only the C preprocessor.  Preprocess all the C source files
	      specified and output the results to the standard	output	or  to
	      the specified output file.

       -C     Tell  the	 preprocessor  not to discard comments.	 Used with the
	      `-E' option.

       -P     Tell the preprocessor not to generate  `#line'  commands.	  Used
	      with the `-E' option.

       -M     Tell  the	 preprocessor  to  output a rule suitable for make de‐
	      scribing the dependencies of each object file.  For each	source
	      file, the preprocessor outputs one make-rule whose target is the
	      object file name for that source file and whose dependencies are
	      all the files `#include'd in it.	This rule may be a single line
	      or may be continued with `\newline if it is long.	 The  list  of
	      rules  is	 printed on the standard output instead of the prepro‐
	      cessed C program.
	      `-M' implies `-E'.

       -MM    Like `-M' but the output mentions only the user header files in‐
	      cluded with `#include file"'.  System header files included with
	      `#include <file>' are omitted.

       -MD    Like `-M' but the dependency information	is  written  to	 files
	      with  names  made	 by replacing `.c' with `.d' at the end of the
	      input file names.	 This is in addition to compiling the file  as
	      specified—`-MD'  does  not  inhibit ordinary compilation the way
	      `-M' does.
	      The Mach utility `md' can be used to merge the `.d' files into a
	      single  dependency  file suitable for using with the `make' com‐
	      mand.

       -MMD   Like `-MD' except mention only user  header  files,  not	system
	      header files.

       -H     Print  the  name	of each header file used, in addition to other
	      normal activities.

       -Dmacro
	      Define macro macro with the string `1' as its definition.

       -Dmacro=defn
	      Define macro macro as defn.    All instances of `-D' on the com‐
	      mand line are processed before any `-U' or `-i' options.

       -Umacro
	      Undefine macro macro.  `-U' options are evaluated after all `-D'
	      options, but before any `-i' options.

       -dM    Tell the preprocessor to output only a list of the macro defini‐
	      tions that are in effect at the end of preprocessing.  Used with
	      the `-E' option.

       -dD    Tell the preprocessing to pass all macro	definitions  into  the
	      output, in their proper sequence in the rest of the output.

       -dN    Like  `-dD'  except  that	 the  macro arguments and contents are
	      omitted.	Only `#define name' is included in the output.

LINKER OPTIONS
       These options come into play when the compiler links object files  into
       an executable output file.  They are meaningless if the compiler is not
       doing a link step.

       object-file-name
	      A file name that does not end in a special recognized suffix  is
	      considered to name an object file or library.  (Object files are
	      distinguished from libraries by the linker according to the file
	      contents.)  If GCC does a link step, these object files are used
	      as input to the linker.

       -llibrary
	       Use the library named library when linking.

	      The linker searches a standard list of directories for  the  li‐
	      brary, which is actually a file named `liblibrary.a'.  The link‐
	      er then uses this file as if it had been specified precisely  by
	      name.

	      The  directories searched include several standard system direc‐
	      tories plus any that you specify with `-L'.

	      Normally the files found	this  way  are	library	 files—archive
	      files whose members are object files.  The linker handles an ar‐
	      chive file by scanning through it for members which define  sym‐
	      bols that have so far been referenced but not defined.  However,
	      if the linker finds an ordinary object file rather  than	a  li‐
	      brary, the object file is linked in the usual fashion.  The only
	      difference between using an `-l' option and  specifying  a  file
	      name  is	that  `-l'  surrounds  library with `lib' and `.a' and
	      searches several directories.

       -nostdlib
	      Don't use the standard system libraries and startup  files  when
	      linking.	Only the files you specify will be passed to the link‐
	      er.

       -static
	      On systems that support dynamic linking, this  prevents  linking
	      with the shared libraries.  On other systems, this option has no
	      effect.

DIRECTORY OPTIONS
       These options specify directories to search for header files,  for  li‐
       braries and for parts of the compiler:

       -Idir	Append	directory  dir to the list of directories searched for
	      include files.

       -I-    Any directories you specify with `-I' options before  the	 `-I-'
	      option are searched only for the case of `#include "file"'; they
	      are not searched for `#include <file>'.

	      If additional directories are specified with `-I' options	 after
	      the `-I-', these directories are searched for all `#include' di‐
	      rectives.	 (Ordinarily all `-I' directories are used this way.)

	      In addition, the `-I-' option inhibits the use  of  the  current
	      directory	 (where the current input file came from) as the first
	      search directory for `#include "file"'.	There  is  no  way  to
	      override	this  effect  of  `-I-'.   With	 `-I.' you can specify
	      searching the directory which was current when the compiler  was
	      invoked.	 That is not exactly the same as what the preprocessor
	      does by default, but it is often satisfactory.

	      `-I-' does not inhibit the use of the standard  system  directo‐
	      ries for header files.  Thus, `-I-' and `-nostdinc' are indepen‐
	      dent.

       -Ldir   Add directory dir to the list of directories to be searched for
	      `-l'.

       -Bprefix
		This option specifies where to find the executables, libraries
	      and data files of the compiler itself.

	      The compiler driver program runs one or more of the  subprograms
	      `cpp',  `cc1' (or, for C++, `cc1plus'), `as' and `ld'.  It tries
	      prefix as a prefix for each program it tries to run,  both  with
	      and without `machine/version/'.

	      For  each	 subprogram to be run, the compiler driver first tries
	      the `-B' prefix, if any.	If that name is not found, or if  `-B'
	      was not specified, the driver tries two standard prefixes, which
	      are `/usr/lib/gcc/' and `/usr/local/lib/gcc-lib/'.   If  neither
	      of  those	 results  in  a	 file name that is found, the compiler
	      driver searches for the unmodified program name, using  the  di‐
	      rectories specified in your `PATH' environment variable.

	      The  run-time support file `libgcc.a' is also searched for using
	      the `-B' prefix, if needed.  If it is not found there,  the  two
	      standard prefixes above are tried, and that is all.  The file is
	      left out of the link if it is not found by those means.  Most of
	      the  time,  on  most machines, `libgcc.a' is not actually neces‐
	      sary.

	      You can get a  similar  result  from  the	 environment  variable
	      GCC_EXEC_PREFIX; if it is defined, its value is used as a prefix
	      in the same way.	If both the `-B' option and the	 GCC_EXEC_PRE‐
	      FIX  variable are present, the `-B' option is used first and the
	      environment variable value second.

WARNING OPTIONS
       Warnings are diagnostic messages that report  constructions  which  are
       not  inherently erroneous but which are risky or suggest there may have
       been an error.

       These options control the amount and kinds of warnings produced by  GNU
       CC:

       -fsyntax-only
	      Check the code for syntax errors, but don't emit any output.

       -w     Inhibit all warning messages.

       -pedantic
	      Issue  all  the warnings demanded by strict ANSI standard C; re‐
	      ject all programs that use forbidden extensions.

	      Valid ANSI standard C programs should compile properly  with  or
	      without  this  option  (though a rare few will require `-ansi').
	      However, without this option, certain GNU extensions and	tradi‐
	      tional C features are supported as well.	With this option, they
	      are rejected.  There is no reason to use this option; it	exists
	      only to satisfy pedants.

