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GENISOIMAGE(1)							GENISOIMAGE(1)

NAME
       genisoimage  -  create ISO9660/Joliet/HFS filesystem with optional Rock
       Ridge attributes

SYNOPSIS
       genisoimage [options] [-o filename] pathspec [pathspec ...]

DESCRIPTION
       genisoimage is a pre-mastering program to  generate  ISO9660/Joliet/HFS
       hybrid filesystems.

       genisoimage  is	capable	 of generating the System Use Sharing Protocol
       records (SUSP) specified by the Rock Ridge Interchange Protocol.	  This
       is  used	 to  further describe the files in the ISO9660 filesystem to a
       Unix host, and provides information such as  long  filenames,  UID/GID,
       POSIX  permissions,  symbolic  links,  and  block  and character device
       files.

       If Joliet or HFS hybrid command line options are specified, genisoimage
       will  create  the  additional  filesystem metadata needed for Joliet or
       HFS.  Otherwise genisoimage will generate a pure ISO9660 filesystem.

       genisoimage can generate a true (or shared) HFS hybrid filesystem.  The
       same  files are seen as HFS files when accessed from a Macintosh and as
       ISO9660 files when accessed from other machines. HFS stands for Hierar‐
       chical  File System and is the native filesystem used on Macintosh com‐
       puters.

       As an alternative, genisoimage can generate  the	 Apple	Extensions  to
       ISO9660 for each file. These extensions provide each file with CREATOR,
       TYPE and certain Finder flags when accessed from a Macintosh.  See  the
       HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below.

       genisoimage takes a snapshot of a given directory tree, and generates a
       binary image which will correspond to an ISO9660 and/or HFS  filesystem
       when written to a block device.

       Each file written to the ISO9660 filesystem must have a filename in the
       8.3 format (up to 8 characters, period, up to 3 characters, all	upper‐
       case),  even if Rock Ridge is in use.  This filename is used on systems
       that are not able to make use of the Rock Ridge extensions (such as MS-
       DOS),  and  each	 filename in each directory must be different from the
       other filenames in the same directory.  genisoimage generally tries  to
       form  correct names by forcing the Unix filename to uppercase and trun‐
       cating as required, but often this yields unsatisfactory	 results  when
       the truncated names are not all unique.	genisoimage assigns weightings
       to each filename, and if two names that	are  otherwise	the  same  are
       found, the name with the lower priority is renamed to include a 3-digit
       number (guaranteed to be unique).  For example, the two	files  foo.bar
       and foo.bar.~1~ could be rendered as FOO.BAR;1 and FOO000.BAR;1.

       When  used with various HFS options, genisoimage will attempt to recog‐
       nise files stored in a number of Apple/Unix file formats and will  copy
       the data and resource forks as well as any relevant Finder information.
       See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section below for more about formats
       genisoimage supports.

       Note  that  genisoimage	is not designed to communicate with the writer
       directly.  Most writers have proprietary command sets which  vary  from
       one  manufacturer  to another, and you need a specialized tool to actu‐
       ally burn the disc.  wodim is one such tool.   The  latest  version  of
       wodim is available from http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       pathspec	 is  the  path	of  the	 directory  tree to be copied into the
       ISO9660 filesystem.  Multiple paths can be specified,  and  genisoimage
       will  merge  the files found in all of the specified path components to
       form the filesystem image.

       If the option -graft-points has been specified, it is possible to graft
       the  paths  at points other than the root directory, and it is possible
       to graft files or directories onto the cdrom image with names different
       than  what  they	 have  in  the	source filesystem.  This is easiest to
       illustrate with a couple of examples.  Let's start by assuming  that  a
       local  file  ../old.lis exists, and you wish to include it in the cdrom
       image.

	      foo/bar/=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/old.lis, while

	      foo/bar/xxx=../old.lis

       will include old.lis in the cdrom image at /foo/bar/xxx.	 The same sort
       of  syntax can be used with directories as well.	 genisoimage will cre‐
       ate any directories required such that the graft points	exist  on  the
       cdrom  image  —	the  directories  do  not need to appear in one of the
       paths.  By default, any directories that are created on	the  fly  like
       this  will  have	 permissions 0555 and appear to be owned by the person
       running genisoimage.  If you wish other permissions or  owners  of  the
       intermediate  directories,  see	-uid,  -gid, -dir-mode, -file-mode and
       -new-dir-mode.

       genisoimage will also  run  on  Windows	machines  when	compiled  with
       Cygnus' cygwin (available from http://www.cygwin.com/).	Therefore most
       references in this man page to Unix can be replaced with Win32.

OPTIONS
       Several options can be specified as defaults in a  .genisoimagerc  con‐
       figuration  file,  as  well  as on the command line.  If a parameter is
       specified in both places, the setting from the command  line  is	 used.
       For  details  on	 the  format  and possible locations of this file, see
       genisoimagerc(5).

       -abstract file
	      Specifies the abstract filename.	There is space for 37  charac‐
	      ters.  Equivalent to ABST in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -A application_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
	      header.  This should describe the application that  will	be  on
	      the  disc.   There  is  space for 128 characters.	 Equivalent to
	      APPI in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -allow-limited-size
	      When processing files larger than 2GiB which  cannot  be	easily
	      represented in ISO9660, add them with a shrunk visible file size
	      to ISO9660 and with the correct visible file  size  to  the  UDF
	      system.  The result is an inconsistent filesystem and users need
	      to make sure that they really use UDF rather than ISO9660 driver
	      to read a such disk. Implies enabling -udf.

       -allow-leading-dots

       -ldots Allow  ISO9660  filenames	 to  begin  with a period.  Usually, a
	      leading dot is replaced with an underscore in order to  maintain
	      MS-DOS compatibility.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-lowercase
	      This options allows lowercase characters to  appear  in  ISO9660
	      filenames.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      some systems.  Use with caution.

       -allow-multidot
	      This options allows more than one dot to appear in ISO9660 file‐
	      names.   A leading dot is not affected by this option, it may be
	      allowed separately using -allow-leading-dots.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -biblio file
	      Specifies	 the  bibliographic  filename.	 There is space for 37
	      characters.  Equivalent to BIBL in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -cache-inodes

       -no-cache-inodes
	      Enable or disable caching inode and device numbers to find  hard
	      links  to	 files.	 If genisoimage finds a hard link (a file with
	      multiple names), the file will also be hard-linked on the CD, so
	      the  file	 contents only appear once.  This helps to save space.
	      -cache-inodes is default on  Unix-like  operating	 systems,  but
	      -no-cache-inodes	is  default on some other systems such as Cyg‐
	      win, because it is not safe to assume  that  inode  numbers  are
	      unique  on  those systems.  (Some versions of Cygwin create fake
	      inode numbers using a weak hashing algorithm, which may  produce
	      duplicates.)   If	 two  files have the same inode number but are
	      not hard links to the same file, genisoimage -cache-inodes  will
	      not  behave  correctly.	-no-cache-inodes is safe in all situa‐
	      tions, but in that case genisoimage cannot detect hard links, so
	      the resulting CD image may be larger than necessary.

       -alpha-boot alpha_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an Alpha/SRM bootable CD. The pathname must be rela‐
	      tive to the source path specified to genisoimage.

       -hppa-bootloader hppa_bootloader_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must  be  relative
	      to  the source path specified to genisoimage.  Other options are
	      required, at the very least a kernel filename and a boot command
	      line.  See the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-cmdline hppa_boot_command_line
	      Specifies	 the command line to be passed to the HPPA boot loader
	      when making a bootable CD. Separate the parameters  with	spaces
	      or  commas.  More	 options must be passed to genisoimage, at the
	      very least a kernel filename and the boot loader filename.   See
	      the HPPA NOTES section below for more information.

       -hppa-kernel-32 hppa_kernel_32

       -hppa-kernel-64 hppa_kernel_64
	      Specifies the path and filename of the 32-bit and/or 64-bit ker‐
	      nel images to be used when making an HPPA bootable CD. The path‐
	      names must be relative to the source path specified to genisoim‐
	      age.  Other options are required, at the	very  least  the  boot
	      loader  filename	and the boot command line.  See the HPPA NOTES
	      section below for more information.

       -hppa-ramdisk hppa_ramdisk_image
	      Specifies the path and filename of the ramdisk image to be  used
	      when  making  an HPPA bootable CD. The pathname must be relative
	      to the source path specified to genisoimage.  This parameter  is
	      optional.	  Other options are required, at the very least a ker‐
	      nel filename and the boot command line. See the HPPA NOTES  sec‐
	      tion below for more information.

       -mips-boot mips_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an SGI/big-endian MIPS  bootable  CD.	 The  pathname
	      must  be	relative  to the source path specified to genisoimage.
	      This option may be specified several times, to store  up	to  15
	      boot images.

       -mipsel-boot mipsel_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the  path  and	 filename of the boot image to be used
	      when making an DEC/little-endian MIPS bootable CD. The  pathname
	      must be relative to the source path specified to genisoimage.

       -B img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      Specifies	 a comma-separated list of boot images that are needed
	      to make a bootable CD for SPARC systems.	Partition  0  is  used
	      for  the ISO9660 image, the first image file is mapped to parti‐
	      tion 1.  The comma-separated list	 may  have  up	to  7  fields,
	      including	 empty	fields.	  This	option	is  required to make a
	      bootable CD for Sun SPARC systems.  If  -B  or  -sparc-boot  has
	      been  specified,	the  first  sector of the resulting image will
	      contain a Sun disk label. This disk label specifies slice 0  for
	      the  ISO9660  image  and	slices 1 to 7 for the boot images that
	      have been specified with this option. Byte offsets 512  to  8191
	      within each of the additional boot images must contain a primary
	      boot that works for the appropriate SPARC architecture. The rest
	      of each of the images usually contains a UFS filesystem used for
	      the primary kernel boot stage.

	      The implemented boot method is the one found with SunOS 4.x  and
	      SunOS  5.x.   However, it does not depend on SunOS internals but
	      only on properties of the Open Boot prom, so it should be usable
	      for any OS for SPARC systems.  For more information also see the
	      NOTES section below.

	      If the special filename ...  is used, the actual and all follow‐
	      ing  boot	 partitions  are  mapped to the previous partition. If
	      genisoimage is called with -G image -B ...  all boot  partitions
	      are mapped to the partition that contains the ISO9660 filesystem
	      image and the generic boot image that is located in the first 16
	      sectors of the disc is used for all architectures.

       -G generic_boot_image
	      Specifies	 the path and filename of the generic boot image to be
	      used when making a generic bootable CD.  The boot image will  be
	      placed  on  the  first  16 sectors of the CD, before the ISO9660
	      primary volume descriptor.  If this option is used together with
	      -sparc-boot, the Sun disk label will overlay the first 512 bytes
	      of the generic boot image.

