get(1)get(1)NAMEget - get a version of an SCCS file
SID] cutoff] list] list] string] seq-number] file ...
The command generates an ASCII text file from each named SCCS file
according to the specifications given by its option arguments, which
begin with The arguments can be specified in any order, but all option
arguments apply to all named SCCS files. If a directory is named,
behaves as if each file in the directory was specified as a named file,
except that non-SCCS files (last component of the path name does not
begin with and unreadable files are silently ignored. If a file name
of is given, the standard input is read and each line of the standard
input is assumed to be the name of an SCCS file to be processed.
Again, non-SCCS files and unreadable files are silently ignored.
The generated text is normally written into a file called the g-file
whose name is derived from the SCCS file name by simply removing the
prefix (see below).
Explanation of the option arguments below is based on processing only
one SCCS file. When processing multiple SCCS files, the effects of any
option argument applies independently to each named file.
The SCCS IDentification string (SID) of the version
(delta) of an SCCS file to be retrieved. Table 1
shows, for the most useful cases, which version
of an SCCS file is retrieved (as well as the SID
of the version to be eventually created by if the
option is also used), as a function of the SID
specified (see delta(1)).
cutoff date-time, in the form:
No changes (deltas) to the SCCS file which were
created after the specified cutoff date-time are
included in the generated ASCII text file. Units
omitted from the date-time default to their maxi‐
mum possible values; that is, is equivalent to
Any number of non-numeric characters can separate
the various 2-digit pieces of the cutoff date-
time. This feature allows one to specify a cut‐
off date in the form: Note that this implies that
one can use the and identification keywords (see
below) for nested within a command:
Indicates that the
is for the purpose of editing or making a change
(delta) to the SCCS file via a subsequent use of
The option used in a for a particular version
(SID) of the SCCS file prevents further for edit‐
ing on the same SID until is executed or the
(joint edit) flag is set in the SCCS file (see
admin(1)). Concurrent use of for different SIDs
is always allowed. Note, however, that only one
user is permitted to do a concurrent (see
If the g-file generated by with an option is
accidentally ruined in the process of editing it,
it can be regenerated by re-executing the command
with the option in place of the option.
SCCS file protection specified via the ceiling,
floor, and authorized user list stored in the
SCCS file (see admin(1)) are enforced when the
option is used.
Used with the option to indicate that the new delta should have
an SID in a new branch as shown in Table 1. This
option is ignored if the flag is not present in
the file (see admin(1)) or if the retrieved delta
is not a leaf delta. (A leaf delta is one that
has no successors on the SCCS file tree.)
Note: A branch delta can always be created from a
A list of deltas to be included (forced to be
applied) in the creation of the generated file.
The list has the following syntax:
list ::= range | list, range
range ::= SID | SID - SID
SID, the SCCS Identification of a delta, can be
in any form shown in the "SID Specified" column
of Table 1. Partial SIDs are interpreted as
shown in the "SID Retrieved" column of Table 1.
A list of deltas to be excluded (forced not to be
applied) in the creation of the generated file.
See the option for the list format.
Suppresses replacement of identification keywords (see below)
in the retrieved text by their value. The option
is implied by the option.
Causes a delta summary to be written into an
l-file. If is used, an l-file is not created;
the delta summary is written on the standard out‐
put instead. See FILES for the format of the l-
file. The user must have s-file read permission
in order to use the option.
Causes the text retrieved from the
SCCS file to be written on the standard output.
No g-file is created. All output that normally
goes to the standard output goes to file descrip‐
tor 2 (standard error) instead, unless the option
is used, in which case it disappears.
Suppresses all output normally written on the standard output.
However, fatal error messages (which always go to
file descriptor 2) remain unaffected.
Causes each text line retrieved from the
SCCS file to be preceded by the SID of the delta
that inserted the text line in the SCCS file.
The format is: SID, followed by a horizontal tab,
followed by the text line.