	      `-pedantic'  does	 not cause warning messages for use of the al‐
	      ternate keywords whose names begin and end with `__'.   Pedantic
	      warnings	are also disabled in the expression that follows __ex‐
	      tension__.  However, only system header files should  use	 these
	      escape routes; application programs should avoid them.

       -pedantic-errors
	      Like  `-pedantic',  except  that errors are produced rather than
	      warnings.

       -W     Print extra warning messages for these events:

	  ·   A nonvolatile automatic variable might be changed by a  call  to
	      longjmp.	 These warnings are possible only in optimizing compi‐
	      lation.

	      The compiler sees only the calls	to  setjmp.   It  cannot  know
	      where  longjmp  will  be called; in fact, a signal handler could
	      call it at any point in the code.	 As a result, you  may	get  a
	      warning  even  when  there is in fact no problem because longjmp
	      cannot in fact be called at the place which would cause a	 prob‐
	      lem.

	  ·   A	 function can return either with or without a value.  (Falling
	      off the end of the function body is considered returning without
	      a	 value.)   For example, this function would evoke such a warn‐
	      ing:

	      foo (a)
	      {
		if (a > 0)
		  return a;
	      }

	      Spurious warnings can occur because GNU CC does not realize that
	      certain  functions  (including abort and longjmp) will never re‐
	      turn.

	  ·   An expression-statement contains no side effects.

	  ·   An unsigned value is compared against zero with `>' or `<='.

       -Wimplicit
	      Warn whenever a function or parameter is implicitly declared.

       -Wreturn-type
	      Warn whenever a function is defined with a return-type that  de‐
	      faults to int.  Also warn about any return statement with no re‐
	      turn-value in a function whose return-type is not void.

       -Wunused
	      Warn whenever a local variable is unused aside from its declara‐
	      tion,  whenever a function is declared static but never defined,
	      and whenever a statement computes a result  that	is  explicitly
	      not used.

       -Wswitch
	      Warn  whenever  a switch statement has an index of enumeral type
	      and lacks a case for one or more of the named codes of that enu‐
	      meration.	  (The presence of a default label prevents this warn‐
	      ing.)  case labels outside the enumeration  range	 also  provoke
	      warnings when this option is used.

       -Wcomment
	      Warn  whenever  a	 comment-start sequence `/*' appears in a com‐
	      ment.

       -Wtrigraphs
	      Warn if any trigraphs are encountered  (assuming	they  are  en‐
	      abled).

       -Wformat
	      Check calls to printf and scanf, etc., to make sure that the ar‐
	      guments supplied have types appropriate  to  the	format	string
	      specified.

       -Wuninitialized
	      An automatic variable is used without first being initialized.

	      These  warnings are possible only in optimizing compilation, be‐
	      cause they require data flow information that is	computed  only
	      when  optimizing.	  If  you don't specify `-O', you simply won't
	      get these warnings.

	      These warnings occur only for variables that are candidates  for
	      register	allocation.   Therefore, they do not occur for a vari‐
	      able that is declared volatile, or whose address	is  taken,  or
	      whose  size is other than 1, 2, 4 or 8 bytes.  Also, they do not
	      occur for structures, unions or arrays, even when	 they  are  in
	      registers.

	      Note  that there may be no warning about a variable that is used
	      only to compute a value that itself is never used, because  such
	      computations  may	 be  deleted  by data flow analysis before the
	      warnings are printed.

	      These warnings are made optional because GNU  CC	is  not	 smart
	      enough  to see all the reasons why the code might be correct de‐
	      spite appearing to have an error.	 Here is one  example  of  how
	      this can happen:

	      {
		int x;
		switch (y)
		  {
		  case 1: x = 1;
		    break;
		  case 2: x = 4;
		    break;
		  case 3: x = 5;
		  }
		foo (x);
	      }

	      If the value of y is always 1, 2 or 3, then x is always initial‐
	      ized, but GNU CC doesn't know  this.   Here  is  another	common
	      case:

	      {
		int save_y;
		if (change_y) save_y = y, y = new_y;
		...
		if (change_y) y = save_y;
	      }

	      This has no bug because save_y is used only if it is set.

	      Some spurious warnings can be avoided if you declare as volatile
	      all the functions you use that never return.

       -Wparentheses
	      Warn if parentheses are omitted in certain contexts.

       -Wall  All of the above `-W' options combined.  These are all  the  op‐
	      tions which pertain to usage that we recommend avoiding and that
	      we believe are easy to avoid, even in conjunction with macros.

       The remaining `-W...' options are not implied by `-Wall'	 because  they
       warn  about  constructions that we consider reasonable to use, on occa‐
       sion, in clean programs.

       -Wtraditional
	      Warn about certain constructs that behave differently in	tradi‐
	      tional and ANSI C.

	  ·   Macro  arguments	occurring within string constants in the macro
	      body.  These would substitute the argument in traditional C, but
	      are part of the constant in ANSI C.

	  ·   A	 function  declared  external in one block and then used after
	      the end of the block.

	  ·   A switch statement has an operand of type long.

       -Wshadow
	      Warn whenever a local variable shadows another local variable.

       -Wid-clash-len
	       Warn whenever two distinct identifiers match in the  first  len
	      characters.   This may help you prepare a program that will com‐
	      pile with certain obsolete, brain-damaged compilers.

       -Wpointer-arith
	      Warn about anything that depends on the ``size of''  a  function
	      type  or	of  void.   GNU C assigns these types a size of 1, for
	      convenience in calculations with void * pointers and pointers to
	      functions.

       -Wcast-qual
	      Warn whenever a pointer is cast so as to remove a type qualifier
	      from the target type.  For example, warn if a const  char	 *  is
	      cast to an ordinary char *.

       -Wcast-align
	      Warn whenever a pointer is cast such that the required alignment
	      of the target is increased.  For example, warn if a  char	 *  is
	      cast to an int * on machines where integers can only be accessed
	      at two- or four-byte boundaries.

       -Wwrite-strings
	      Give string constants the type const char[length] so that	 copy‐
	      ing  the address of one into a non-const char * pointer will get
	      a warning.  These warnings will help you find  at	 compile  time
	      code  that  can try to write into a string constant, but only if
	      you have been very careful about using const in declarations and
	      prototypes.   Otherwise, it will just be a nuisance; this is why
	      we did not make `-Wall' request these warnings.

       -Wconversion
	      Warn if a prototype causes a type conversion that	 is  different
	      from  what would happen to the same argument in the absence of a
	      prototype.  This includes conversions of fixed point to floating
	      and vice versa, and conversions changing the width or signedness
	      of a fixed point argument except when the same  as  the  default
	      promotion.

       -Waggregate-return
	      Warn  if	any functions that return structures or unions are de‐
	      fined or called.	(In languages where you can return  an	array,
	      this also elicits a warning.)

       -Wstrict-prototypes
	      Warn if a function is declared or defined without specifying the
	      argument types.  (An old-style function definition is  permitted
	      without  a  warning if preceded by a declaration which specifies
	      the argument types.)