       -b eltorito_boot_image
	      Specifies the path and filename of the boot  image  to  be  used
	      when  making  an El Torito bootable CD for x86 PCs. The pathname
	      must be relative to the source path  specified  to  genisoimage.
	      This  option  is required to make an El Torito bootable CD.  The
	      boot image must be exactly 1200 kB, 1440	kB  or	2880  kB,  and
	      genisoimage  will use this size when creating the output ISO9660
	      filesystem.  The PC BIOS will use the image to emulate a	floppy
	      disk,  so the first 512-byte sector should contain PC boot code.
	      This will work, for example, if the boot image is	 a  LILO-based
	      boot floppy.

	      If  the  boot image is not an image of a floppy, you need to add
	      either -hard-disk-boot or -no-emul-boot.	If the	system	should
	      not boot off the emulated disk, use -no-boot.

	      If -sort has not been specified, the boot images are sorted with
	      low priority (+2) to the beginning of the medium.	 If you	 don't
	      like  this,  you need to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot
	      images.

       -eltorito-alt-boot
	      Start with a new set of El Torito boot parameters.  Up to 63  El
	      Torito boot entries may be stored on a single CD.

       -hard-disk-boot
	      Specifies	 that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable
	      CDs is a hard disk image. The image must	begin  with  a	master
	      boot record that contains a single partition.

       -no-emul-boot
	      Specifies	 that the boot image used to create El Torito bootable
	      CDs is a "no emulation" image. The system will load and  execute
	      this image without performing any disk emulation.

       -no-boot
	      Specifies	 that the created El Torito CD should be marked as not
	      bootable. The system will provide	 an  emulated  drive  for  the
	      image, but will boot off a standard boot device.

       -boot-load-seg segment_address
	      Specifies the load segment address of the boot image for no-emu‐
	      lation El Torito CDs.

       -boot-load-size load_sectors
	      Specifies the number of "virtual" (512-byte) sectors to load  in
	      no-emulation mode.  The default is to load the entire boot file.
	      Some BIOSes may have problems if this is not a multiple of 4.

       -boot-info-table
	      Specifies that a 56-byte table with information  of  the	CD-ROM
	      layout will be patched in at offset 8 in the boot file.  If this
	      option is given,	the  boot  file	 is  modified  in  the	source
	      filesystem,  so  make a copy of this file if it cannot be easily
	      regenerated!  See the EL TORITO BOOT INFO TABLE  section	for  a
	      description of this table.

       -C last_sess_start,next_sess_start
	      This  option  is	needed	to create a CD Extra or the image of a
	      second session or a  higher-level	 session  for  a  multisession
	      disc.   -C  takes two numbers separated by a comma. The first is
	      the first sector in the last session of the disc that should  be
	      appended to.  The second number is the starting sector number of
	      the new session.	The correct numbers may be retrieved by	 call‐
	      ing  wodim  -msinfo  ...	 If -C is used in conjunction with -M,
	      genisoimage will create a filesystem image that is  intended  to
	      be  a continuation of the previous session.  If -C is used with‐
	      out -M, genisoimage will	create	a  filesystem  image  that  is
	      intended	to be used for a second session on a CD Extra. This is
	      a multisession CD that holds audio data in the first session and
	      an ISO9660 filesystem in the second session.

       -c boot_catalog
	      Specifies	 the  path  and filename of the boot catalog, which is
	      required for an El Torito bootable CD. The pathname must be rel‐
	      ative  to	 the  source path specified to genisoimage.  This file
	      will be inserted into the output tree and	 not  created  in  the
	      source  filesystem,  so  be sure the specified filename does not
	      conflict with an existing file, or it will be excluded.  Usually
	      a name like boot.catalog is chosen.

	      If  -sort	 has  not been specified, the boot catalog sorted with
	      low priority (+1) to the beginning of the medium.	 If you	 don't
	      like  this,  you need to specify a sort weight of 0 for the boot
	      catalog.

       -check-oldnames
	      Check all filenames imported from the old session for compliance
	      with  the	 ISO9660 file naming rules.  Without this option, only
	      names longer than 31 characters are checked, as these files  are
	      a serious violation of the ISO9660 standard.

       -check-session file
	      Check  all  old  sessions for compliance with actual genisoimage
	      ISO9660 file naming rules.  This is  a  high-level  option  that
	      combines	-M  file  -C  0,0  -check-oldnames.  For the parameter
	      file, see the description of -M.

       -copyright file
	      Specifies copyright information, typically  a  filename  on  the
	      disc.   There is space for 37 characters.	 Equivalent to COPY in
	      the .genisoimagerc file.

       -d     Do not append a period to files that do not have one.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -D     Do not use deep directory relocation, and instead just pack them
	      in the way we see them.
	      If ISO9660:1999 has not been selected, this violates the ISO9660
	      standard, but it happens to work on many systems.	 Use with cau‐
	      tion.

       -dir-mode mode
	      Overrides the mode of directories used to create	the  image  to
	      mode,  specified	as 4 digits of permission bits as in chmod(1).
	      This option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -dvd-video
	      Generate a DVD-Video compliant UDF filesystem. This is  done  by
	      sorting the order of the content of the appropriate files and by
	      adding padding between the files if needed.  Note that the sort‐
	      ing  only	 works	if  the	 DVD-Video filenames include uppercase
	      characters only.

	      Note that in order  to  get  a  DVD-Video	 compliant  filesystem
	      image, you need to prepare a DVD-Video compliant directory tree.
	      This requires a directory VIDEO_TS (all caps) in the root direc‐
	      tory  of	the  resulting	DVD,  and  usually  another  directory
	      AUDIO_TS.	 VIDEO_TS needs to include all needed files (filenames
	      must be all caps) for a compliant DVD-Video filesystem.

       -f     Follow symbolic links when generating the filesystem.  When this
	      option is not in use, symbolic links will be entered using  Rock
	      Ridge if enabled, otherwise they will be ignored.

       -file-mode mode
	      Overrides	 the mode of regular files used to create the image to
	      mode, specified as 4 digits of permission bits as	 in  chmod(1).
	      This option automatically enables Rock Ridge extensions.

       -gid gid
	      Overrides	 the  group ID read from the source files to the value
	      of gid.  Specifying this option automatically enables Rock Ridge
	      extensions.

       -gui   Switch  the behaviour for a GUI. This currently makes the output
	      more verbose but may have other effects in the future.

       -graft-points
	      Allow use of graft points for filenames. If this option is used,
	      all  filenames  are  checked  for	 graft points. The filename is
	      divided at the first unescaped equal sign.  All  occurrences  of
	      `\' and `=' characters must be escaped with `\' if -graft-points
	      has been specified.

       -hide glob
	      Hide any files matching glob, a  shell  wildcard	pattern,  from
	      being  seen  in  the  ISO9660 or Rock Ridge directory.  glob may
	      match any part of the filename  or  path.	  If  glob  matches  a
	      directory,  the  contents	 of that directory will be hidden.  In
	      order to match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not
	      include  a  trailing  `/'	 character.  All the hidden files will
	      still be	written	 to  the  output  CD  image  file.   See  also
	      -hide-joliet, and README.hide.  This option may be used multiple
	      times.

       -hide-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be	 hidden.   See
	      -hide.

       -hidden glob
	      Add the hidden (existence) ISO9660 directory attribute for files
	      and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard  pattern.	  This
	      attribute will prevent the files from being shown by some MS-DOS
	      and Windows commands.  glob may match any part of	 the  filename
	      or  path.	  In  order  to	 match a directory name, make sure the
	      pathname does not include a trailing `/' character.  This option
	      may be used multiple times.

       -hidden-list file
	      A	 file  containing  a list of shell wildcards to get the hidden
	      attribute.  See -hidden.

       -hide-joliet glob
	      Hide files and directories matching glob, a shell wildcard  pat‐
	      tern,  from  being seen in the Joliet directory.	glob may match
	      any part of the filename or path.	 If glob matches a  directory,
	      the  contents  of	 that  directory  will be hidden.  In order to
	      match a directory name, make sure the pathname does not  include
	      a	 trailing  `/'	character.  All the hidden files will still be
	      written to the output CD image file.   This  option  is  usually
	      used with -hide.	See also README.hide.  This option may be used
	      multiple times.

       -hide-joliet-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to  be  hidden  from
	      the Joliet tree.	See -hide-joliet.

       -hide-joliet-trans-tbl
	      Hide the TRANS.TBL files from the Joliet tree.  These files usu‐
	      ally don't make sense in the Joliet world as they list the  real
	      name  and	 the ISO9660 name which may both be different from the
	      Joliet name.

       -hide-rr-moved
	      Rename the directory RR_MOVED to .rr_moved  in  the  Rock	 Ridge
	      tree.  It seems to be impossible to completely hide the RR_MOVED
	      directory from the Rock Ridge tree.  This option only makes  the
	      visible  tree less confusing for people who don't know what this
	      directory is for.	 If you need to have no RR_MOVED directory  at
	      all, you should use -D.  Note that if -D has been specified, the
	      resulting filesystem is not ISO9660 level-1 compliant  and  will
	      not be readable on MS-DOS.  See also the NOTES section.

       -input-charset charset
	      Input  charset  that  defines the characters used in local file‐
	      names.  To get a list of valid charset names,  call  genisoimage
	      -input-charset  help.  To get a 1:1 mapping, you may use default
	      as charset name. The default initial values are  cp437  on  DOS-
	      based systems and iso8859-1 on all other systems.	 See the CHAR‐
	      ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -output-charset charset
	      Output charset that defines the characters that will be used  in
	      Rock Ridge filenames.  Defaults to the input charset.  See CHAR‐
	      ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -iso-level level
	      Set the ISO9660 conformance level. Valid numbers are 1 to 4.

	      With level 1, files may only consist of one  section  and	 file‐
	      names are restricted to 8.3 characters.

	      With level 2, files may only consist of one section.

	      With  level  3,  no  restrictions	 (other than ISO-9660:1988) do
	      apply.

	      With  all	 ISO9660  levels  from	1  to  3,  all	filenames  are
	      restricted  to  uppercase	 letters, numbers and underscores (_).
	      Filenames are limited to 31  characters,	directory  nesting  is
	      limited  to  8  levels, and pathnames are limited to 255 charac‐
	      ters.

	      Level 4 officially does not exist but  genisoimage  maps	it  to
	      ISO-9660:1999, which is ISO9660 version 2.

	      With  level 4, an enhanced volume descriptor with version number
	      and file structure version number set to 2 is  emitted.	Direc‐
	      tory  nesting is not limited to 8 levels, there is no need for a
	      file to contain a dot and the dot has no special meaning,	 file‐
	      names  do	 not  have version numbers, and filenames can be up to
	      207 characters long, or 197 characters if Rock Ridge is used.