Causes each generated text line to be preceded with the
identification keyword value (see below). The
format is: value, followed by a horizontal tab,
followed by the text line. When both the and
options are used, the format is: value, followed
by a horizontal tab, followed by the option-gen‐
Suppresses the actual retrieval of text from the
SCCS file. It is primarily used to generate an
l-file, or to verify the existence of a particu‐
Used to access the most recently created
("top") delta in a given release (e.g., or
release and level (e.g.,
Substitute string for all occurrences of when the file.
The delta sequence number of the
SCCS file delta (version) to be retrieved (see
sccsfile(4)). This option is used by the command
(see comb(1)); it is not a generally useful
option, and should be avoided. If both the and
options are specified, the option is used. Care
should be taken when using the option in conjunc‐
tion with the option, because the SID of the
delta to be created may not be what one expects.
The option can be used with the and options to
control the naming of the SID of the delta to be
For each file processed, responds (on the standard output) with the SID
being accessed and with the number of lines retrieved from the SCCS
If the option is used, the SID of the delta to be made appears after
the SID accessed and before the number of lines generated. If there is
more than one named file, or if a directory or standard input is named,
each file name is printed (preceded by a new-line) before it is pro‐
cessed. If the option is used included deltas are listed following the
notation "Included". If the option is used, excluded deltas are listed
following the notation "Excluded".
│ Table 1. Determination of SCCS Identification String │
│ SID* −b Option Other SID SID of Delta │
│Specified Used % Conditions Retrieved to be Created │
│none %% no R defaults to mR mR.mL mR.(mL+1) │
│none %% yes R defaults to mR mR.mL mR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
│R no R > mR mR.mL R.1*** │
│R no R = mR mR.mL mR.(mL+1) │
│R yes R > mR mR.mL mR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
│R yes R = mR mR.mL mR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
│R - R < mR and hR.mL** hR.mL.(mB+1).1 │
│ R does not exist │
│R - Trunk succ. R.mL │
│ in release > R │
│ and R exists │
│R.L no No trunk succ. R.L R.(L+1) │
│R.L yes No trunk succ. R.L R.L.(mB+1).1 │
│R.L - Trunk succ. R.L R.L.(mB+1).1 │
│ in release ≥ R │
│R.L.B no No branch succ. R.L.B.mS R.L.B.(mS+1) │
│R.L.B yes No branch succ. R.L.B.mS R.L.(mB+1).1 │
│R.L.B.S no No branch succ. R.L.B.S R.L.B.(S+1) │
│R.L.B.S yes No branch succ. R.L.B.S R.L.(mB+1).1 │
│R.L.B.S - Branch succ. R.L.B.S R.L.(mB+1).1 │
Notes for Table 1
* "R", "L", "B", and "S" are the "release", "level",
"branch", and "sequence" components of the SID,
respectively; "m" means "maximum". Thus, for example,
"R.mL" means "the maximum level number within release
R"; "R.L.(mB+1).1" means "the first sequence number on
the branch (i.e., maximum branch number plus one) of
level L within release R". Note that if the SID spec‐
ified is of the form "R.L", "R.L.B", or "R.L.B.S",
each of the specified components exist.
** "hR" is the highest release that is lower than the
specified, release R.
*** This is used to force creation of the delta in a
% The option is effective only if the flag (see
admin(1)) is present in the file. An entry of means
%% This case applies if the (default SID) flag is present
in the file. If the flag present in the file, then
the SID obtained from the flag is interpreted as if it
had been specified on the command line. Thus, one of
the other cases in this table applies.
Identifying information is inserted into the text retrieved from the
SCCS file by replacing identification keywords with their value wher‐
ever they occur. The following keywords can be used in the text stored
in an SCCS file:
Module name: either the value of the flag in the file (see admin(1)),
or if absent, the name of the SCCS file with the leading
SCCS identification (SID) of the retrieved text.
Current date (YY/MM/DD).
Current date (MM/DD/YY).