       -Wmissing-prototypes
	      Warn if a global function is defined without a  previous	proto‐
	      type declaration.	 This warning is issued even if the definition
	      itself provides a prototype.  The aim is to detect global	 func‐
	      tions that fail to be declared in header files.

       -Wenum-clash
	      (C++  only.)  Warn when converting between different enumeration
	      types.

       -Woverloaded-virtual
	      (C++ only.)  In a derived	 class,	 the  definitions  of  virtual
	      functions	 must  match  the type signature of a virtual function
	      declared in the base class.  Use this option to request warnings
	      when  a  derived	class declares a function that may be an erro‐
	      neous attempt to define a virtual function: that is, warn when a
	      function	with  the  same name as a virtual function in the base
	      class, but with a type signature that doesn't match any  virtual
	      functions from the base class.

       -Winline
	      Warn  if	a  function  can not be inlined, and either it was de‐
	      clared as inline, or else the -finline-functions option was giv‐
	      en.

       -Werror
	      Treat warnings as errors; abort compilation after any warning.

DEBUGGING OPTIONS
       GNU  CC	has various special options that are used for debugging either
       your program or GCC:

       -g     Produce debugging information in the operating  system's	native
	      format  (for  DBX or SDB or DWARF).  GDB also can work with this
	      debugging information.  On most systems  that  use  DBX  format,
	      `-g'  enables  use  of extra debugging information that only GDB
	      can use; if you want to control for certain whether to  generate
	      this information, use `-ggdb' or `-gdbx'.

	      Unlike  most  other  C  compilers, GNU CC allows you to use `-g'
	      with `-O'.  The shortcuts taken by optimized code may  occasion‐
	      ally produce surprising results: some variables you declared may
	      not exist at all; flow of control may briefly move where you did
	      not  expect it; some statements may not be executed because they
	      compute constant results or their values were already  at	 hand;
	      some  statements	may  execute  in different places because they
	      were moved out of loops.

	      Nevertheless it proves possible to debug optimized output.  This
	      makes it reasonable to use the optimizer for programs that might
	      have bugs.

	      The following options are useful when GNU CC is  configured  and
	      compiled with the capability for more than one debugging format.

       -ggdb  Produce debugging information in DBX format (if that is support‐
	      ed), including GDB extensions.

       -gdbx  Produce debugging information in DBX format (if that is support‐
	      ed), without GDB extensions.

       -gsdb  Produce debugging information in SDB format (if that is support‐
	      ed).

       -gdwarf
	      Produce debugging information in DWARF format (if that  is  sup‐
	      ported).

       -glevel
       -ggdblevel
       -gdbxlevel
       -gsdblevel

       -gdwarflevel
	      Request  debugging information and also use level to specify how
	      much information.	 The default level is 2.

	      Level 1 produces minimal information, enough  for	 making	 back‐
	      traces  in  parts	 of  the program that you don't plan to debug.
	      This includes descriptions of functions and external  variables,
	      but no information about local variables and no line numbers.

       -p     Generate	extra  code  to write profile information suitable for
	      the analysis program prof.

       -pg    Generate extra code to write profile  information	 suitable  for
	      the analysis program gprof.

       -a     Generate	extra  code  to	 write	profile	 information for basic
	      blocks, which will record the number of times each  basic	 block
	      is  executed.   This  data  could	 be analyzed by a program like
	      tcov.  Note, however, that the format of the data	 is  not  what
	      tcov  expects.   Eventually  GNU	gprof  should  be  extended to
	      process this data.

       -dletters
	       Says to make debugging dumps during compilation at times speci‐
	      fied  by letters.	 This is used for debugging the compiler.  The
	      file names for most of the dumps are made by appending a word to
	      the source file name (e.g.,  `foo.c.rtl' or `foo.c.jump').

       -dM    Dump  all	 macro	definitions,  at the end of preprocessing, and
	      write no output.

       -dN    Dump all macro names, at the end of preprocessing.

       -dD    Dump all macro definitions, at the end of preprocessing, in  ad‐
	      dition to normal output.

       -dy    Dump  debugging  information during parsing, to the standard er‐
	      ror.

       -dr    Dump after RTL generation, to `file.rtl'.

       -dx    Just generate RTL for a function instead of compiling it.	  Usu‐
	      ally used with `r'.

       -dj    Dump after first jump optimization, to `file.jump'.

       -ds    Dump  after  CSE (including the jump optimization that sometimes
	      follows CSE), to `file.cse'.

       -dL    Dump after loop optimization, to `file.loop'.

       -dt    Dump after the second CSE pass (including the jump  optimization
	      that sometimes follows CSE), to `file.cse2'.

       -df    Dump after flow analysis, to `file.flow'.

       -dc    Dump after instruction combination, to `file.combine'.

       -dS    Dump   after   the   first   instruction	 scheduling  pass,  to
	      `file.sched'.

       -dl    Dump after local register allocation, to `file.lreg'.

       -dg    Dump after global register allocation, to `file.greg'.

       -dR    Dump  after  the	second	 instruction   scheduling   pass,   to
	      `file.sched2'.

       -dJ    Dump after last jump optimization, to `file.jump2'.

       -dd    Dump after delayed branch scheduling, to `file.dbr'.

       -dk    Dump after conversion from registers to stack, to `file.stack'.

       -dm    Print  statistics on memory usage, at the end of the run, to the
	      standard error.

       -dp    Annotate the assembler output with a  comment  indicating	 which
	      pattern and alternative was used.

       -fpretend-float
	      When  running  a cross-compiler, pretend that the target machine
	      uses the same floating point format as the host  machine.	  This
	      causes  incorrect	 output	 of the actual floating constants, but
	      the actual instruction sequence will probably be the same as GNU
	      CC would make when running on the target machine.

       -save-temps
	      Store  the  usual	 ``temporary'' intermediate files permanently;
	      place them in the current directory and name them based  on  the
	      source  file.   Thus,  compiling	`foo.c'	 with `-c -save-temps'
	      would produce files `foo.cpp' and `foo.s', as well as `foo.o'.

OPTIMIZATION OPTIONS
       These options control various sorts of optimizations:

       -O     Optimize.	 Optimizing compilation takes somewhat more time,  and
	      a lot more memory for a large function.

	      Without  `-O', the compiler's goal is to reduce the cost of com‐
	      pilation and to make debugging  produce  the  expected  results.
	      Statements  are  independent:  if	 you  stop  the program with a
	      breakpoint between statements, you can then assign a  new	 value
	      to  any  variable	 or  change  the  program counter to any other
	      statement in the function and get exactly the results you	 would
	      expect from the source code.

	      Without  `-O', only variables declared register are allocated in
	      registers.  The resulting compiled code is a little  worse  than
	      produced by PCC without `-O'.

	      With  `-O', the compiler tries to reduce code size and execution
	      time.

	      When you specify `-O', `-fthread-jumps'  and  `-fdelayed-branch'
	      are  turned on.  On some machines other flags may also be turned
	      on.

       -O2    Highly optimize.	As compared to `-O', this option will increase
	      both compilation time and the performance of the generated code.

	      All  `-fflag'  options  that  control optimization are turned on
	      when you	specify	 `-O2',	 except	 `-funroll-loops'  and	`-fun‐
	      roll-all-loops'.