	      When creating Version 2 images, genisoimage  emits  an  enhanced
	      volume descriptor, similar but not identical to a primary volume
	      descriptor. Be careful  not  to  use  broken  software  to  make
	      ISO9660 images bootable by assuming a second PVD copy and patch‐
	      ing this putative PVD copy into an El Torito VD.

       -J     Generate Joliet directory records in addition to regular ISO9660
	      filenames.   This	 is  primarily useful when the discs are to be
	      used on Windows machines.	 Joliet	 filenames  are	 specified  in
	      Unicode  and each path component can be up to 64 Unicode charac‐
	      ters long.  Note that Joliet is not a standard — only  Microsoft
	      Windows  and  Linux  systems  can	 read  Joliet extensions.  For
	      greater portability, consider using both Joliet and  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -joliet-long
	      Allow  Joliet  filenames	to  be	up  to 103 Unicode characters,
	      instead of  64.	This  breaks  the  Joliet  specification,  but
	      appears to work. Use with caution.

       -jcharset charset
	      A	 combination  of -J -input-charset charset.  See the CHARACTER
	      SETS section below for more details.

       -l     Allow full 31-character filenames.  Normally the	ISO9660	 file‐
	      name  will  be in an 8.3 format which is compatible with MS-DOS,
	      even though the ISO9660 standard allows filenames of  up	to  31
	      characters.   If	you use this option, the disc may be difficult
	      to use on a MS-DOS system, but will work on most other  systems.
	      Use with caution.

       -L     Outdated option; use -allow-leading-dots instead.

       -jigdo-jigdo jigdo_file
	      Produce  a  jigdo .jigdo metadata file as well as the filesystem
	      image.  See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-template template_file
	      Produce a jigdo .template file as well as the filesystem	image.
	      See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-min-file-size size
	      Specify  the  minimum size for a file to be listed in the .jigdo
	      file. Default (and minimum allowed) is 1KB. See the JIGDO	 NOTES
	      section below for more information.

       -jigdo-force-md5 path
	      Specify  a  file	pattern	 where	files must be contained in the
	      externally-supplied MD5 list as supplied by -md5-list.  See  the
	      JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -jigdo-exclude path
	      Specify  a  file	pattern	 where files will not be listed in the
	      .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more informa‐
	      tion.

       -jigdo-map path
	      Specify a pattern mapping for the jigdo file (e.g.  Debian=/mir‐
	      ror/debian).  See the JIGDO NOTES section below for more	infor‐
	      mation.

       -md5-list md5_file
	      Specify  a  file	containing the MD5sums, sizes and pathnames of
	      the files to be included in the .jigdo file. See the JIGDO NOTES
	      section below for more information.

       -jigdo-template-compress algorithm
	      Specify  a  compression algorithm to use for template date. gzip
	      and bzip2 are currently supported, and gzip is the default.  See
	      the JIGDO NOTES section below for more information.

       -log-file log_file
	      Redirect	all  error,  warning  and  informational  messages  to
	      log_file instead of the standard error.

       -m glob
	      Exclude files matching glob,  a  shell  wildcard	pattern,  from
	      being  written  to  CD-ROM.   glob may match either the filename
	      component or the full pathname.  This option may be used	multi‐
	      ple times.  For example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -m '*.o' -m core -m foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in `.o', or called core or foobar
	      from the image.  Note that if you had a directory called foobar,
	      it too (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.

       -exclude-list file
	      A file containing a list of shell wildcards to be excluded.  See
	      -m.

       -max-iso9660-filenames
	      Allow ISO9660 filenames to be up to 37  characters  long.	  This
	      option  enables  -N  as  the  extra name space is taken from the
	      space reserved for file version numbers.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but it happens  to  work  on
	      many  systems.   Although a conforming application needs to pro‐
	      vide a buffer space of at least  37  characters,	discs  created
	      with  this  option  may  cause  a buffer overflow in the reading
	      operating system. Use with extreme care.

       -M path

       -M device

       -dev device
	      Specifies path to existing  ISO9660  image  to  be  merged.  The
	      alternate	 form takes a SCSI device specifier that uses the same
	      syntax as the dev= parameter of wodim.  The output of  genisoim‐
	      age will be a new session which should get written to the end of
	      the image specified in -M.  Typically this requires multisession
	      capability  for  the  CD recorder used to write the image.  This
	      option may only be used in conjunction with -C.

       -N     Omit version numbers from ISO9660 filenames.
	      This violates the ISO9660 standard, but no one really  uses  the
	      version numbers anyway.  Use with caution.

       -new-dir-mode mode
	      Specify  the  mode, a 4-digit number as used in chmod(1), to use
	      when creating new directories  in	 the  filesystem  image.   The
	      default is 0555.

       -nobak

       -no-bak
	      Exclude  backup  files files on the ISO9660 filesystem; that is,
	      filenames that contain the characters `~' or `#' or end in .bak.
	      These are typically backup files for Unix text editors.

       -force-rr
	      Do  not  use the automatic Rock Ridge attributes recognition for
	      previous sessions.  This can work around	problems  with	images
	      created by, e.g., NERO Burning ROM.

       -no-rr Do  not  use  the	 Rock Ridge attributes from previous sessions.
	      This may help to avoid problems when genisoimage	finds  illegal
	      Rock Ridge signatures on an old session.

       -no-split-symlink-components
	      Don't split the symlink components, but begin a new Continuation
	      Area (CE) instead. This may waste	 some  space,  but  the	 SunOS
	      4.1.4  cdrom  driver  has	 a bug in reading split symlink compo‐
	      nents.

	      It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -no-split-symlink-fields
	      Don't split the symlink fields, but  begin  a  new  Continuation
	      Area  (CE)  instead.  This  may  waste some space, but the SunOS
	      4.1.4 and Solaris 2.5.1 cdrom driver have a bug in reading split
	      symlink fields (a `/' can be dropped).

	      It is questionable whether this option is useful nowadays.

       -o filename
	      Specify  the  output  file for the the ISO9660 filesystem image.
	      This can be a disk file, a tape  drive,  or  it  can  correspond
	      directly	to the device name of the optical disc writer.	If not
	      specified, stdout is used.  Note that the output can also	 be  a
	      block  device  for  a  regular disk partition, in which case the
	      ISO9660 filesystem can be mounted normally to verify that it was
	      generated correctly.

       -pad   Pad  the	end  of the whole image by 150 sectors (300 kB).  This
	      option is enabled by default.  If used in combination  with  -B,
	      padding  is  inserted between the ISO9660 partition and the boot
	      partitions, such that the first boot partition starts on a  sec‐
	      tor number that is a multiple of 16.

	      The  padding  is	needed	as many operating systems (e.g. Linux)
	      implement read-ahead bugs in their filesystem  I/O.  These  bugs
	      result  in read errors on files that are located near the end of
	      a track, particularly if the disc is written in  Track  At  Once
	      mode, or where a CD audio track follows the data track.

       -no-pad
	      Do  not  pad the end by 150 sectors (300 kB) and do not make the
	      the boot partitions start on a multiple of 16 sectors.

       -path-list file
	      A file containing a list of pathspec directories	and  filenames
	      to  be  added  to the ISO9660 filesystem. This list of pathspecs
	      are processed after any that appear on the command line. If  the
	      argument is -, the list is read from the standard input.

       -P     Outdated option; use -publisher instead.

       -publisher publisher_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
	      header.  This should describe the publisher of the CD-ROM,  usu‐
	      ally  with  a  mailing address and phone number.	There is space
	      for 128 characters.  Equivalent to PUBL  in  the	.genisoimagerc
	      file.

       -p preparer_id
	      Specifies	 a  text  string  that will be written into the volume
	      header.  This should describe the preparer of the	 CD-ROM,  usu‐
	      ally  with  a  mailing address and phone number.	There is space
	      for 128 characters.  Equivalent to PREP  in  the	.genisoimagerc
	      file.

       -print-size
	      Print  estimated filesystem size in multiples of the sector size
	      (2048 bytes) and exit. This option is needed for	Disk  At  Once
	      mode  and with some CD-R drives when piping directly into wodim,
	      cases where wodim needs to know the size of the filesystem image
	      in  advance.   Old  versions  of	mkisofs wrote this information
	      (among other information) to stderr.  As this turns  out	to  be
	      hard  to	parse, the number without any other information is now
	      printed on stdout too.  If you like  to  write  a	 simple	 shell
	      script,  redirect stderr and catch the number from stdout.  This
	      may be done with:

		   cdblocks=` genisoimage -print-size -quiet ... `
		   genisoimage ... | wodim ... tsize=${cdblocks}s -

       -quiet This makes genisoimage even less verbose.	  No  progress	output
	      will be provided.

       -R     Generate	SUSP  and  RR records using the Rock Ridge protocol to
	      further describe the files on the ISO9660 filesystem.

       -r     This is like the -R option, but file ownership and modes are set
	      to more useful values.  The uid and gid are set to zero, because
	      they are usually only useful on the  author's  system,  and  not
	      useful  to  the client.  All the file read bits are set true, so
	      that files and directories are globally readable on the  client.
	      If  any  execute	bit  is set for a file, set all of the execute
	      bits, so that executables are globally executable on the client.
	      If  any search bit is set for a directory, set all of the search
	      bits, so that directories are globally searchable on the client.
	      All  write  bits	are  cleared,  because	the filesystem will be
	      mounted read-only in any case.  If any of the special mode  bits
	      are  set,	 clear	them,  because	file locks are not useful on a
	      read-only filesystem, and set-id bits are not desirable for  uid
	      0	 or  gid 0.  When used on Win32, the execute bit is set on all
	      files. This is a result of the lack of file permissions on Win32
	      and  the	Cygwin	POSIX  emulation  layer.  See also -uid, -gid,
	      -dir-mode, -file-mode and -new-dir-mode.

       -relaxed-filenames
	      Allows ISO9660 filenames to include all 7-bit  ASCII  characters
	      except lowercase letters.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -root dir
	      Moves all files and directories into dir in the image.  This  is
	      essentially  the	same  as using -graft-points and adding dir in
	      front of every pathspec, but is easier to use.  dir may actually
	      be  several levels deep. It is created with the same permissions
	      as other graft points.

       -old-root dir
	      This option is necessary when writing a multisession  image  and
	      the previous (or even older) session was written with -root dir.
	      Using a directory name not found in the previous session	causes
	      genisoimage  to  abort  with  an	error.	 Without  this option,
	      genisoimage would not be able to find unmodified files and would
	      be  forced  to write their data into the image once more.	 -root
	      and -old-root are meant to be used together  to  do  incremental
	      backups.	 The initial session would e.g. use: genisoimage -root
	      backup_1 dirs.  The next	incremental  backup  with  genisoimage
	      -root  backup_2 -old-root backup_1 dirs would take another snap‐
	      shot of these directories. The first snapshot would be found  in
	      backup_1,	 the  second one in backup_2, but only modified or new
	      files need to be written into the second session.	 Without these
	      options,	new  files  would  be added and old ones would be pre‐
	      served. But old ones would be overwritten if the file was	 modi‐
	      fied.  Recovering	 the files by copying the whole directory back
	      from CD would also restore files that  were  deleted  intention‐
	      ally.  Accessing	several older versions of a file requires sup‐
	      port by the operating system to choose which sessions are to  be
	      mounted.

