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GEQN(1)								       GEQN(1)

NAME
       geqn - format equations for troff

SYNOPSIS
       geqn [ -rvCNR ] [ -dcc ] [ -Tname ] [ -Mdir ] [ -fF ] [ -sn ] [ -pn ]
	    [ -mn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       This manual page describes the GNU version of eqn, which is part of the
       groff document formatting system.  eqn compiles descriptions  of	 equa‐
       tions  embedded	within troff input files into commands that are under‐
       stood by troff.	Normally, it should be invoked using the -e option  of
       groff.	The  syntax  is quite compatible with Unix eqn.	 The output of
       GNU eqn cannot be processed with Unix troff; it must be processed  with
       GNU  troff.   If	 no  files are given on the command line, the standard
       input will be read.  A filename of - will cause the standard  input  to
       be read.

       eqn  searches  for  the file eqnrc in the directories given with the -M
       option  first,  then  in	  /freeware/gnu-tools/vax/lib/groff/site-tmac,
       /freeware/gnu-tools/share/groff/site-tmac,  and finally in the standard
       macro  directory	 /freeware/gnu-tools/share/groff/1.17.2/tmac.	If  it
       exists,	eqn  will  process  it	before	the other input files.	The -R
       option prevents this.

       GNU eqn does not provide the functionality of neqn: it does not support
       low-resolution,	typewriter-like	 devices  (although  it	 may work ade‐
       quately for very simple input).

OPTIONS
       -C     Recognize .EQ and .EN even when followed by  a  character	 other
	      than space or newline.

       -N     Don't  allow newlines within delimiters.	This option allows eqn
	      to recover better from missing closing delimiters.

       -v     Print the version number.

       -r     Only one size reduction.

       -mn    The minimum point-size is n.  eqn will not reduce	 the  size  of
	      subscripts or superscripts to a smaller size than n.

       -Tname The  output  is  for device name.	 The only effect of this is to
	      define a macro name with a value of 1.  Typically eqnrc will use
	      this  to	provide definitions appropriate for the output device.
	      The default output device is ps.

       -Mdir  Search dir for eqnrc before the default directories.

       -R     Don't load eqnrc.

       -fF    This is equivalent to a gfont F command.

       -sn    This is equivalent to a gsize n command.	This option is	depre‐
	      cated.   eqn will normally set equations at whatever the current
	      point size is when the equation is encountered.

       -pn    This says that subscripts and superscripts should	 be  n	points
	      smaller  than  the surrounding text.  This option is deprecated.
	      Normally eqn makes sets subscripts and superscripts  at  70%  of
	      the size of the surrounding text.

USAGE
       Only the differences between GNU eqn and Unix eqn are described here.

       Most  of	 the new features of GNU eqn are based on TeX.	There are some
       references to the differences between TeX and GNU eqn below; these  may
       safely be ignored if you do not know TeX.

   Automatic spacing
       eqn gives each component of an equation a type, and adjusts the spacing
       between components using that type.  Possible types are:

       ordinary	    an ordinary character such as 1 or x;

       operator	    a large operator such as Σ;

       binary	    a binary operator such as +;

       relation	    a relation such as =;

       opening	    a opening bracket such as (;

       closing	    a closing bracket such as );

       punctuation  a punctuation character such as ,;

       inner	    a subformula contained within brackets;

       suppress	    spacing that suppresses automatic spacing adjustment.

       Components of an equation get a type in one of two ways.

       type t e
	      This yields an equation component that contains e but  that  has
	      type  t, where t is one of the types mentioned above.  For exam‐
	      ple, times is defined as

		     type "binary" \(mu

	      The name of the type doesn't have to be quoted, but quoting pro‐
	      tects from macro expansion.

       chartype t text
	      Unquoted groups of characters are split up into individual char‐
	      acters, and the type  of	each  character	 is  looked  up;  this
	      changes the type that is stored for each character; it says that
	      the characters in text from now on have type t.  For example,

		     chartype "punctuation" .,;:

	      would make the characters .,;: have  type	 punctuation  whenever
	      they  subsequently appeared in an equation.  The type t can also
	      be letter or digit; in these cases  chartype  changes  the  font
	      type of the characters.  See the Fonts subsection.