       Options	of  the form `-fflag' specify machine-independent flags.  Most
       flags have both positive and  negative  forms;  the  negative  form  of
       `-ffoo'	would  be `-fno-foo'.  The following list shows only one form—
       the one which is not the default.  You can figure out the other form by
       either removing `no-' or adding it.

       -ffloat-store
	      Do  not  store floating point variables in registers.  This pre‐
	      vents undesirable excess precision on machines such as the 68000
	      where  the floating registers (of the 68881) keep more precision
	      than a double is supposed to have.

	      For most programs, the excess precision does only	 good,	but  a
	      few  programs  rely  on  the precise definition of IEEE floating
	      point.  Use `-ffloat-store' for such programs.

       -fmemoize-lookups

       -fsave-memoized
	      (C++ only.)  These flags are used to get the compiler to compile
	      programs	faster	using  heuristics.  They are not on by default
	      since they are only effective about half the  time.   The	 other
	      half  of	the  time  programs compile more slowly (and take more
	      memory).

	      The first time the compiler must build a call to a member	 func‐
	      tion  (or	 reference  to	a  data member), it must (1) determine
	      whether the class implements member functions of that name;  (2)
	      resolve  which  member function to call (which involves figuring
	      out what sorts of type conversions need to  be  made);  and  (3)
	      check  the visibility of the member function to the caller.  All
	      of this adds up to slower	 compilation.	Normally,  the	second
	      time  a  call  is	 made to that member function (or reference to
	      that data member), it must go through the same  lengthy  process
	      again.  This means that code like this

		cout << "This " << p << " has " << n << " legs.\n";

	      makes  six  passes through all three steps.  By using a software
	      cache, a ``hit'' significantly reduces this cost.	  Unfortunate‐
	      ly, using the cache introduces another layer of mechanisms which
	      must be implemented, and so incurs its own  overhead.   `-fmemo‐
	      ize-lookups' enables the software cache.

	      Because  access  privileges  (visibility)	 to members and member
	      functions may differ from one function context to the next,  g++
	      may  need to flush the cache. With the `-fmemoize-lookups' flag,
	      the cache is flushed after every function that is compiled.  The
	      `-fsave-memoized' flag enables the same software cache, but when
	      the compiler determines that the context of  the	last  function
	      compiled	would  yield  the  same	 access privileges of the next
	      function to compile, it preserves the cache.  This is most help‐
	      ful when defining many member functions for the same class: with
	      the exception of member functions which  are  friends  of	 other
	      classes, each member function has exactly the same access privi‐
	      leges as every other, and the cache need not be flushed.

       -fno-default-inline
	      (C++ only.)  If `-fdefault-inline' is enabled then member	 func‐
	      tions defined inside class scope are compiled inline by default;
	      i.e., you don't need to add `inline'  in	front  of  the	member
	      function	name.	By  popular demand, this option is now the de‐
	      fault.  To keep GNU C++ from inlining  these  member  functions,
	      specify `-fno-default-inline'.

       -fno-defer-pop
	      Always  pop  the arguments to each function call as soon as that
	      function returns.	 For machines which must pop arguments after a
	      function	call,  the compiler normally lets arguments accumulate
	      on the stack for several function calls and  pops	 them  all  at
	      once.

       -fforce-mem
	      Force  memory  operands to be copied into registers before doing
	      arithmetic on them.  This may produce better code by making  all
	      memory  references  potential  common subexpressions.  When they
	      are not common subexpressions,  instruction  combination	should
	      eliminate	 the separate register-load.  I am interested in hear‐
	      ing about the difference this makes.

       -fforce-addr
	      Force memory address constants to be copied into	registers  be‐
	      fore  doing  arithmetic  on  them.  This may produce better code
	      just as `-fforce-mem' may.  I am interested in hearing about the
	      difference this makes.

       -fomit-frame-pointer
	      Don't  keep  the	frame pointer in a register for functions that
	      don't need one.  This avoids the instructions to	save,  set  up
	      and  restore  frame  pointers;  it  also makes an extra register
	      available in many functions.  It also makes debugging impossible
	      on most machines.

	      On  some machines, such as the Vax, this flag has no effect, be‐
	      cause the standard calling sequence  automatically  handles  the
	      frame  pointer and nothing is saved by pretending it doesn't ex‐
	      ist.  The machine-description macro FRAME_POINTER_REQUIRED  con‐
	      trols whether a target machine supports this flag.

       -finline
	      Pay attention the inline keyword.	 Normally the negation of this
	      option `-fno-inline' is used to keep the compiler from expanding
	      any  functions  inline.  However, the opposite effect may be de‐
	      sirable when compiling with `-g', since `-g' normally turns  off
	      all inline function expansion.

       -finline-functions
	      Integrate all simple functions into their callers.  The compiler
	      heuristically decides which functions are simple	enough	to  be
	      worth integrating in this way.

	      If  all  calls to a given function are integrated, and the func‐
	      tion is declared static, then GCC normally does not  output  the
	      function as assembler code in its own right.

       -fcaller-saves
	      Enable  values  to  be allocated in registers that will be clob‐
	      bered by function calls, by emitting extra instructions to  save
	      and restore the registers around such calls.  Such allocation is
	      done only when it seems to result in better code than would oth‐
	      erwise be produced.

	      This  option  is enabled by default on certain machines, usually
	      those which have no call-preserved registers to use instead.

       -fkeep-inline-functions
	      Even if all calls to a given function are	 integrated,  and  the
	      function is declared static, nevertheless output a separate run-
	      time callable version of the function.

       -fno-function-cse
	      Do not put function addresses in registers; make	each  instruc‐
	      tion  that  calls a constant function contain the function's ad‐
	      dress explicitly.

	      This option results in less efficient  code,  but	 some  strange
	      hacks that alter the assembler output may be confused by the op‐
	      timizations performed when this option is not used.

       The following options control specific optimizations.  The `-O2' option
       turns  on all of these optimizations except `-funroll-loops' and `-fun‐
       roll-all-loops'.

       The `-O' option	usually	 turns	on  the	 `-fthread-jumps'  and	`-fde‐
       layed-branch' options, but specific machines may change the default op‐
       timizations.

       You can use the following flags in the rare cases when  ``fine-tuning''
       of optimizations to be performed is desired.

       -fstrength-reduce
	      Perform  the optimizations of loop strength reduction and elimi‐
	      nation of iteration variables.

       -fthread-jumps
	      Perform optimizations where we check to see if a	jump  branches
	      to  a location where another comparison subsumed by the first is
	      found.  If so, the first branch is redirected to either the des‐
	      tination	of  the second branch or a point immediately following
	      it, depending on whether the condition is known to  be  true  or
	      false.

       -funroll-loops
	      Perform  the  optimization of loop unrolling.  This is only done
	      for loops whose number of iterations can be determined  at  com‐
	      pile time or run time.

       -funroll-all-loops
	      Perform  the  optimization  of loop unrolling.  This is done for
	      all loops.  This usually makes programs run more slowly.

       -fcse-follow-jumps
	      In common subexpression elimination, scan through jump  instruc‐
	      tions  in	 certain cases.	 This is not as powerful as completely
	      global CSE, but not as slow either.