Current time (HH:MM:SS).
Date newest applied delta was created
Date newest applied delta was created
Time newest applied delta was created
Module type: value of the
flag in the SCCS file (see admin(1)).
SCCS file name.
SCCS file name.
The value of the
flag in the file (see admin(1)).
Current line number.
This keyword is intended for identifying messages output
by the program such as "this should not have happened"
type errors. It is intended to be used on every line to
provide sequence numbers.
The 4-character string
recognizable by (see what(1)).
A shorthand notation for constructing
strings for HP-UX system program files.
Another shorthand notation for constructing
strings for non-HP-UX system program files.
determines the interpretation of text as single- and/or multi-byte
determines the language in which messages are displayed.
If or is not specified in the environment or is set to the empty
string, the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or empty
variable. If is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default
of "C" (see lang(5)) is used instead of If any internationalization
variable contains an invalid setting, behaves as if all international‐
ization variables are set to "C". See environ(5).
International Code Set Support
Single- and multi-byte character code sets are supported.
Use for explanations.
If the effective user has write permission (either explicitly or
implicitly) in the directory containing the SCCS files, but the real
user does not, then only one file can be named when the option is used.
Unexpected results occur when using the option to merge changes into
sections of a file that have been (perhaps inadvertently) deleted and
subsequently re-inserted into a file.
An l-file cannot be generated when is used. In other words, does not
Several auxiliary files can be created by These files are known generi‐
cally as the g-file, l-file, p-file, and z-file. The letter before the
hyphen is called the tag. An auxiliary file name is formed from the
SCCS file name: the last component of all SCCS file names must be of
the form the auxiliary files are named by replacing the leading with
the tag. The g-file is an exception to this scheme: the g-file is
named by removing the prefix. For example, the auxiliary file names
would be and respectively.
The g-file, which contains the generated text, is created in the cur‐
rent directory (unless the option is used). A g-file is created in all
cases, whether or not any lines of text were generated by the It is
owned by the real user. If the option is used or implied its mode is
644; otherwise its mode is 444. Only the real user need have write
permission in the current directory.
The l-file contains a table showing which deltas were applied in gener‐
ating the retrieved text. The l-file is created in the current direc‐
tory if the option is used; its mode is 444 and it is owned by the real
user. Only the real user need have write permission in the current
Lines in the l-file have the following format:
1. A blank character if the delta was applied;
2. A blank character if the delta was applied or was not applied and
if the delta was not applied and was not ignored.
3. A code indicating a "special" reason why the delta was or was not
Cut off (by a
5. SCCS identification (SID).
6. Tab character.
7. Creation date and time (in the form YY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS).
9. Login name of person who created delta.
The comments and MR data follow on subsequent lines, indented
one horizontal tab character. A blank line terminates each
The p-file is used to pass information resulting from a with an option
along to delta. Its contents are also used to prevent a subsequent
execution of with an option for the same SID until delta is executed or
the joint edit flag, (see admin(1)) is set in the SCCS file. The p-
file is created in the directory containing the SCCS file and the
effective user must have write permission in that directory. Its mode
is 644 and it is owned by the effective user. The format of the p-file
is: the gotten SID, followed by a blank, followed by the SID that the
new delta will have when it is made, followed by a blank, followed by
the login name of the real user, followed by a blank, followed by the
date-time the was executed, followed by a blank and the option argument
if it was present, followed by a blank and the option argument if it
was present, followed by a new-line. There can be an arbitrary number
of lines in the p-file at any time; no two lines can have the same new
The z-file serves as a lock-out mechanism against simultaneous updates.
Its contents are the binary (2 bytes) process ID of the command (i.e.,
that created it. The z-file is created in the directory containing the
SCCS file for the duration of The same protection restrictions as those
for the p-file apply for the z-file. The z-file is created mode 444.
SEE ALSOadmin(1), delta(1), prs(1), sccshelp(1), what(1), sccsfile(4).