   New primitives
       e1 smallover e2
	      This  is	similar	 to over; smallover reduces the size of e1 and
	      e2; it also puts less vertical space between e1 or  e2  and  the
	      fraction	bar.   The over primitive corresponds to the TeX \over
	      primitive in display styles; smallover corresponds to  \over  in
	      non-display styles.

       vcenter e
	      This vertically centers e about the math axis.  The math axis is
	      the vertical position about which characters such as + and - are
	      centered;	 also  it is the vertical position used for the bar of
	      fractions.  For example, sum is defined as

		     { type "operator" vcenter size +5 \(*S }

       e1 accent e2
	      This sets e2 as an accent over e1.  e2 is assumed to be  at  the
	      correct  height  for  a  lowercase letter; e2 will be moved down
	      according if e1 is taller or shorter than	 a  lowercase  letter.
	      For example, hat is defined as

		     accent { "^" }

	      dotdot,  dot,  tilde,  vec  and  dyad are also defined using the
	      accent primitive.

       e1 uaccent e2
	      This sets e2 as an accent under e1.  e2 is assumed to be at  the
	      correct  height  for a character without a descender; e2 will be
	      moved down if e1 has a descender.	 utilde is  pre-defined	 using
	      uaccent as a tilde accent below the baseline.

       split "text"
	      This has the same effect as simply

		     text

	      but text is not subject to macro expansion because it is quoted;
	      text will be split up and the spacing between individual charac‐
	      ters will be adjusted.

       nosplit text
	      This has the same effect as

		     "text"

	      but  because  text  is  not  quoted  it will be subject to macro
	      expansion; text will not be split up  and	 the  spacing  between
	      individual characters will not be adjusted.

       e opprime
	      This  is	a  variant of prime that acts as an operator on e.  It
	      produces a different  result  from  prime	 in  a	case  such  as
	      A opprime sub 1:	with  opprime  the  1 will be tucked under the
	      prime as a subscript to the A (as is conventional in  mathemati‐
	      cal  typesetting),  whereas with prime the 1 will be a subscript
	      to the prime character.  The precedence of opprime is  the  same
	      as  that	of  bar and under, which is higher than that of every‐
	      thing except accent and uaccent.	In unquoted text a '  that  is
	      not the first character will be treated like opprime.

       special text e
	      This  constructs	a  new	object	from e using a gtroff(1) macro
	      named text.  When the macro is called, the string 0s  will  con‐
	      tain  the	 output	 for  e,  and the number registers 0w, 0h, 0d,
	      0skern and 0skew will contain the	 width,	 height,  depth,  sub‐
	      script  kern,  and  skew of e.  (The subscript kern of an object
	      says how much a subscript on that object should  be  tucked  in;
	      the skew of an object says how far to the right of the center of
	      the object an accent over the object  should  be	placed.)   The
	      macro  must  modify 0s so that it will output the desired result
	      with its origin at the current point, and increase  the  current
	      horizontal position by the width of the object.  The number reg‐
	      isters must also be modified so  that  they  correspond  to  the
	      result.

	      For  example,  suppose  you wanted a construct that `cancels' an
	      expression by drawing a diagonal line through it.

		     .EQ
		     define cancel 'special Ca'
		     .EN
		     .de Ca
		     .ds 0s \Z'\\*(0s'\v'\\n(0du'\D'l \\n(0wu -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du'\v'\\n(0hu'
		     ..

	      Then you could cancel an expression e with cancel { e }

	      Here's a more complicated construct that draws a	box  round  an
	      expression:

		     .EQ
		     define box 'special Bx'
		     .EN
		     .de Bx
		     .ds 0s \Z'\h'1n'\\*(0s'\
		     \Z'\v'\\n(0du+1n'\D'l \\n(0wu+2n 0'\D'l 0 -\\n(0hu-\\n(0du-2n'\
		     \D'l -\\n(0wu-2n 0'\D'l 0 \\n(0hu+\\n(0du+2n''\h'\\n(0wu+2n'
		     .nr 0w +2n
		     .nr 0d +1n
		     .nr 0h +1n
		     ..