       -frerun-cse-after-loop
	      Re-run common subexpression elimination after loop optimizations
	      has been performed.

       -felide-constructors
	      (C++  only.)   Use  this	option	to instruct the compiler to be
	      smarter about when it  can  elide	 constructors.	 Without  this
	      flag, GNU C++ and cfront both generate effectively the same code
	      for:

	      A foo ();
	      A x (foo ());   // x initialized by `foo ()', no ctor called
	      A y = foo ();   // call to `foo ()' heads to temporary,
			      // y is initialized from the temporary.

	      Note the difference!  With this flag, GNU	 C++  initializes  `y'
	      directly	from the call to foo () without going through a tempo‐
	      rary.

       -fexpensive-optimizations
	      Perform a number of minor optimizations that are relatively  ex‐
	      pensive.

       -fdelayed-branch
	      If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instruc‐
	      tions to	exploit	 instruction  slots  available	after  delayed
	      branch instructions.

       -fschedule-insns
	      If supported for the target machine, attempt to reorder instruc‐
	      tions to eliminate execution stalls due to required  data	 being
	      unavailable.   This helps machines that have slow floating point
	      or memory load instructions by allowing other instructions to be
	      issued  until  the result of the load or floating point instruc‐
	      tion is required.

       -fschedule-insns2
	      Similar to `-fschedule-insns', but requests an  additional  pass
	      of  instruction  scheduling  after  register allocation has been
	      done.  This is especially useful on machines with	 a  relatively
	      small  number  of	 registers  and where memory load instructions
	      take more than one cycle.

TARGET OPTIONS
       By default, GNU CC compiles code for the same type of machine that  you
       are  using.   However, it can also be installed as a cross-compiler, to
       compile for some other type of machine.	 In  fact,  several  different
       configurations  of  GNU	CC,  for different target machines, can be in‐
       stalled side by side.  Then you specify which one to use with the  `-b'
       option.

       In  addition,  older and newer versions of GNU CC can be installed side
       by side.	 One of them (probably the newest) will be  the	 default,  but
       you may sometimes wish to use another.

       -b machine
		The argument machine specifies the target machine for compila‐
	      tion.  This is useful when you have installed GNU CC as a cross-
	      compiler.

	      The value to use for machine is the same as was specified as the
	      machine type when configuring GNU CC as a	 cross-compiler.   For
	      example,	if  a  cross-compiler  was  configured with `configure
	      i386v', meaning to compile for an 80386 running System  V,  then
	      you would specify `-b i386v' to run that cross compiler.

	      When  you	 do not specify `-b', it normally means to compile for
	      the same type of machine that you are using.

       -V version
	       The argument version specifies which version of GNU CC to  run.
	      This  is useful when multiple versions are installed.  For exam‐
	      ple, version might be `2.0', meaning to run GNU CC version 2.0.

	      The default version, when you do not specify `-V', is controlled
	      by  the way GNU CC is installed.	Normally, it will be a version
	      that is recommended for general use.

MACHINE DEPENDENT OPTIONS
       Each of the target machine types can  have  its	own  special  options,
       starting with `-m', to choose among various hardware models or configu‐
       rations—for example, 68010 vs 68020, floating coprocessor or  none.   A
       single  installed  version of the compiler can compile for any model or
       configuration, according to the options specified.

       These are the `-m' options defined for the 68000 series:

       -m68020

       -mc68020
	      Generate output for a 68020 (rather than a 68000).  This is  the
	      default if you use the unmodified sources.

       -m68000

       -mc68000
	      Generate output for a 68000 (rather than a 68020).

       -m68881
	      Generate	output	containing  68881  instructions	 for  floating
	      point.  This is the default if you use the unmodified sources.

       -mfpa  Generate output containing Sun  FPA  instructions	 for  floating
	      point.

       -msoft-float
	      Generate	output	containing  library  calls for floating point.
	      WARNING: the requisite libraries are not part of GNU  CC.	  Nor‐
	      mally the facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used,
	      but this can't be done directly in cross-compilation.  You  must
	      make your own arrangements to provide suitable library functions
	      for cross-compilation.

       -mshort
	      Consider type int to be 16 bits wide, like short int.

       -mnobitfield
	      Do not use the bit-field instructions.  `-m68000' implies `-mno‐
	      bitfield'.

       -mbitfield
	      Do  use  the  bit-field instructions.  `-m68020' implies `-mbit‐
	      field'.  This is the default if you use the unmodified sources.

       -mrtd  Use a different function-calling convention, in which  functions
	      that  take  a  fixed number of arguments return with the rtd in‐
	      struction, which pops their  arguments  while  returning.	  This
	      saves  one  instruction  in the caller since there is no need to
	      pop the arguments there.

	      This calling convention is incompatible with  the	 one  normally
	      used on Unix, so you cannot use it if you need to call libraries
	      compiled with the Unix compiler.

	      Also, you must provide function  prototypes  for	all  functions
	      that take variable numbers of arguments (including printf); oth‐
	      erwise incorrect code will be generated for calls to those func‐
	      tions.

	      In  addition, seriously incorrect code will result if you call a
	      function with too many arguments.	  (Normally,  extra  arguments
	      are harmlessly ignored.)

	      The  rtd instruction is supported by the 68010 and 68020 proces‐
	      sors, but not by the 68000.

       These `-m' options are defined for the Vax:

       -munix Do not output certain jump instructions (aobleq and so on)  that
	      the Unix assembler for the Vax cannot handle across long ranges.

       -mgnu  Do  output  those	 jump instructions, on the assumption that you
	      will assemble with the GNU assembler.

       -mg    Output code for g-format floating point numbers  instead	of  d-
	      format.

       These `-m' switches are supported on the Sparc:

       -mfpu  Generate output containing floating point instructions.  This is
	      the default if you use the unmodified sources.

       -mno-epilogue
	      Generate separate return	instructions  for  return  statements.
	      This  has both advantages and disadvantages; I don't recall what
	      they are.

       These `-m' options are defined for the Convex:

       -mc1   Generate output for a C1.	 This is the default when the compiler
	      is configured for a C1.

       -mc2   Generate output for a C2.	 This is the default when the compiler
	      is configured for a C2.

       -margcount
	      Generate code which puts an argument count in the word preceding
	      each  argument  list.  Some non-portable Convex and Vax programs
	      need this word.  (Debuggers don't,  except  for  functions  with
	      variable-length  argument lists; this information is in the sym‐
	      bol table.)

       -mnoargcount
	      Omit the argument count word.  This is the default  if  you  use
	      the unmodified sources.

       These `-m' options are defined for the AMD Am29000:

       -mdw   Generate	code  that  assumes the DW bit is set, i.e., that byte
	      and halfword operations are directly supported by the  hardware.
	      This is the default.

       -mnodw Generate code that assumes the DW bit is not set.

       -mbw   Generate code that assumes the system supports byte and halfword
	      write operations.	 This is the default.

       -mnbw  Generate code that assumes the systems does not support byte and
	      halfword write operations.  This implies `-mnodw'.