       -sort sort_file
	      Sort  file  locations  on	 the media. Sorting is controlled by a
	      file that contains pairs of filenames and sorting offset weight‐
	      ing.   If	 the  weighting	 is  higher,  the file will be located
	      closer to the beginning of the media, if the weighting is lower,
	      the  file	 will be located closer to the end of the media. There
	      must be only one space or tabs character	between	 the  filename
	      and  the	weight and the weight must be the last characters on a
	      line. The filename is taken to include all the characters up to,
	      but  not	including  the	last space or tab character on a line.
	      This is to allow for space characters to be in, or at the end of
	      a	 filename.   This  option does not sort the order of the file‐
	      names that appear in the ISO9660 directory. It sorts  the	 order
	      in which the file data is written to the CD image, which is use‐
	      ful  in  order  to  optimize  the	 data  layout  on  a  CD.  See
	      README.sort for more details.

       -sparc-boot img_sun4,img_sun4c,img_sun4m,img_sun4d,img_sun4e
	      See -B above.

       -sparc-label label
	      Set  the Sun disk label name for the Sun disk label that is cre‐
	      ated with -sparc-boot.

       -split-output
	      Split the output image into several files of approximately 1  GB
	      each.   This helps to create DVD-sized ISO9660 images on operat‐
	      ing systems without large file support.  wodim will  concatenate
	      more  than one file into a single track if writing to a DVD.  To
	      make -split-output work, -o  filename  must  be  specified.  The
	      resulting output images will be named: filename_00, filename_01,
	      filename_02....

       -stream-media-size #
	      Select streaming operation and set the media size to #  sectors.
	      This  allows  you	 to pipe the output of the tar(1) program into
	      genisoimage and to create an ISO9660 filesystem without the need
	      of  an  intermediate  tar archive file.  If this option has been
	      specified, genisoimage reads from stdin and creates a file  with
	      the  name	 STREAM.IMG.   The maximum size of the file (with pad‐
	      ding) is 200 sectors less than  the  specified  media  size.  If
	      -no-pad  has  been  specified,  the file size is 50 sectors less
	      than  the	 specified  media  size.   If  the  file  is  smaller,
	      genisoimage will write padding. This may take awhile.

	      The option -stream-media-size creates simple ISO9660 filesystems
	      only and may not	used  together	with  multisession  or	hybrid
	      filesystem options.

       -stream-file-name name
	      Reserved for future use.

       -sunx86-boot UFS_img,,,AUX1_img
	      Specifies	 a  comma-separated list of filesystem images that are
	      needed to make a bootable CD for Solaris x86 systems.

	      Note that partition 1 is used for the  ISO9660  image  and  that
	      partition	 2  is the whole disk, so partition 1 and 2 may not be
	      used by external partition data.	The first image file is mapped
	      to  partition  0.	  There may be empty fields in the comma-sepa‐
	      rated list, and list entries for	partition  1  and  2  must  be
	      empty.	The  maximum  number  of  supported  partitions	 is  8
	      (although the Solaris x86 partition table could support up to 16
	      partitions),  so	it is impossible to specify more than 6 parti‐
	      tion images.  This option is required to make a bootable CD  for
	      Solaris x86 systems.

	      If  -sunx86-boot	has  been  specified,  the first sector of the
	      resulting image will contain a PC fdisk  label  with  a  Solaris
	      type  0x82  fdisk	 partition that starts at offset 512 and spans
	      the whole CD.  In addition, for the Solaris type 0x82 fdisk par‐
	      tition,  there  is a SVr4 disk label at offset 1024 in the first
	      sector of the CD.	 This disk label specifies  slice  0  for  the
	      first  (usually  UFS type) filesystem image that is used to boot
	      the PC and slice 1 for the ISO9660 image.	  Slice	 2  spans  the
	      whole CD slice 3 ... slice 7 may be used for additional filesys‐
	      tem images that have been specified with this option.

	      A Solaris x86 boot CD uses a 1024 byte sized primary  boot  that
	      uses  the	 El-Torito  no-emulation  boot	mode  and  a secondary
	      generic boot that is in CD sectors 1..15.	 For this reason, both
	      -b bootimage -no-emul-boot and -G genboot must be specified.

       -sunx86-label label
	      Set  the	SVr4  disk  label name for the SVr4 disk label that is
	      created with -sunx86-boot.

       -sysid ID
	      Specifies the system ID.	There  is  space  for  32  characters.
	      Equivalent to SYSI in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -T     Generate a file TRANS.TBL in each directory on the CD-ROM, which
	      can be used on non-Rock Ridge-capable systems to help  establish
	      the correct filenames.  There is also information present in the
	      file that indicates the major and minor numbers  for  block  and
	      character	 devices,  and	each  symlink has the name of the link
	      file given.

       -table-name table_name
	      Alternative translation table filename (see above). Implies  -T.
	      If  you  are creating a multisession image you must use the same
	      name as in the previous session.

       -ucs-level level
	      Set Unicode conformance level in the  Joliet  SVD.  The  default
	      level is 3.  It may be set to 1..3 using this option.

       -udf   Include  UDF  filesystem	support	 in  the  generated filesystem
	      image.  UDF support is currently in alpha status	and  for  this
	      reason,  it is not possible to create UDF-only images.  UDF data
	      structures are currently coupled to the  Joliet  structures,  so
	      there  are  many pitfalls with the current implementation. There
	      is no UID/GID support, there is  no  POSIX  permission  support,
	      there  is	 no  support  for  symlinks.  Note that UDF wastes the
	      space from sector ~20 to sector 256 at the beginning of the disc
	      in addition to the space needed for real UDF data structures.

       -uid uid
	      Overrides	 the  uid  read	 from the source files to the value of
	      uid.  Specifying this option automatically  enables  Rock	 Ridge
	      extensions.

       -use-fileversion
	      The  option -use-fileversion allows genisoimage to use file ver‐
	      sion numbers from the filesystem.	 If the option is  not	speci‐
	      fied,  genisoimage  creates a version number of 1 for all files.
	      File versions are strings in the range ;1 to ;32767 This	option
	      is the default on VMS.

       -U     Allows   "untranslated"	filenames,  completely	violating  the
	      ISO9660 standards described above.  Enables the following flags:
	      -d -l -N -allow-leading-dots -relaxed-filenames -allow-lowercase
	      -allow-multidot -no-iso-translate.  Allows  more	than  one  `.'
	      character	 in  the  filename,  as	 well as mixed-case filenames.
	      This is useful on HP-UX, where the built-in cdfs filesystem does
	      not recognize any extensions. Use with extreme caution.

       -no-iso-translate
	      Do  not  translate  the characters `#' and `~' which are invalid
	      for ISO9660 filenames.  Although invalid, these  characters  are
	      often used by Microsoft systems.
	      This  violates  the  ISO9660 standard, but it happens to work on
	      many systems.  Use with caution.

       -V volid
	      Specifies the volume ID (volume name or  label)  to  be  written
	      into  the	 master	 block.	  There	 is  space  for 32 characters.
	      Equivalent to VOLI in the .genisoimagerc file.  The volume ID is
	      used  as	the mount point by the Solaris volume manager and as a
	      label assigned to a disc on various other platforms such as Win‐
	      dows and Apple Mac OS.

       -volset ID
	      Specifies the volume set ID.  There is space for 128 characters.
	      Equivalent to VOLS in the .genisoimagerc file.

       -volset-size #
	      Sets the volume set size to #.  The volume set size is the  num‐
	      ber  of CDs that are in a CD volume set.	A volume set is a col‐
	      lection of one or more volumes, on  which	 a  set	 of  files  is
	      recorded.

	      Volume Sets are not intended to be used to create a set numbered
	      CDs that are part of e.g. a Operation System installation set of
	      CDs.  Volume Sets are rather used to record a big directory tree
	      that would not fit on a single volume.  Each volume of a	Volume
	      Set contains a description of all the directories and files that
	      are recorded on the volumes where the sequence numbers are  less
	      than,  or	 equal to, the assigned Volume Set Size of the current
	      volume.

	      genisoimage currently does not support a	-volset-size  that  is
	      larger than 1.

	      The  option  -volset-size must be specified before -volset-seqno
	      on each command line.

       -volset-seqno #
	      Sets the volume set  sequence  number  to	 #.   The  volume  set
	      sequence	number	is  the index number of the current CD in a CD
	      set.   The  option  -volset-size	must   be   specified	before
	      -volset-seqno on each command line.

       -v     Verbose  execution.  If  given  twice on the command line, extra
	      debug information will be printed.

       -x glob
	      Identical to -m glob.

       -z     Generate	special	 RRIP  records	for  transparently  compressed
	      files.   This is only of use and interest for hosts that support
	      transparent decompression, such as Linux 2.4.14 or  later.   You
	      must  specify  -R	 or -r to enable Rock Ridge, and generate com‐
	      pressed  files  using  the  mkzftree  utility   before   running
	      genisoimage.  Note that transparent compression is a nonstandard
	      Rock Ridge extension.  The resulting disks  are  only  transpar‐
	      ently readable if used on Linux.	On other operating systems you
	      will need to call mkzftree by hand to decompress the files.

HFS OPTIONS
       -hfs   Create an ISO9660/HFS hybrid CD. This option should be  used  in
	      conjunction with the -map, -magic and/or the various double dash
	      options given below.

       -apple Create an ISO9660 CD with Apple's extensions. Similar  to	 -hfs,
	      except that the Apple Extensions to ISO9660 are added instead of
	      creating an HFS hybrid volume.  Former genisoimage versions  did
	      include  Rock  Ridge  attributes by default if -apple was speci‐
	      fied. This versions of genisoimage does not do this anymore.  If
	      you like to have Rock Ridge attributes, you need to specify this
	      separately.

       -map mapping_file
	      Use the mapping_file to set the CREATOR and TYPE information for
	      a	 file  based on the filename's extension. A filename is mapped
	      only if it is not one of the know Apple/Unix file	 formats.  See
	      the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below.

       -magic magic_file
	      The  CREATOR and TYPE information is set by using a file's magic
	      number (usually the first few bytes of a file).  The  magic_file
	      is  only	used if a file is not one of the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats, or the filename extension has  not  been	 mapped	 using
	      -map.  See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-creator creator
	      Set the default CREATOR for all files. Must be exactly 4 charac‐
	      ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -hfs-type type
	      Set the default TYPE for all files. Must be  exactly  4  charac‐
	      ters. See the HFS CREATOR/TYPE section below for more details.

