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GETNAMEINFO(3)		   Linux Programmer's Manual		GETNAMEINFO(3)

NAME
       getnameinfo  - address-to-name translation in protocol-independent man‐
       ner

SYNOPSIS
       #include <sys/socket.h>
       #include <netdb.h>

       int getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen,
		       char *host, size_t hostlen,
		       char *serv, size_t servlen, int flags);

   Feature Test Macro Requirements for glibc (see feature_test_macros(7)):

       getnameinfo(): _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 1 || _XOPEN_SOURCE || _POSIX_SOURCE

DESCRIPTION
       The getnameinfo() function is the inverse of  getaddrinfo(3):  it  con‐
       verts a socket address to a corresponding host and service, in a proto‐
       col-independent manner.	It  combines  the  functionality  of  gethost‐
       byaddr(3)  and  getservbyport(3),  but unlike those functions, getname‐
       info() is reentrant and allows programs to  eliminate  IPv4-versus-IPv6
       dependencies.

       The  sa argument is a pointer to a generic socket address structure (of
       type sockaddr_in or sockaddr_in6) of size salen that holds the input IP
       address	and  port number.  The arguments host and serv are pointers to
       caller-allocated buffers (of size  hostlen  and	servlen	 respectively)
       into  which getnameinfo() places null-terminated strings containing the
       host and service names respectively.

       The caller can specify  that  no	 hostname  (or	no  service  name)  is
       required	 by providing a NULL host (or serv) argument or a zero hostlen
       (or servlen) argument.  However, at least one of	 hostname  or  service
       name must be requested.

       The flags argument modifies the behavior of getnameinfo() as follows:

       NI_NAMEREQD
	      If  set,	then  an  error	 is returned if the hostname cannot be
	      determined.

       NI_DGRAM
	      If set, then the service is datagram  (UDP)  based  rather  than
	      stream  (TCP)  based.   This  is	required  for  the  few	 ports
	      (512-514) that have different services for UDP and TCP.

       NI_NOFQDN
	      If set, return only the hostname part  of	 the  fully  qualified
	      domain name for local hosts.

       NI_NUMERICHOST
	      If  set,	then  the  numeric  form  of the hostname is returned.
	      (When not set, this will still happen in case  the  node's  name
	      cannot be determined.)

       NI_NUMERICSERV
	      If  set,	then  the  numeric  form  of  the  service  address is
	      returned.	 (When not set, this will still	 happen	 in  case  the
	      service's name cannot be determined.)

   Extensions to getnameinfo() for Internationalized Domain Names
       Starting	 with  glibc  2.3.4, getnameinfo() has been extended to selec‐
       tively allow hostnames to be transparently converted to	and  from  the
       Internationalized  Domain Name (IDN) format (see RFC 3490, Internation‐
       alizing Domain Names in Applications  (IDNA)).	Three  new  flags  are
       defined:

       NI_IDN If  this flag is used, then the name found in the lookup process
	      is converted from IDN format to the locale's encoding if	neces‐
	      sary.   ASCII-only  names	 are  not  affected by the conversion,
	      which makes this flag usable in existing programs	 and  environ‐
	      ments.

       NI_IDN_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED, NI_IDN_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES
	      Setting these flags will enable the IDNA_ALLOW_UNASSIGNED (allow
	      unassigned Unicode code  points)	and  IDNA_USE_STD3_ASCII_RULES
	      (check  output  to  make	sure it is a STD3 conforming hostname)
	      flags respectively to be used in the IDNA handling.

RETURN VALUE
       On success 0 is returned, and node and service names, if requested, are
       filled  with  null-terminated  strings,	possibly  truncated to fit the
       specified buffer lengths.  On error one of the following nonzero	 error
       codes is returned:

       EAI_AGAIN
	      The name could not be resolved at this time.  Try again later.

       EAI_BADFLAGS
	      The flags argument has an invalid value.