       -msmall
	      Use a small memory model that assumes that all function address‐
	      es are either within a single 256 KB segment or at  an  absolute
	      address  of less than 256K.  This allows the call instruction to
	      be used instead of a const, consth, calli sequence.

       -mlarge
	      Do not assume that the call instruction can be used; this is the
	      default.

       -m29050
	      Generate code for the Am29050.

       -m29000
	      Generate code for the Am29000.  This is the default.

       -mkernel-registers
	      Generate	 references   to   registers   gr64-gr95   instead  of
	      gr96-gr127.  This option can be used when compiling kernel  code
	      that  wants a set of global registers disjoint from that used by
	      user-mode code.

	      Note that when this option is used, register names in `-f' flags
	      must use the normal, user-mode, names.

       -muser-registers
	      Use the normal set of global registers, gr96-gr127.  This is the
	      default.

       -mstack-check
	      Insert a call to __msp_check after each stack adjustment.	  This
	      is often used for kernel code.

       These `-m' options are defined for Motorola 88K architectures:

       -mbig-pic
	      Emit  position-independent  code,	 suitable for dynamic linking,
	      even if branches need large displacements.   Equivalent  to  the
	      general-use  option `-fPIC'.  The general-use option `-fpic', by
	      contrast, only emits valid 88k  code  if	all  branches  involve
	      small  displacements.   GCC  does	 not emit position-independent
	      code by default.

       -midentify-revision
	      Include an ident directive in the assembler output recording the
	      source file name, compiler name and version, timestamp, and com‐
	      pilation flags used.

       -mno-underscores
	      In assembler output, emit symbol names without adding an	under‐
	      score  character	at the beginning of each name.	The default is
	      to use an underscore as prefix on each name.

       -mno-check-zero-division

       -mcheck-zero-division
	      Early models of the 88K architecture had problems with  division
	      by zero; in particular, many of them didn't trap.	 Use these op‐
	      tions to avoid including (or to include  explicitly)  additional
	      code  to	detect	division by zero and signal an exception.  All
	      GCC configurations for the 88K  use  `-mcheck-zero-division'  by
	      default.

       -mocs-debug-info

       -mno-ocs-debug-info
	      Include (or omit) additional debugging information (about regis‐
	      ters used in each stack frame) as specified in the 88Open Object
	      Compatibility  Standard, ``OCS''.	 This extra information is not
	      needed by GDB.  The default for DG/UX, SVr4, and Delta 88 SVr3.2
	      is  to  include  this information; other 88k configurations omit
	      this information by default.

       -mocs-frame-position

       -mno-ocs-frame-position
	      Force (or do not require) register values to be stored in a par‐
	      ticular  place in stack frames, as specified in OCS.  The DG/UX,
	      Delta88 SVr3.2, and BCS  configurations  use  `-mocs-frame-posi‐
	      tion';	other	 88k	configurations	  have	 the   default
	      `-mno-ocs-frame-position'.

       -moptimize-arg-area

       -mno-optimize-arg-area
	      Control how to store function arguments in stack frames.	`-mop‐
	      timize-arg-area'	saves space, but may break some debuggers (not
	      GDB).  `-mno-optimize-arg-area' conforms	better	to  standards.
	      By default GCC does not optimize the argument area.

       -mshort-data-num
	       num Generate smaller data references by making them relative to
	      r0, which allows loading a  value	 using	a  single  instruction
	      (rather  than the usual two).  You control which data references
	      are affected by specifying num with this option.	 For  example,
	      if  you specify `-mshort-data-512', then the data references af‐
	      fected are those involving displacements of less than 512 bytes.
	      `-mshort-data-num' is not effective for num greater than 64K.

       -msvr4

       -msvr3 Turn on (`-msvr4') or off (`-msvr3') compiler extensions related
	      to System V release 4 (SVr4).  This controls the following:

	  ·   Which variant of the assembler syntax to emit (which you can se‐
	      lect independently using `-mversion03.00').

	  ·   `-msvr4' makes the C preprocessor recognize `#pragma weak'

	  ·   `-msvr4'	makes GCC issue additional declaration directives used
	      in SVr4.

       `-msvr3' is the default for all m88K  configurations  except  the  SVr4
       configuration.

       -mtrap-large-shift

       -mhandle-large-shift
	      Include  code to detect bit-shifts of more than 31 bits; respec‐
	      tively, trap such shifts or emit code to handle  them  properly.
	      By default GCC makes no special provision for large bit shifts.

       -muse-div-instruction
	      Very  early  models of the 88K architecture didn't have a divide
	      instruction, so GCC avoids that  instruction  by	default.   Use
	      this option to specify that it's safe to use the divide instruc‐
	      tion.

       -mversion-03.00
	      Use alternative assembler syntax for the assembler version  cor‐
	      responding  to  SVr4,  but  without  enabling the other features
	      triggered by `-svr4'.  This is implied by `-svr4',  is  the  de‐
	      fault for the SVr4 configuration of GCC, and is permitted by the
	      DG/UX configuration only if  `-svr4'  is	also  specified.   The
	      Delta 88 SVr3.2 configuration ignores this option.

       -mwarn-passed-structs
	      Warn  when  a function passes a struct as an argument or result.
	      Structure-passing conventions have changed during the  evolution
	      of the C language, and are often the source of portability prob‐
	      lems.  By default, GCC issues no such warning.

       These options are defined for the IBM RS6000:

       -mfp-in-toc

       -mno-fp-in-toc
	      Control whether or not floating-point constants go in the	 Table
	      of  Contents  (TOC), a table of all global variable and function
	      addresses.  By default GCC puts floating-point constants	there;
	      if  the  TOC overflows, `-mno-fp-in-toc' will reduce the size of
	      the TOC, which may avoid the overflow.

       These `-m' options are defined for the IBM RT PC:

       -min-line-mul
	      Use an in-line code sequence for integer	multiplies.   This  is
	      the default.

       -mcall-lib-mul
	      Call lmul$$ for integer multiples.

       -mfull-fp-blocks
	      Generate	full-size  floating  point  data blocks, including the
	      minimum amount of scratch space recommended by IBM.  This is the
	      default.

       -mminimum-fp-blocks
	      Do  not  include	extra  scratch	space  in  floating point data
	      blocks.  This results in smaller	code,  but  slower  execution,
	      since scratch space must be allocated dynamically.

       -mfp-arg-in-fpregs
	      Use a calling sequence incompatible with the IBM calling conven‐
	      tion in which floating point arguments are  passed  in  floating
	      point  registers.	  Note	that  varargs.h and stdargs.h will not
	      work with floating point operands if this option is specified.

       -mfp-arg-in-gregs
	      Use the normal calling convention for floating point  arguments.
	      This is the default.

       -mhc-struct-return
	      Return  structures  of more than one word in memory, rather than
	      in a register.  This provides compatibility  with	 the  MetaWare
	      HighC (hc) compiler.  Use `-fpcc-struct-return' for compatibili‐
	      ty with the Portable C Compiler (pcc).

       -mnohc-struct-return
	      Return some structures of more than one word in registers,  when
	      convenient.   This  is  the default.  For compatibility with the
	      IBM-supplied  compilers,	use  either  `-fpcc-struct-return'  or
	      `-mhc-struct-return'.