       -probe Search  the  contents of files for all the known Apple/Unix file
	      formats.	See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS section  below  for
	      more  about  these  formats.  However, the only way to check for
	      MacBinary and AppleSingle files is to open  and  read  them,  so
	      this  option  may	 increase processing time. It is better to use
	      one or more double dash options given below  if  the  Apple/Unix
	      formats in use are known.

       -no-desktop
	      Do  not create (empty) Desktop files. New HFS Desktop files will
	      be created when the CD is used on a Macintosh (and stored in the
	      System  Folder).	 By  default, empty Desktop files are added to
	      the HFS volume.

       -mac-name
	      Use the HFS filename as the  starting  point  for	 the  ISO9660,
	      Joliet and Rock Ridge filenames. See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
	      section below for more information.

       -boot-hfs-file driver_file
	      Installs the driver_file that may make the CD bootable on a Mac‐
	      intosh. See the HFS BOOT DRIVER section below. (Alpha).

       -part  Generate	an HFS partition table. By default, no partition table
	      is generated, but some older Macintosh CD-ROM  drivers  need  an
	      HFS  partition  table  on	 the  CD-ROM to be able to recognize a
	      hybrid CD-ROM.

       -auto AutoStart_file
	      Make the HFS CD use  the	QuickTime  2.0	Autostart  feature  to
	      launch  an  application  or document. The given filename must be
	      the name of a document or application located at the  top	 level
	      of  the  CD.  The	 filename  must	 be  less  than 12 characters.
	      (Alpha).

       -cluster-size size
	      Set the size in bytes of the cluster or allocation units	of  PC
	      Exchange	files. Implies --exchange.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILE
	      FORMATS section below.

       -hide-hfs glob
	      Hide glob, a shell wildcard pattern, from the HFS	 volume.   The
	      file  or directory will still exist in the ISO9660 and/or Joliet
	      directory.  glob may match any part of the  filename.   Multiple
	      globs may be excluded.  Example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs '*.o' -hide-hfs foobar

	      would exclude all files ending in `.o' or called foobar from the
	      HFS volume. Note that if you had a directory called  foobar,  it
	      too  (and of course all its descendants) would be excluded.  The
	      glob can also be a path name relative to the source  directories
	      given on the command line. Example:

		   genisoimage -o rom -hfs -hide-hfs src/html src

	      would  exclude  just  the file or directory called html from the
	      src directory.  Any other file or directory called html  in  the
	      tree  will  not  be  excluded.  Should be used with -hide and/or
	      -hide-joliet.  In order to match a directory name, make sure the
	      pattern	does   not  include  a	trailing  `/'  character.  See
	      README.hide for more details.

       -hide-hfs-list file
	      Specify a file containing a list of wildcard patterns to be hid‐
	      den as in -hide-hfs.

       -hfs-volid hfs_volid
	      Volume  name  for	 the  HFS  partition. This is the name that is
	      assigned to the disc on a Macintosh and replaces the volid  used
	      with -V.

       -icon-position
	      Use  the	icon  position	information,  if  it  exists, from the
	      Apple/Unix file.	The icons will appear in the same position  as
	      they  would  on a Macintosh desktop. Folder location and size on
	      screen, its scroll positions, folder View (view as Icons,	 Small
	      Icons, etc.) are also preserved.	(Alpha).

       -root-info file
	      Set  the location, size on screen, scroll positions, folder View
	      etc. for the root folder of an HFS volume.  See  README.rootinfo
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -prep-boot file
	      PReP  boot image file. Up to 4 are allowed. See README.prep_boot
	      for more information.  (Alpha)

       -chrp-boot
	      Add CHRP boot header.

       -input-hfs-charset charset
	      Input charset that defines the characters used in HFS  filenames
	      when  used  with -mac-name.  The default charset is cp10000 (Mac
	      Roman).  See the CHARACTER SETS and HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES sec‐
	      tions below for more details.

       -output-hfs-charset charset
	      Output  charset that defines the characters that will be used in
	      the HFS filenames. Defaults to the input charset. See the	 CHAR‐
	      ACTER SETS section below for more details.

       -hfs-unlock
	      By  default,  genisoimage	 will  create  an  HFS	volume that is
	      locked.  This option leaves the volume unlocked  so  that	 other
	      applications (e.g.  hfsutils) can modify the volume. See the HFS
	      PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS section below for warnings about using this
	      option.

       -hfs-bless folder_name
	      "Bless" the given directory (folder). This is usually the System
	      Folder and is used in creating HFS bootable CDs. The name of the
	      directory	 must  be  the whole path name as genisoimage sees it.
	      E.g., if the given pathspec is ./cddata and the required	folder
	      is  called System Folder, the whole path name is "/cddata/System
	      Folder" (remember to use quotes if the name contains spaces).

       -hfs-parms parameters
	      Override certain parameters used to create the  HFS  filesystem.
	      Unlikely	to  be	used  in  normal  circumstances.  See the lib‐
	      hfs_iso/hybrid.h source file for details.

       --cap  Look for AUFS CAP Macintosh files.  Search  for  CAP  Apple/Unix
	      file  formats  only. Searching for the other possible Apple/Unix
	      file formats is disabled, unless other double dash  options  are
	      given.

       --netatalk
	      Look for NETATALK Macintosh files

       --double
	      Look for AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --ethershare
	      Look for Helios EtherShare Macintosh files

       --ushare
	      Look for IPT UShare Macintosh files

       --exchange
	      Look for PC Exchange Macintosh files

       --sgi  Look for SGI Macintosh files

       --xinet
	      Look for XINET Macintosh files

       --macbin
	      Look for MacBinary Macintosh files

       --single
	      Look for AppleSingle Macintosh files

       --dave Look for Thursby Software Systems DAVE Macintosh files

       --sfm  Look  for	 Microsoft's  Services	for  Macintosh files (NT only)
	      (Alpha)

       --osx-double
	      Look for Mac OS X AppleDouble Macintosh files

       --osx-hfs
	      Look for Mac OS X HFS Macintosh files

CHARACTER SETS
       genisoimage processes filenames in a POSIX-compliant way as strings  of
       8-bit  characters.   To	represent all codings for all languages, 8-bit
       characters are not sufficient.  Unicode or ISO-10646  define  character
       codings	that  need  at least 21 bits to represent all known languages.
       They may be represented with UTF-32, UTF-16 or  UTF-8  coding.	UTF-32
       uses a plain 32-bit coding but seems to be uncommon.  UTF-16 is used by
       Microsoft with Win32 with the disadvantage that 16-bit  characters  are
       not compliant with the POSIX filesystem interface.

       Modern Unix operating systems may use UTF-8 coding for filenames.  Each
       32-bit character is represented by one or more 8-bit characters.	 If  a
       character  is  coded  in	 ISO-8859-1  (used in Central Europe and North
       America) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32 or UTF-16 coded Unicode character.  If
       a  character  is	 coded in 7-Bit ASCII (used in USA and other countries
       with limited character set) is maps 1:1 to a UTF-32,  UTF-16  or	 UTF-8
       coded Unicode character.	 Character codes that cannot be represented as
       a single byte in UTF-8 (if the value is > 0x7F)	use  escape  sequences
       that map to more than one 8-bit character.

       If  all	operating  systems  used  UTF-8, genisoimage would not need to
       recode characters in filenames.	Unfortunately, Apple  uses  completely
       nonstandard  codings  and  Microsoft  uses a Unicode coding that is not
       compatible with the POSIX filename interface.

       For all non-UTF-8-coded operating systems, the  actual  character  that
       each byte represents depends on the character set or codepage (the name
       used by Microsoft) used by the local operating system — the  characters
       in  a  character set will reflect the region or natural language set by
       the user.

       Usually	character  codes  0x00-0x1f  are  control  characters,	 codes
       0x20-0x7f  are  the  7-bit  ASCII  characters  and  (on	PCs  and Macs)
       0x80-0xff are used for other characters.

       As there are a lot more than 256	 characters/symbols  in	 use,  only  a
       small  subset  are  represented	in a character set. Therefore the same
       character code may represent a different character in different charac‐
       ter  sets. So a filename generated, say in central Europe, may not dis‐
       play the same character when  viewed  on	 a  machine  in,  say  eastern
       Europe.

       To  make matters more complicated, different operating systems use dif‐
       ferent character sets for the region  or	 language.  For	 example,  the
       character  code	for  `é'  (small e with acute accent) may be character
       code 0x82 on a PC, code 0x8e on a Macintosh, code 0xe9 on a Unix system
       in western Europe, and code 0x000e9 in Unicode.

       As  long	 as  not  all  operating systems and applications use the same
       character set as the basis for filenames, it may be necessary to	 spec‐
       ify  which  character set your filenames use in and which character set
       the filenames should appear on the CD.

       There are four options to specify the character sets you want to use:

       -input-charset
	      Defines the local character set  you  are	 using	on  your  host
	      machine.	Any character set conversions that take place will use
	      this character set as the	 starting  point.  The	default	 input
	      character	 sets  are cp437 on MS-DOS-based systems and iso8859-1
	      on all other systems.  If -J is given, the  Unicode  equivalents
	      of the input character set will be used in the Joliet directory.
	      -jcharset is the same as -input-charset -J.

       -output-charset
	      Defines the character set that will be used with	for  the  Rock
	      Ridge names on the CD.  Defaults to the input character set.

       -input-hfs-charset
	      Defines  the  HFS	 character  set used for HFS filenames decoded
	      from any of the various Apple/Unix  file	formats.  Only	useful
	      when  used  with -mac-name.  See the HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES for
	      more information. Defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).

       -output-hfs-charset
	      Defines the HFS character set used to create HFS filenames  from
	      the  input character set in use. In most cases this will be from
	      the character set given with -input-charset.   Defaults  to  the
	      input HFS character set.

       There are a number of character sets built in to genisoimage.  To get a
       listing, use  -input-charset  help.   This  list	 doesn't  include  the
       charset	derived	 from the current locale, if genisoimage is built with
       iconv support.

       Additional character sets can be read from file for any of the  charac‐
       ter  set	 options  by giving a filename as the argument to the options.
       The given file will only be read if its name does not match one of  the
       built-in character sets.

       The  format of the character set files is the same as the mapping files
       available from http://www.unicode.org/Public/MAPPINGS.  This format is:

	      Column #1 is the input byte code (in hex as 0xXX)
	      Column #2 is the Unicode (in hex as 0xXXXX)
	      The rest of the line is ignored.

       Any blank line, line without two (or more) columns in the above	format
       or  comments  lines (starting with the # character) are ignored without
       any warnings. Any missing input code is	mapped	to  Unicode  character
       0x0000.