   Customization
       The  appearance of equations is controlled by a large number of parame‐
       ters. These can be set using the set command.

       set p n
	      This sets parameter p to value n ; n is an integer.   For	 exam‐
	      ple,

		     set x_height 45

	      says that eqn should assume an x height of 0.45 ems.

	      Possible parameters are as follows.  Values are in units of hun‐
	      dredths of an em unless otherwise	 stated.   These  descriptions
	      are intended to be expository rather than definitive.

	      minimum_size	      eqn  will	 not set anything at a smaller
				      point-size than this.  The value	is  in
				      points.

	      fat_offset	      The  fat primitive emboldens an equation
				      by overprinting two copies of the	 equa‐
				      tion horizontally offset by this amount.

	      over_hang		      A	 fraction  bar will be longer by twice
				      this amount  than	 the  maximum  of  the
				      widths of the numerator and denominator;
				      in other words,  it  will	 overhang  the
				      numerator	 and  denominator  by at least
				      this amount.

	      accent_width	      When bar or under is applied to a single
				      character,  the  line will be this long.
				      Normally, bar or under produces  a  line
				      whose  length is the width of the object
				      to which it applies; in the  case	 of  a
				      single  character, this tends to produce
				      a line that looks too long.

	      delimiter_factor	      Extensible delimiters produced with  the
				      left  and	 right	primitives will have a
				      combined height and depth	 of  at	 least
				      this many thousandths of twice the maxi‐
				      mum amount  by  which  the  sub-equation
				      that the delimiters enclose extends away
				      from the axis.

	      delimiter_shortfall     Extensible delimiters produced with  the
				      left  and	 right	primitives will have a
				      combined height and depth not less  than
				      the  difference  of  twice  the  maximum
				      amount by which  the  sub-equation  that
				      the delimiters enclose extends away from
				      the axis and this amount.

	      null_delimiter_space    This much horizontal space  is  inserted
				      on each side of a fraction.

	      script_space	      The width of subscripts and superscripts
				      is increased by this amount.

	      thin_space	      This amount of  space  is	 automatically
				      inserted after punctuation characters.

	      medium_space	      This  amount  of	space is automatically
				      inserted on either side of binary opera‐
				      tors.

	      thick_space	      This  amount  of	space is automatically
				      inserted on either side of relations.

	      x_height		      The height of lowercase letters  without
				      ascenders such as x.

	      axis_height	      The  height  above  the  baseline of the
				      center of characters such as  +  and  −.
				      It  is important that this value is cor‐
				      rect for the font you are using.

	      default_rule_thickness  This should set to the thickness of  the
				      \(ru character, or the thickness of hor‐
				      izontal  lines  produced	with  the   \D
				      escape sequence.

	      num1		      The  over	 command  will	shift  up  the
				      numerator by at least this amount.

	      num2		      The smallover command will shift up  the
				      numerator by at least this amount.

	      denom1		      The  over	 command  will	shift down the
				      denominator by at least this amount.

	      denom2		      The smallover command  will  shift  down
				      the denominator by at least this amount.

	      sup1		      Normally superscripts will be shifted up
				      by at least this amount.

	      sup2		      Superscripts  within   superscripts   or
				      upper  limits or numerators of smallover
				      fractions will be shifted up by at least
				      this  amount.  This is usually less than
				      sup1.

	      sup3		      Superscripts  within   denominators   or
				      square roots or subscripts or lower lim‐
				      its will be shifted up by at least  this
				      amount.  This is usually less than sup2.

	      sub1		      Subscripts will normally be shifted down
				      by at least this amount.

	      sub2		      When there is both  a  subscript	and  a
				      superscript,   the   subscript  will  be
				      shifted down by at least this amount.

	      sup_drop		      The baseline of a superscript will be no
				      more than this much amount below the top
				      of the object on which  the  superscript
				      is set.

	      sub_drop		      The  baseline  of a subscript will be at
				      least this much below the bottom of  the
				      object on which the subscript is set.

	      big_op_spacing1	      The  baseline  of an upper limit will be
				      at least this much above the top of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing2	      The baseline of a lower limit will be at
				      least this much below the bottom of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing3	      The  bottom of an upper limit will be at
				      least this much above  the  top  of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing4	      The  top	of  a  lower  limit will be at
				      least this much below the bottom of  the
				      object on which the limit is set.