       These `-m' options are defined for the MIPS family of computers:

       -mcpu=cpu-type
	      Assume  the defaults for the machine type cpu-type when schedul‐
	      ing instructions.	 The default cpu-type is default, which	 picks
	      the  longest cycles times for any of the machines, in order that
	      the code run at reasonable  rates	 on  all  MIPS	cpu's.	 Other
	      choices  for cpu-type are r2000, r3000, r4000, and r6000.	 While
	      picking a specific cpu-type will schedule	 things	 appropriately
	      for  that	 particular  chip,  the compiler will not generate any
	      code that does not meet level 1 of the MIPS ISA (instruction set
	      architecture) without the -mips2 or -mips3 switches being used.

       -mips2 Issue  instructions from level 2 of the MIPS ISA (branch likely,
	      square  root  instructions).   The  -mcpu=r4000  or  -mcpu=r6000
	      switch must be used in conjunction with -mips2.

       -mips3 Issue instructions from level 3 of the MIPS ISA (64 bit instruc‐
	      tions).  The -mcpu=r4000 switch must be used in conjunction with
	      -mips2.

       -mint64

       -mlong64

       -mlonglong128
	      These options don't work at present.

       -mmips-as
	      Generate	code  for the MIPS assembler, and invoke mips-tfile to
	      add normal debug information.  This is the default for all plat‐
	      forms  except  for  the  OSF/1  reference	 platform,  using  the
	      OSF/rose object format.	If  any	 of  the  -ggdb,  -gstabs,  or
	      -gstabs+ switches are used, the mips-tfile program will encapsu‐
	      late the stabs within MIPS ECOFF.

       -mgas  Generate code for the GNU assembler.  This is the default on the
	      OSF/1 reference platform, using the OSF/rose object format.

       -mrnames

       -mno-rnames
	      The  -mrnames switch says to output code using the MIPS software
	      names for the registers, instead of the hardware names  (ie,  a0
	      instead of $4).  The GNU assembler does not support the -mrnames
	      switch, and the MIPS assembler will be  instructed  to  run  the
	      MIPS  C  preprocessor  over  the	source	file.  The -mno-rnames
	      switch is default.

       -mgpopt

       -mno-gpopt
	      The -mgpopt switch says to write all of  the  data  declarations
	      before the instructions in the text section, to all the MIPS as‐
	      sembler to generate one word memory references instead of	 using
	      two  words for short global or static data items.	 This is on by
	      default if optimization is selected.

       -mstats

       -mno-stats
	      For each non-inline function processed, the -mstats switch caus‐
	      es  the  compiler to emit one line to the standard error file to
	      print statistics about the program (number of  registers	saved,
	      stack size, etc.).

       -mmemcpy

       -mno-memcpy
	      The  -mmemcpy  switch makes all block moves call the appropriate
	      string function (memcpy or bcopy) instead of possibly generating
	      inline code.

       -mmips-tfile

       -mno-mips-tfile
	      The  -mno-mips-tfile  switch causes the compiler not postprocess
	      the object file with the mips-tfile program, after the MIPS  as‐
	      sembler has generated it to add debug support.  If mips-tfile is
	      not run, then no local variables will be available to the debug‐
	      ger.   In addition, stage2 and stage3 objects will have the tem‐
	      porary file names passed to the assembler embedded in the object
	      file, which means the objects will not compare the same.

       -msoft-float
	      Generate	output	containing  library  calls for floating point.
	      WARNING: the requisite libraries are not part of GNU  CC.	  Nor‐
	      mally the facilities of the machine's usual C compiler are used,
	      but this can't be done directly in cross-compilation.  You  must
	      make your own arrangements to provide suitable library functions
	      for cross-compilation.

       -mhard-float
	      Generate output containing floating point instructions.  This is
	      the default if you use the unmodified sources.

       -mfp64 Assume  that the FR bit in the status word is on, and that there
	      are 32 64-bit floating point registers,  instead	of  32	32-bit
	      floating point registers.	 You must also specify the -mcpu=r4000
	      and -mips3 switches.

       -mfp32 Assume that there are 32 32-bit floating point registers.	  This
	      is the default.

       -mabicalls
	      The  -mabicalls  switch says to emit the .abicalls, .cpload, and
	      .cprestore pseudo operations that some System V.4 ports use  for
	      position independent code.

       -mhalf-pic

       -mno-half-pic
	      The  -mhalf-pic switch says to put pointers to extern references
	      into the data section and load them up, rather than put the ref‐
	      erences  in  the	text  section.	 This  option does not work at
	      present.	-Gnum Put global and static items less than  or	 equal
	      to  num bytes into the small data or bss sections instead of the
	      normal data or bss section.  This allows the assembler  to  emit
	      one  word	 memory	 reference  instructions  based	 on the global
	      pointer (gp or $28), instead of the normal two words  used.   By
	      default,	num  is	 8 when the MIPS assembler is used, and 0 when
	      the GNU assembler is used.  The -Gnum switch is also  passed  to
	      the  assembler  and linker.  All modules should be compiled with
	      the same -Gnum value.

CODE GENERATION OPTIONS
       These machine-independent options  control  the	interface  conventions
       used in code generation.
       Most  of	 them  begin  with `-f'.  These options have both positive and
       negative forms; the negative form of `-ffoo' would be  `-fno-foo'.   In
       the  table  below, only one of the forms is listed—the one which is not
       the default.  You can figure out the  other  form  by  either  removing
       `no-' or adding it.

       +eN    (C++  only.)   control  whether  virtual function definitions in
	      classes are used to generate code, or only to define  interfaces
	      for their callers.  These options are provided for compatibility
	      with cfront 1.x usage; the recommended GNU C++ usage is  to  use
	      #pragma interface and #pragma implementation, instead.

	      With `+e0', virtual function definitions in classes are declared
	      extern; the declaration is used only as an interface  specifica‐
	      tion,  not  to  generate code for the virtual functions (in this
	      compilation).

	      With `+e1', g++ actually generates the code implementing virtual
	      functions defined in the code, and makes them publicly visible.

       -fnonnull-objects
	      (C++  only.)   Normally,	GNU C++ makes conservative assumptions
	      about objects reached through references.	 For example, the com‐
	      piler  must  check that `a' is not null in code like the follow‐
	      ing:
		  obj &a = g ();
		  a.f (2);
	      Checking that references of this sort have non-null  values  re‐
	      quires  extra code, however, and it is unnecessary for many pro‐
	      grams.  You can use `-fnonnull-objects' to omit the  checks  for
	      null, if your program doesn't require the default checking.

       -fpcc-struct-return
	      Use  the	same  convention for returning struct and union values
	      that is used by the usual C compiler on your system.  This  con‐
	      vention  is less efficient for small structures, and on many ma‐
	      chines it fails to be reentrant; but it has the advantage of al‐
	      lowing  intercallability	between GCC-compiled code and PCC-com‐
	      piled code.

       -fshort-enums
	      Allocate to an enum type only as many bytes as it needs for  the
	      declared	range of possible values.  Specifically, the enum type
	      will be equivalent to the smallest integer type which has enough
	      room.

       -fshort-double
	      Use the same size for double as for float .