       Note  that,  while  UTF-8 is supported, other Unicode encodings such as
       UCS-2/UTF-16 and UCS-4/UTF-32 are not, as POSIX operating systems  can‐
       not handle them natively.

       A 1:1 character set mapping can be defined by using the keyword default
       as the argument to any of the character set options. This is the behav‐
       iour of old versions of mkisofs.

       The  ISO9660  filenames generated from the input filenames are not con‐
       verted from the input character set. The ISO9660	 character  set	 is  a
       very limited subset of the ASCII characters, so any conversion would be
       pointless.

       Any character that genisoimage cannot convert will be replaced  with  a
       `_' character.

HFS CREATOR/TYPE
       A  Macintosh  file  has	two properties associated with it which define
       which application created the file, the CREATOR and what data the  file
       contains,  the TYPE.  Both are (exactly) 4 letter strings. Usually this
       allows a Macintosh user to double-click on a file and launch  the  cor‐
       rect  application etc. The CREATOR and TYPE of a particular file can be
       found by using something like ResEdit (or similar) on a Macintosh.

       The  CREATOR  and  TYPE	information  is	 stored	 in  all  the  various
       Apple/Unix  encoded  files.  For other files it is possible to base the
       CREATOR and TYPE on the filename's extension using a mapping file (with
       -map)  and/or  using the magic number (usually a signature in the first
       few bytes) of a file (with -magic).  If both these options  are	given,
       their  order  on	 the  command  line  is significant.  If -map is given
       first, a filename extension match is attempted before  a	 magic	number
       match.  However,	 if  -magic  is	 given	first, a magic number match is
       attempted before a filename extension match.

       If a mapping or magic file is not used,	or  no	match  is  found,  the
       default	CREATOR	 and  TYPE  for	 all regular files can be set by using
       entries	in  the	 .genisoimagerc	 file  or  using  -hfs-creator	and/or
       -hfs-type, otherwise the default CREATOR and TYPE are Unix and TEXT.

       The  format  of	the mapping file is the same afpfile format as used by
       aufs.  This file has five columns for the extension, file  translation,
       CREATOR,	 TYPE  and Comment.  Lines starting with the `#' character are
       comment lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example filename mapping file
       #
       # EXTN	XLate	CREATOR	  TYPE	   Comment
       .tif	Raw	'8BIM'	  'TIFF'   "Photoshop TIFF image"
       .hqx	Ascii	'BnHq'	  'TEXT'   "BinHex file"
       .doc	Raw	'MSWD'	  'WDBN'   "Word file"
       .mov	Raw	'TVOD'	  'MooV'   "QuickTime Movie"
       *	Ascii	'ttxt'	  'TEXT'   "Text file"

       Where:

	      The first column EXTN defines the Unix filename extension to  be
	      mapped.  The  default  mapping  for  any filename extension that
	      doesn't match is defined with the `*' character.

	      The Xlate column defines the type of  text  translation  between
	      the Unix and Macintosh file it is ignored by genisoimage, but is
	      kept to be compatible with aufs(1).  Although  genisoimage  does
	      not  alter the contents of a file, if a binary file has its TYPE
	      set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a  Macintosh.	There‐
	      fore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

	      The  CREATOR  and	 TYPE  keywords	 must be 4 characters long and
	      enclosed in single quotes.

	      The comment field is enclosed in double quotes — it  is  ignored
	      by genisoimage, but is kept to be compatible with aufs.

       The  format  of the magic file is almost identical to the magic(5) file
       used by the file(1) command.

       This file has four tab-separated columns for  the  byte	offset,	 type,
       test  and  message.   Lines starting with the `#' character are comment
       lines and are ignored. An example file would be like:

       # Example magic file
       #
       # off   type	 test	    message
       0       string	 GIF8	    8BIM GIFf  GIF image
       0       beshort	 0xffd8	    8BIM JPEG  image data
       0       string	 SIT!	    SIT! SIT!  StuffIt Archive
       0       string	 \037\235   LZIV ZIVU  standard Unix compress
       0       string	 \037\213   GNUz ZIVU  gzip compressed data
       0       string	 %!	    ASPS TEXT  Postscript
       0       string	 \004%!	    ASPS TEXT  PC Postscript with a ^D to start
       4       string	 moov	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (moov)
       4       string	 mdat	    txtt MooV  QuickTime movie file (mdat)

       The format of the file is described in magic(5).	 The  only  difference
       here is that for each entry in the magic file, the message for the ini‐
       tial offset must be be 4 characters for the CREATOR followed by 4 char‐
       acters  for  the TYPE — white space is optional between them. Any other
       characters on this line are ignored.  Continuation lines (starting with
       a `>') are also ignored, i.e., only the initial offset lines are used.

       Using  -magic  may  significantly increase processing time as each file
       has to opened and read to find its magic number.

       In summary, for all files, the default CREATOR is Unix and the  default
       TYPE  is TEXT.  These can be changed by using entries in the .genisoim‐
       agerc file or by using -hfs-creator and/or -hfs-type.

       If the a file is in one of the known Apple/Unix formats (and the format
       has  been  selected),  the  CREATOR  and TYPE are taken from the values
       stored in the Apple/Unix file.

       Other files can have their CREATOR and TYPE  set	 from  their  filename
       extension  (with	 -map),	 or  their magic number (with -magic).	If the
       default match is used in the mapping file, these	 values	 override  the
       default CREATOR and TYPE.

       A     full     CREATOR/TYPE     database	    can	    be	   found    at
       http://www.angelfire.com/il/szekely/.

HFS MACINTOSH FILE FORMATS
       Macintosh files have two parts  called  the  Data  and  Resource	 fork.
       Either may be empty. Unix (and many other OSs) can only cope with files
       having one part (or fork). To add to this, Macintosh files have a  num‐
       ber  of	attributes  associated with them — probably the most important
       are the TYPE and CREATOR.  Again, Unix has no concept of these types of
       attributes.

       E.g., a Macintosh file may be a JPEG image where the image is stored in
       the Data fork and a desktop thumbnail stored in the Resource  fork.  It
       is usually the information in the data fork that is useful across plat‐
       forms.

       Therefore to store a Macintosh file on a Unix filesystem, a way has  to
       be found to cope with the two forks and the extra attributes (which are
       referred to as the Finder info).	 Unfortunately, it  seems  that	 every
       software	 package that stores Macintosh files on Unix has chosen a com‐
       pletely different storage method.

       The Apple/Unix formats that genisoimage (partially) supports are:

       CAP AUFS format
	      Data fork stored	in  a  file.  Resource	fork  in  subdirectory
	      .resource with same filename as data fork. Finder info in subdi‐
	      rectory .finderinfo with same filename.

       AppleDouble/Netatalk
	      Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork stored in a file  with
	      same name prefixed with `%'. Finder info also stored in same `%'
	      file.  Netatalk  uses  the  same	format,	  but	the   resource
	      fork/Finder  info	 stored in subdirectory .AppleDouble with same
	      filename as data fork.

       AppleSingle
	      Data structures similar to above, except both forks  and	Finder
	      info are stored in one file.

       Helios EtherShare
	      Data  fork  stored  in  a	 file.	 Resource fork and Finder info
	      together in subdirectory .rsrc with same filename as data fork.

       IPT UShare
	      Like the EtherShare  format,  but	 the  Finder  info  is	stored
	      slightly differently.

       MacBinary
	      Both forks and Finder info stored in one file.

       Apple PC Exchange
	      Used  by	Macintoshes  to	 store Apple files on DOS (FAT) disks.
	      Data fork stored	in  a  file.  Resource	fork  in  subdirectory
	      resource.frk  (or	 RESOURCE.FRK).	  Finder info as one record in
	      file finder.dat (or FINDER.DAT).	Separate finder.dat  for  each
	      data fork directory.

	      Note:  genisoimage  needs to know the native FAT cluster size of
	      the disk that the PC Exchange files are on (or have been	copied
	      from).  This  size  is  given  by -cluster-size.	The cluster or
	      allocation size can be found by using the DOS utility chkdsk.

	      May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or  higher  files  (available
	      with  MacOS 8.1).	 DOS media containing PC Exchange files should
	      be mounted as type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       SGI/XINET
	      Used by SGI machines when they mount HFS disks. Data fork stored
	      in  a file.  Resource fork in subdirectory .HSResource with same
	      filename.	 Finder info as one record in file .HSancillary.  Sep‐
	      arate .HSancillary for each data fork directory.

       Thursby Software Systems DAVE
	      Allows  Macintoshes  to  store Apple files on SMB servers.  Data
	      fork  stored  in	a  file.   Resource   fork   in	  subdirectory
	      resource.frk.   Uses  the	 AppleDouble  format to store resource
	      fork.

       Services for Macintosh
	      Format of files stored by NT Servers on NTFS  filesystems.  Data
	      fork  is	stored	as  filename.	Resource fork stored as a NTFS
	      stream called filename:AFP_Resource.  The Finder info is	stored
	      as  a NTFS stream called filename:Afp_AfpInfo.  NTFS streams are
	      normally invisible to the user.

	      Warning: genisoimage only partially supports the SFM format.  If
	      an  HFS file or folder stored on the NT server contains an ille‐
	      gal NT character in its name, NT converts	 these	characters  to
	      Private Use Unicode characters.  The characters are: " * / < > ?
	      \ | and a space or period if it is the  last  character  of  the
	      filename,	 character codes 0x01 to 0x1f (control characters) and
	      Apple's apple logo.

	      Unfortunately, these private Unicode characters are not readable
	      by  the  genisoimage NT executable. Therefore any file or direc‐
	      tory name containing these characters will be ignored —  includ‐
	      ing the contents of any such directory.

       Mac OS X AppleDouble
	      When HFS/HFS+ files are copied or saved by Mac OS X on to a non-
	      HFS filesystem (e.g. UFS, NFS etc.), the	files  are  stored  in
	      AppleDouble  format.   Data fork stored in a file. Resource fork
	      stored in a file with same name prefixed with `._'. Finder  info
	      also stored in same `._' file.

       Mac OS X HFS (Alpha)
	      Not  really an Apple/Unix encoding, but actual HFS/HFS+ files on
	      a Mac OS X system. Data fork stored in  a	 file.	Resource  fork
	      stored  in  a  pseudo  file  with	 the same name with the suffix
	      /rsrc.  The Finder info is only available via a Mac OS X library
	      call.

	      See also README.macosx.

	      Only works when used on Mac OS X.

	      If  a  file  is found with a zero length resource fork and empty
	      finderinfo, it is assumed not to have any Apple/Unix encoding  —
	      therefore a TYPE and CREATOR can be set using other methods.

       genisoimage  will  attempt  to set the CREATOR, TYPE, date and possibly
       other flags from the finder info. Additionally, if it exists, the  Mac‐
       intosh  filename	 is  set from the finder info, otherwise the Macintosh
       name is based on the Unix filename — see the  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILENAMES
       section below.