       EAI_FAIL
	      A nonrecoverable error occurred.

       EAI_FAMILY
	      The address family was not recognized, or the address length was
	      invalid for the specified family.

       EAI_MEMORY
	      Out of memory.

       EAI_NONAME
	      The  name	 does  not  resolve  for   the	 supplied   arguments.
	      NI_NAMEREQD  is  set  and	 the host's name cannot be located, or
	      neither hostname nor service name were requested.

       EAI_OVERFLOW
	      The buffer pointed to by host or serv was too small.

       EAI_SYSTEM
	      A system error occurred.	The error code can be found in errno.

       The gai_strerror(3) function translates these error codes  to  a	 human
       readable string, suitable for error reporting.

FILES
       /etc/hosts
       /etc/nsswitch.conf
       /etc/resolv.conf

VERSIONS
       getnameinfo() is provided in glibc since version 2.1.

CONFORMING TO
       RFC 2553, POSIX.1-2001.

NOTES
       In  order to assist the programmer in choosing reasonable sizes for the
       supplied buffers, <netdb.h> defines the constants

	   #define NI_MAXHOST	   1025
	   #define NI_MAXSERV	   32

       Since glibc 2.8, these definitions are exposed only if one of the  fea‐
       ture test macros _BSD_SOURCE, _SVID_SOURCE, or _GNU_SOURCE is defined.

       The  former  is	the  constant  MAXDNAME	 in  recent versions of BIND's
       <arpa/nameser.h> header file.  The latter is a guess based on the  ser‐
       vices listed in the current Assigned Numbers RFC.

EXAMPLE
       The  following code tries to get the numeric hostname and service name,
       for a given socket address.  Note that there is no hardcoded  reference
       to a particular address family.

	   struct sockaddr *sa;	   /* input */
	   socklen_t len;	  /* input */
	   char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST], sbuf[NI_MAXSERV];

	   if (getnameinfo(sa, len, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf), sbuf,
		       sizeof(sbuf), NI_NUMERICHOST | NI_NUMERICSERV) == 0)
	       printf("host=%s, serv=%s\n", hbuf, sbuf);

       The  following  version	checks	if  the	 socket	 address has a reverse
       address mapping.

	   struct sockaddr *sa;	   /* input */
	   socklen_t len;	  /* input */
	   char hbuf[NI_MAXHOST];

	   if (getnameinfo(sa, len, hbuf, sizeof(hbuf),
		       NULL, 0, NI_NAMEREQD))
	       printf("could not resolve hostname");
	   else
	       printf("host=%s\n", hbuf);

       An example program using getnameinfo() can be found in getaddrinfo(3).

SEE ALSO
       accept(2),  getpeername(2),  getsockname(2),  recvfrom(2),   socket(2),
       getaddrinfo(3),	gethostbyaddr(3),  getservbyname(3), getservbyport(3),
       inet_ntop(3), hosts(5), services(5), hostname(7), named(8)

       R. Gilligan, S. Thomson, J. Bound and W. Stevens, Basic	Socket	Inter‐
       face Extensions for IPv6, RFC 2553, March 1999.

       Tatsuya Jinmei and Atsushi Onoe, An Extension of Format for IPv6 Scoped
       Addresses,  internet  draft,  work  in	progress   ⟨ftp://ftp.ietf.org
       /internet-drafts/draft-ietf-ipngwg-scopedaddr-format-02.txt⟩.

       Craig Metz, Protocol Independence Using the Sockets API, Proceedings of
       the freenix track: 2000 USENIX annual technical conference, June 2000
       ⟨http://www.usenix.org/publications/library/proceedings/usenix2000
       /freenix/metzprotocol.html⟩.

COLOPHON
       This page is part of release 3.54 of the Linux man-pages project.  A
       description of the project, and information about reporting bugs, can
       be found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU				  2013-01-15			GETNAMEINFO(3)
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