       -fshared-data
	      Requests	that the data and non-const variables of this compila‐
	      tion be shared data rather than private data.   The  distinction
	      makes sense only on certain operating systems, where shared data
	      is shared between processes running the same program, while pri‐
	      vate data exists in one copy per process.

       -fno-common
	      Allocate	even uninitialized global variables in the bss section
	      of the object  file,  rather  than  generating  them  as	common
	      blocks.	This  has  the effect that if the same variable is de‐
	      clared (without extern) in two different compilations, you  will
	      get  an error when you link them.	 The only reason this might be
	      useful is if you wish to verify that the program	will  work  on
	      other systems which always work this way.

       -fvolatile
	      Consider all memory references through pointers to be volatile.

       -fpic  If supported for the target machines, generate position-indepen‐
	      dent code, suitable for use in a shared library.

       -fPIC  If supported for the target machine,  emit  position-independent
	      code,  suitable for dynamic linking, even if branches need large
	      displacements.

       -ffixed-reg
	       Treat the register named reg as	a  fixed  register;  generated
	      code  should never refer to it (except perhaps as a stack point‐
	      er, frame pointer or in some other fixed role).

	      reg must be the name of a register.  The register names accepted
	      are machine-specific and are defined in the REGISTER_NAMES macro
	      in the machine description macro file.

	      This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies  a
	      three-way choice.

       -fcall-used-reg
	       Treat the register named reg as an allocatable register that is
	      clobbered by function calls.  It may  be	allocated  for	tempo‐
	      raries  or  variables that do not live across a call.  Functions
	      compiled this way will not save and restore the register reg.

	      Use of this flag for a register that has a fixed pervasive  role
	      in  the  machine's execution model, such as the stack pointer or
	      frame pointer, will produce disastrous results.

	      This flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies  a
	      three-way choice.

       -fcall-saved-reg
		Treat  the register named reg as an allocatable register saved
	      by functions.  It may be allocated even for temporaries or vari‐
	      ables that live across a call.  Functions compiled this way will
	      save and restore the register reg if they use it.

	      Use of this flag for a register that has a fixed pervasive  role
	      in  the  machine's execution model, such as the stack pointer or
	      frame pointer, will produce disastrous results.

	      A different sort of disaster will result from the	 use  of  this
	      flag for a register in which function values may be returned.

	      This  flag does not have a negative form, because it specifies a
	      three-way choice.

       -fgnu-binutils

       -fno-gnu-binutils
	      (C++ only.)  `-fgnu-binutils ' (the default for  most,  but  not
	      all,  platforms) makes GNU C++ emit extra information for static
	      initialization and finalization.	This  information  has	to  be
	      passed  from  the	 assembler to the GNU linker.  Some assemblers
	      won't pass this information; you must either use GNU as or spec‐
	      ify the option `-fno-gnu-binutils'.

	      With `-fno-gnu-binutils', you must use the program collect (part
	      of the GCC distribution) for linking.

PRAGMAS
       Two `#pragma' directives are supported for GNU C++, to permit using the
       same  header  file for two purposes: as a definition of interfaces to a
       given object class, and as the full definition of the contents of  that
       object class.

       #pragma interface
	      (C++  only.)  Use this directive in header files that define ob‐
	      ject classes, to save space in most of the object files that use
	      those  classes.	Normally,  local copies of certain information
	      (backup copies of inline member  functions,  debugging  informa‐
	      tion,  and the internal tables that implement virtual functions)
	      must be kept in each object file	that  includes	class  defini‐
	      tions.  You can use this pragma to avoid such duplication.  When
	      a header file containing `#pragma interface' is  included	 in  a
	      compilation,  this  auxiliary  information will not be generated
	      (unless the main input source file itself uses  `#pragma	imple‐
	      mentation').   Instead, the object files will contain references
	      to be resolved at link time.

       #pragma implementation

       #pragma implementation "objects.h"
	      (C++ only.)  Use this pragma in a main input file, when you want
	      full output from included header files to be generated (and made
	      globally visible).  The included header file,  in	 turn,	should
	      use  `#pragma  interface'.  Backup copies of inline member func‐
	      tions, debugging information, and the internal  tables  used  to
	      implement	 virtual functions are all generated in implementation
	      files.

	      If you use `#pragma implementation' with no argument, it applies
	      to  an  include file with the same basename as your source file;
	      for example, in `allclass.cc', `#pragma implementation'  by  it‐
	      self  is	equivalent  to	`#pragma implementation "allclass.h"'.
	      Use the string argument if you want a single implementation file
	      to include code from multiple header files.

	      There is no way to split up the contents of a single header file
	      into multiple implementation files.

FILES
       file.c		  C source file
       file.h		  C header (preprocessor) file
       file.i		  preprocessed C source file
       file.C		  C++ source file
       file.cc		  C++ source file
       file.cxx		  C++ source file
       file.m		  Objective-C source file
       file.s		  assembly language file
       file.o		  object file
       a.out		  link edited output
       TMPDIR/cc∗	  temporary files
       LIBDIR/cpp	  preprocessor
       LIBDIR/cc1	  compiler for C
       LIBDIR/cc1plus	  compiler for C++
       LIBDIR/collect	  linker front end needed on some machines
       LIBDIR/libgcc.a	  GCC subroutine library
       /lib/crt[01n].o	  start-up routine
       LIBDIR/ccrt0	  additional start-up routine for C++
       /lib/libc.a	  standard C library, see intro(3)
       /usr/include	  standard directory for #include files
       LIBDIR/include	  standard gcc directory for #include files
       LIBDIR/g++-include additional g++ directory for #include

       LIBDIR is usually /usr/local/lib/machine/version.
       TMPDIR comes from the environment variable TMPDIR (default /usr/tmp  if
       available, else /tmp).

SEE ALSO
       cpp(1), as(1), ld(1), gdb(1), adb(1), dbx(1), sdb(1).
       `gcc', `cpp', `as',`ld', and `gdb' entries in info.
       Using and Porting GNU CC (for version 2.0), Richard M. Stallman, Novem‐
       ber 1990; The C Preprocessor, Richard M.	 Stallman,  July  1990;	 Using
       GDB:  A Guide to the GNU Source-Level Debugger, Richard M. Stallman and
       Roland H. Pesch, December 1991; Using as: the GNU Assembler,  Dean  El‐
       sner,  Jay  Fenlason  & friends, March 1991; gld: the GNU linker, Steve
       Chamberlain and Roland Pesch, April 1991.

BUGS
       Report bugs to bug-gcc@prep.ai.mit.edu.	Bugs tend actually to be fixed
       if  they	 can  be isolated, so it is in your interest to report them in
       such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

COPYING
       Copyright (c) 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim  copies  of  this
       manual  provided	 the  copyright	 notice and this permission notice are
       preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of  this
       manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the en‐
       tire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a permis‐
       sion notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this manu‐
       al into another language, under the above conditions for modified  ver‐
       sions,  except  that this permission notice may be included in transla‐
       tions approved by the Free Software Foundation instead of in the origi‐
       nal English.

AUTHORS
       See the GNU CC Manual for the contributors to GNU CC.

GNU Tools			   28may1992				 CC(1)
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