       When using -apple, the TYPE and CREATOR are stored in the optional Sys‐
       tem Use or SUSP field in the ISO9660 Directory Record  —	 in  much  the
       same  way  as the Rock Ridge attributes are. In fact to make life easy,
       the Apple extensions are added at the beginning of  the	existing  Rock
       Ridge  attributes  (i.e.,  to get the Apple extensions you get the Rock
       Ridge extensions as well).

       The Apple extensions require the resource  fork	to  be	stored	as  an
       ISO9660	associated  file.  This is just like any normal file stored in
       the ISO9660 filesystem except that the associated file flag is  set  in
       the  Directory  Record (bit 2). This file has the same name as the data
       fork (the file seen by non-Apple machines). Associated files  are  nor‐
       mally ignored by other OSs

       When  using  -hfs,  the	TYPE  and  CREATOR plus other finder info, are
       stored in a separate HFS directory, not visible on the ISO9660  volume.
       The  HFS	 directory  references	the  same data and resource fork files
       described above.

       In most cases, it is better to use -hfs instead of -apple, as the  lat‐
       ter  imposes  the limited ISO9660 characters allowed in filenames. How‐
       ever, the Apple extensions do give the advantage	 that  the  files  are
       packed  on the disk more efficiently and it may be possible to fit more
       files on a CD.

HFS MACINTOSH FILENAMES
       Where possible, the HFS filename that is stored with an Apple/Unix file
       is  used	 for  the  HFS part of the CD. However, not all the Apple/Unix
       encodings store the HFS filename with the finderinfo. In	 these	cases,
       the  Unix  filename  is used — with escaped special characters. Special
       characters include `/' and characters with codes over 127.

       AUFS escapes these characters by using `:' followed  by	the  character
       code  as two hex digits. Netatalk and EtherShare have a similar scheme,
       but uses `%' instead of a `:'.

       If genisoimage cannot find an HFS filename, it uses the Unix name, with
       any %xx or :xx characters (xx are two hex digits) converted to a single
       character code.	If xx are not hex digits ([0-9a-fA-F]), they are  left
       alone  —	 although any remaining `:' is converted to `%', as `:' is the
       HFS directory separator. Care must be taken, as an ordinary  Unix  file
       with %xx or :xx will also be converted. e.g.

       This:2fFile   converted to This/File

       This:File     converted to This%File

       This:t7File   converted to This%t7File

       Although	 HFS  filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase let‐
       ters, the filesystem is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames  aBc  and
       AbC  are	 the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS
       name, genisoimage will attempt to make a	 unique	 name  by  adding  `_'
       characters to one of the filenames.

       If  an HFS filename exists for a file, genisoimage can use this name as
       the starting point for the ISO9660, Joliet  and	Rock  Ridge  filenames
       using  -mac-name.  Normal Unix files without an HFS name will still use
       their Unix name.	 e.g.

       If a MacBinary (or PC Exchange) file is stored as someimage.gif.bin  on
       the Unix filesystem, but contains a HFS file called someimage.gif, this
       is the name that would appear on the HFS part of the  CD.  However,  as
       genisoimage  uses  the  Unix  name  as the starting point for the other
       names, the ISO9660 name generated will probably be SOMEIMAG.BIN and the
       Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.bin.  This option will use the
       HFS filename as the starting point and the ISO9660 name	will  probably
       be SOMEIMAG.GIF and the Joliet/Rock Ridge would be someimage.gif.

       -mac-name  will not currently work with -T — the Unix name will be used
       in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       The character set used to convert any HFS  filename  to	a  Joliet/Rock
       Ridge filename defaults to cp10000 (Mac Roman).	The character set used
       can be specified using -input-hfs-charset.  Other built-in HFS  charac‐
       ter  sets  are:	cp10006	 (MacGreek),  cp10007  (MacCyrillic),  cp10029
       (MacLatin2), cp10079 (MacIcelandandic) and cp10081 (MacTurkish).

       Note: the character codes used by HFS filenames taken from the  various
       Apple/Unix  formats  will not be converted as they are assumed to be in
       the correct Apple character  set.  Only	the  Joliet/Rock  Ridge	 names
       derived from the HFS filenames will be converted.

       The  existing  genisoimage  code will filter out any illegal characters
       for the ISO9660 and Joliet filenames, but as genisoimage expects to  be
       dealing directly with Unix names, it leaves the Rock Ridge names as is.
       But as `/' is a legal HFS filename character, -mac-name converts `/' to
       a `_' in Rock Ridge filenames.

       If  the	Apple  extensions  are	used,  only the ISO9660 filenames will
       appear on the Macintosh. However, as the Macintosh ISO9660 drivers  can
       use Level 2 filenames, you can use options like -allow-multidot without
       problems on a Macintosh — still take care over the names,  for  example
       this.file.name  will  be converted to THIS.FILE i.e. only have one `.',
       also filename abcdefgh will be seen as ABCDEFGH but abcdefghi  will  be
       seen  as ABCDEFGHI.  i.e. with a `.' at the end — don't know if this is
       a Macintosh problem or a genisoimage/mkhybrid  problem.	All  filenames
       will  be in uppercase when viewed on a Macintosh. Of course, DOS/Win3.X
       machines will not be able to see Level 2 filenames...

HFS CUSTOM VOLUME/FOLDER ICONS
       To give a HFS CD a custom icon, make sure the root (top	level)	folder
       includes a standard Macintosh volume icon file. To give a volume a cus‐
       tom icon on a Macintosh, an icon has to be  pasted  over	 the  volume's
       icon  in	 the  "Get  Info" box of the volume. This creates an invisible
       file called Icon\r (`\r' is the carriage return character) in the  root
       folder.

       A  custom folder icon is very similar — an invisible file called Icon\r
       exists in the folder itself.

       Probably the easiest way to create a custom icon that  genisoimage  can
       use  is to format a blank HFS floppy disk on a Mac and paste an icon to
       its "Get Info" box. If using Linux with the HFS module installed, mount
       the floppy:

	      mount -t hfs /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

       The  floppy  will  be mounted as a CAP filesystem by default.  Then run
       genisoimage using something like:

	      genisoimage --cap -o output source_dir /mnt/floppy

       If you are not using Linux, you can use hfsutils to copy the icon  file
       from  the floppy.  However, care has to be taken, as the icon file con‐
       tains a control character.  For example:

	      hmount /dev/fd0
	      hdir -a
	      hcopy -m Icon^V^M icon_dir/icon

       Where `^V^M' is control-V followed by control-M. Then  run  genisoimage
       by using something like:

	      genisoimage --macbin -o output source_dir icon_dir

       The  procedure for creating/using custom folder icons is very similar —
       paste an icon to folder's "Get Info" box	 and  transfer	the  resulting
       Icon\r file to the relevant directory in the genisoimage source tree.

       You may want to hide the icon files from the ISO9660 and Joliet trees.

       To  give a custom icon to a Joliet CD, follow the instructions found at
       http://www.cdrfaq.org/faq03.html#S3-21-1.

HFS BOOT DRIVER
       It may be possible to make the hybrid CD bootable on a Macintosh.

       A bootable HFS CD requires an Apple CD-ROM (or  compatible)  driver,  a
       bootable HFS partition and the necessary System, Finder, etc. files.

       A driver can be obtained from any other Macintosh bootable CD-ROM using
       the  apple_driver  utility.  This  file	 can   then   be   used	  with
       -boot-hfs-file.

       The  HFS	 partition  (i.e.  the hybrid disk in our case) must contain a
       suitable System Folder, again from another CD-ROM or disk.

       For a partition to be bootable, it must have its boot  block  set.  The
       boot  block  is	in  the	 first	two  blocks of a partition. For a non-
       bootable partition the boot block is full of zeros.  Normally,  when  a
       System  file is copied to partition on a Macintosh disk, the boot block
       is filled with a number of required settings —  unfortunately  I	 don't
       know the full spec for the boot block, so I'm guessing that the follow‐
       ing will work.

       Therefore, the utility apple_driver also extracts the boot  block  from
       the  first  HFS partition it finds on the given CD-ROM and this is used
       for the HFS partition created by genisoimage.

       Please note: By using a driver from an Apple CD and copying Apple soft‐
       ware  to	 your CD, you become liable to obey Apple Computer, Inc. Soft‐
       ware License Agreements.

EL TORITO BOOT INFORMATION TABLE
       When -boot-info-table is given, genisoimage will modify the  boot  file
       specified by -b by inserting a 56-byte boot information table at offset
       8 in the file.  This modification is done in the source filesystem,  so
       make  sure  you	use a copy if this file is not easily recreated!  This
       file contains pointers which may not be easily or reliably obtained  at
       boot time.

       The  format  of	this  table is as follows; all integers are in section
       7.3.1 ("little endian") format.

	 Offset	   Name		  Size	    Meaning
	  8	   bi_pvd	  4 bytes   LBA of primary volume descriptor
	 12	   bi_file	  4 bytes   LBA of boot file
	 16	   bi_length	  4 bytes   Boot file length in bytes
	 20	   bi_csum	  4 bytes   32-bit checksum
	 24	   bi_reserved	  40 bytes  Reserved

	      The 32-bit checksum is the sum of all the 32-bit	words  in  the
	      boot  file  starting  at	byte  offset  64.   All	 linear	 block
	      addresses (LBAs) are given in CD sectors (normally 2048 bytes).

HPPA NOTES
       To make a bootable CD for HPPA, at the very least a  boot  loader  file
       (-hppa-bootloader),  a  kernel  image  file  (32-bit,  64-bit, or both,
       depending on hardware) and a boot command line (-hppa-cmdline) must  be
       specified.  Some	 systems can boot either a 32- or a 64-bit kernel, and
       the firmware will choose	 one  if  both	are  present.	Optionally,  a
       ramdisk can be used for the root filesystem using -hppa-cmdline.

JIGDO NOTES
       Jigdo  is a tool to help in the distribution of large files like CD and
       DVD images; see http://atterer.org/jigdo/ for more details.  Debian CDs
       and  DVD	 ISO  images are published on the web in jigdo format to allow
       end users to download them more efficiently.

       To create jigdo	and  template  files  alongside	 the  ISO  image  from
       genisoimage,  you  must first generate a list of the files that will be
       used, in the following format:

	 MD5sum	  File size  Path
	 32 chars 12 chars   to end of line

       The MD5sum must be written in standard hexadecimal notation,  the  file
       size  must  list	 the size of the file in bytes, and the path must list
       the absolute path to the file. For example:

       00006dcd58ff0756c36d2efae21be376		14736  /mirror/debian/file1
       000635c69b254a1be8badcec3a8d05c1	       211822  /mirror/debian/file2
       00083436a3899a09633fc1026ef1e66e		22762  /mirror/debian/file3

       Once you have this file, call genisoimage with all of your normal  com‐
       mand-line  parameters.  Specify	the output filenames for the jigdo and
       template files using -jigdo-jigdo and -jigdo-template, and pass in  the
       location of your MD5 list with -md5-list.