	      big_op_spacing5	      This  much  vertical space will be added
				      above and below limits.

	      baseline_sep	      The baselines of the rows in a  pile  or
				      matrix  will normally be this far apart.
				      In most cases this should	 be  equal  to
				      the sum of num1 and denom1.

	      shift_down	      The  midpoint  between  the top baseline
				      and the bottom baseline in a  matrix  or
				      pile  will  be shifted down by this much
				      from  the	 axis.	 In  most  cases  this
				      should be equal to axis_height.

	      column_sep	      This  much  space	 will be added between
				      columns in a matrix.

	      matrix_side_sep	      This much space will be  added  at  each
				      side of a matrix.

	      draw_lines	      If this is non-zero, lines will be drawn
				      using the	 \D  escape  sequence,	rather
				      than with the \l escape sequence and the
				      \(ru character.

	      body_height	      The amount by which the  height  of  the
				      equation	exceeds	 this will be added as
				      extra space before the  line  containing
				      the  equation  (using  \x.)  The default
				      value is 85.

	      body_depth	      The amount by which  the	depth  of  the
				      equation	exceeds	 this will be added as
				      extra space after	 the  line  containing
				      the  equation  (using  \x.)  The default
				      value is 35.

	      nroff		      If this is non-zero, then	 ndefine  will
				      behave  like  define and tdefine will be
				      ignored, otherwise tdefine  will	behave
				      like define and ndefine will be ignored.
				      The default value is 0  (This  is	 typi‐
				      cally changed to 1 by the eqnrc file for
				      the  ascii,  latin1,  utf8,  and	cp1047
				      devices.)

	      A	 more precise description of the role of many of these parame‐
	      ters can be found in Appendix H of The TeXbook.

   Macros
       Macros can take arguments.  In a macro body, $n where n	is  between  1
       and  9,	will  be  replaced by the n-th argument if the macro is called
       with arguments; if there	 are  fewer  than  n  arguments,  it  will  be
       replaced	 by  nothing.	A word containing a left parenthesis where the
       part of the word before the left parenthesis has been defined using the
       define command will be recognized as a macro call with arguments; char‐
       acters following the left parenthesis up to a matching right  parenthe‐
       sis  will be treated as comma-separated arguments; commas inside nested
       parentheses do not terminate an argument.

       sdefine name X anything X
	      This is like the define command, but name will not be recognized
	      if called with arguments.

       include "file"
	      Include  the contents of file.  Lines of file beginning with .EQ
	      or .EN will be ignored.

       ifdef name X anything X
	      If name has been defined by define (or  has  been	 automatically
	      defined  because	name  is  the output device) process anything;
	      otherwise ignore anything.  X can be any character not appearing
	      in anything.

   Fonts
       eqn normally uses at least two fonts to set an equation: an italic font
       for letters, and a roman font for everything else.  The existing	 gfont
       command	changes	 the font that is used as the italic font.  By default
       this is I.  The font that is used as the	 roman	font  can  be  changed
       using the new grfont command.

       grfont f
	      Set the roman font to f.

       The  italic  primitive  uses  the current italic font set by gfont; the
       roman primitive uses the current roman font set by  grfont.   There  is
       also  a	new  gbfont  command,  which changes the font used by the bold
       primitive.  If you only use the roman, italic and  bold	primitives  to
       changes	fonts within an equation, you can change all the fonts used by
       your equations just by using gfont, grfont and gbfont commands.

       You can control which characters are treated as letters (and  therefore
       set  in italics) by using the chartype command described above.	A type
       of letter will cause a character to be set in italic type.  A  type  of
       digit will cause a character to be set in roman type.

FILES
       /freeware/gnu-tools/share/groff/1.17.2/tmac/eqnrc
	      Initialization file.

BUGS
       Inline  equations  will be set at the point size that is current at the
       beginning of the input line.

SEE ALSO
       groff(1), gtroff(1), groff_font(5), The TeXbook

Groff Version 1.17.2		 27 June 2001			       GEQN(1)
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