       If there are files that you do NOT want to be added into the jigdo file
       (e.g.  if  they	are  likely  to	 change	 often),  specify  them	 using
       -jigdo-exclude.	If  you	 want  to verify some of the files as they are
       written into the image, specify them  using  -jigdo-force-md5.  If  any
       files  don't match, genisoimage will then abort.	 Both of these options
       take regular expressions as input. It is possible to restrict  the  set
       of   files  that	 will  be  used	 further  based	 on  size  —  use  the
       -jigdo-min-file-size option.

       Finally, the jigdo code needs to know how to map the files it is	 given
       onto  a	mirror-style  configuration.  Specify  how  to map paths using
       -jigdo-map.  Using Debian=/mirror/debian will cause all paths  starting
       with  /mirror/debian  to be mapped to Debian:<file> in the output jigdo
       file.

EXAMPLES
       To create a vanilla ISO9660 filesystem image in the file cd.iso,	 where
       the directory cd_dir will become the root directory of the CD, call:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD  with	Rock  Ridge extensions of the source directory
       cd_dir:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R cd_dir

       To create a CD with Rock	 Ridge	extensions  of	the  source  directory
       cd_dir  where all files have at least read permission and all files are
       owned by root, call:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -r cd_dir

       To write a tar archive directly to a CD that will later contain a  sim‐
       ple ISO9660 filesystem with the tar archive call:

	      % tar cf - . | genisoimage -stream-media-size 333000 | \
		   wodim dev=b,t,l -dao tsize=333000s -

       To  create a HFS hybrid CD with the Joliet and Rock Ridge extensions of
       the source directory cd_dir:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -R -J -hfs cd_dir

       To create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory  cd_dir  that  con‐
       tains Netatalk Apple/Unix files:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso --netatalk cd_dir

       To  create a HFS hybrid CD from the source directory cd_dir, giving all
       files CREATOR and TYPES based on just their filename extensions	listed
       in the file "mapping".:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -map mapping cd_dir

       To  create  a  CD with the Apple Extensions to ISO9660, from the source
       directories cd_dir and another_dir.  Files in all the known  Apple/Unix
       format are decoded and any other files are given CREATOR and TYPE based
       on their magic number given in the file magic:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -apple -magic magic -probe \
		      cd_dir another_dir

       The following example puts different files on the CD that all have  the
       name  README,  but  have different contents when seen as a ISO9660/Rock
       Ridge, Joliet or HFS CD.

       Current directory contains:

	      % ls -F
	      README.hfs     README.joliet  README.Unix	   cd_dir/

       The following command puts the contents of the directory cd_dir on  the
       CD  along  with the three README files — but only one will be seen from
       each of the three filesystems:

	      % genisoimage -o cd.iso -hfs -J -r -graft-points \
		      -hide README.hfs -hide README.joliet \
		      -hide-joliet README.hfs -hide-joliet README.Unix \
		      -hide-hfs README.joliet -hide-hfs README.Unix \
		      README=README.hfs README=README.joliet \
		      README=README.Unix cd_dir

       i.e. the file README.hfs will be seen as README on the HFS CD  and  the
       other  two  README  files  will be hidden. Similarly for the Joliet and
       ISO9660/Rock Ridge CD.

       There are probably all sorts of strange results possible with  combina‐
       tions of the hide options ...

NOTES
       genisoimage  may	 safely	 be installed suid root. This may be needed to
       allow genisoimage to read the previous session when creating  a	multi‐
       session image.

       If   genisoimage	 is  creating  a  filesystem  image  with  Rock	 Ridge
       attributes and the directory nesting level of the source directory tree
       is too much for ISO9660, genisoimage will do deep directory relocation.
       This results in a directory called RR_MOVED in the  root	 directory  of
       the CD. You cannot avoid this directory.

       Many  boot  code	 options for different platforms are mutualy exclusive
       because the boot blocks cannot coexist, ie. different  platforms	 share
       the	same	  data	   locations	 in	the	image.	   See
       http://lists.debian.org/debian-cd/2006/12/msg00109.html for details.

BUGS
       Any files that have hard links to files not in the tree being copied to
       the ISO9660 filesystem will have an incorrect file reference count.

       Does not check for SUSP record(s) in `.' entry of the root directory to
       verify the existence of	Rock  Ridge  enhancements.   This  problem  is
       present	when  reading  old  sessions while adding data in multisession
       mode.

       Does not properly read relocated directories in multisession mode  when
       adding  data.   Any relocated deep directory is lost if the new session
       does not include the deep directory.

       Does not re-use RR_MOVED when doing multisession from TRANS.TBL.

       Does not create whole_name entry for RR_MOVED in multisession mode.

       There may be other bugs.	 Please, report them to the maintainers.

HFS PROBLEMS/LIMITATIONS
       I have had to make several assumptions on how  I	 expect	 the  modified
       libhfs  routines to work, however there may be situations that either I
       haven't thought of, or come across when these assumptions fail.	There‐
       fore I can't guarantee that genisoimage will work as expected (although
       I haven't had a major problem yet). Most of the HFS features work fine,
       but some are not fully tested. These are marked as Alpha above.

       Although	 HFS  filenames appear to support uppercase and lowercase let‐
       ters, the filesystem is case-insensitive, i.e., the filenames  aBc  and
       AbC  are	 the same. If a file is found in a directory with the same HFS
       name, genisoimage will attempt to make a	 unique	 name  by  adding  `_'
       characters to one of the filenames.

       HFS  file/directory  names that share the first 31 characters have `_N'
       (a decimal number) substituted for the last few characters to  generate
       unique names.

       Care must be taken when "grafting" Apple/Unix files or directories (see
       above for the method and syntax involved). It is not possible to use  a
       new name for an Apple/Unix encoded file/directory. e.g. If a Apple/Unix
       encoded file called oldname is to added to the CD, you cannot  use  the
       command line:

	      genisoimage  -o  output.raw  -hfs	 -graft-points newname=oldname
	      cd_dir

       genisoimage will be unable to decode oldname.  However, you  can	 graft
       Apple/Unix  encoded  files or directories as long as you do not attempt
       to give them new names as above.

       When creating an HFS volume with the multisession options, -M  and  -C,
       only  files  in	the  last  session  will  be  in  the HFS volume. i.e.
       genisoimage cannot add existing files from previous sessions to the HFS
       volume.

       However,	 if  each  session  is	created	 with -part, each session will
       appear as separate volumes when mounted on a Mac. In this case,	it  is
       worth using -V or -hfs-volid to give each session a unique volume name,
       otherwise each "volume" will appear on the Desktop with the same name.

       Symbolic links (as with all other non-regular files) are not  added  to
       the HFS directory.

       Hybrid  volumes	may be larger than pure ISO9660 volumes containing the
       same data. In some cases (e.g. DVD sized volumes) the difference can be
       significant. As an HFS volume gets bigger, so does the allocation block
       size (the smallest amount of space a file can occupy).  For a 650MB CD,
       the allocation block is 10kB, for a 4.7GB DVD it will be about 70kB.

       The  maximum number of files in an HFS volume is about 65500 — although
       the real limit will be somewhat less than this.

       The resulting hybrid volume can be accessed on a Unix machine by	 using
       the hfsutils routines. However, no changes can be made to the volume as
       it is set as locked.  The option	 -hfs-unlock  will  create  an	output
       image  that is unlocked — however no changes should be made to the con‐
       tents of the volume (unless you really know what you are doing) as it's
       not a "real" HFS volume.

       -mac-name  will not currently work with -T — the Unix name will be used
       in the TRANS.TBL file, not the Macintosh name.

       Although genisoimage does not alter the contents of a file, if a binary
       file  has  its TYPE set as TEXT, it may be read incorrectly on a Macin‐
       tosh. Therefore a better choice for the default TYPE may be ????.

       -mac-boot-file may not work at all...

       May not work with PC Exchange v2.2 or higher files (available with Mac‐
       OS  8.1).   DOS media containing PC Exchange files should be mounted as
       type msdos (not vfat) when using Linux.

       The SFM format is only partially supported —  see  HFS  MACINTOSH  FILE
       FORMATS section above.

       It   is	 not   possible	 to  use  -sparc-boot  or  -generic-boot  with
       -boot-hfs-file or -prep-boot.

       genisoimage should be able  to  create  HFS  hybrid  images  over  4Gb,
       although this has not been fully tested.

SEE ALSO
       genisoimagerc(5), wodim(1), mkzftree(8), magic(5).

AUTHORS
       genisoimage  is derived from mkisofs from the cdrtools 2.01.01a08 pack‐
       age from May 2006 (with few updates extracted from cdrtools  2.01.01a24
       from March 2007) from .IR http://cdrecord.berlios.de/ , but is now part
       of the cdrkit suite, maintained by Joerg Jaspert, Eduard	 Bloch,	 Steve
       McIntyre,  Peter	 Samuelson, Christian Fromme, Ben Hutchings, and other
       contributors.   The  maintainers	  can	be   contacted	 at   debburn-
       devel@lists.alioth.debian.org,  or  see	the cdrkit project web site at
       http://www.cdrkit.org/.

       Eric Youngdale wrote the first versions (1993–1998) of  mkisofs.	  Jörg
       Schilling  wrote	 the SCSI transport library and its interface, and has
       maintained mkisofs since 1999.  James  Pearson  wrote  the  HFS	hybrid
       code, using libhfs by Robert Leslie.  Pearson, Schilling, Jungshik Shin
       and Jaakko Heinonen contributed to the character set  conversion	 code.
       The cdrkit maintainers have maintained genisoimage since 2006.

       Copyright 1993-1998 by Yggdrasil Computing, Inc.
       Copyright 1996-1997 by Robert Leslie
       Copyright 1997-2001 by James Pearson
       Copyright 1999-2006 by Jörg Schilling
       Copyright 2007 by Jörg Schilling (originating few updates)
       Copyright 2002-2003 by Jungshik Shin
       Copyright 2003 by Jaakko Heinonen
       Copyright 2006 by the Cdrkit maintainers

       If  you	want  to  take part in the development of genisoimage, you may
       join the cdrkit developer mailing list by following the instructions on
       http://alioth.debian.org/mail/?group_id=31006.	The  email  address of
       the list is debburn-devel@lists.alioth.debian.org.  This	 is  also  the
       address	for user support questions.  Note that cdrkit and cdrtools are
       not affiliated.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
       UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the	US  and	 other
       countries.

				  13 Dec 2006			GENISOIMAGE(1)
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