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glance_tt(1M)							 glance_tt(1M)

       glance_tt,  glance_tt+  -  feed metrics from the GlancePlus TRANSACTION
       class to the HP-UX Workload Manager

       interval] {metric | metric_expr} app_name trans_name [trans_user]

       interval] wlm_metric app_name trans_name
	      { | trans_user, trans_user, ...}

       The and data collectors provide a method by which  the  values  derived
       from metrics in the GlancePlus TRANSACTION class can be sent to the HP-
       UX Workload Manager (WLM) daemon, for use in the definition  of	system
       service-level  objectives (SLOs).  It does so by running the GlancePlus
       Adviser with an autogenerated syntax file  to  periodically  report  on
       stdout  the  value  specified by the metric, metric_expr, or wlm_metric
       parameters.  This value is then picked up by which  passes  it  to  for

       GlancePlus collects TRANSACTION class metrics for applications that use
       the Application Response Measurement (ARM)  interface  to  report  per-
       transaction  performance data.  Transaction instances are identified by
       the app_name, trans_name, and trans_user parameters, and only data from
       these  instances	 are used in the reported value.  Applications use the
       ARM interface at runtime to define the values of these  strings	corre‐
       sponding	 to the applications' transaction instances.  Because of this,
       the app_name parameter can be  different	 from  the  application	 names
       defined	in  GlancePlus or HP-UX WLM, and the trans_user parameter need
       not correspond to valid HP-UX user names.

       must be running for GlancePlus to collect transactions.

       To determine the valid values of app_name, trans_name,  and  trans_user
       for  a  particular application, start the application and invoke one of
       the following GlancePlus tools:

	      · gpm(1), GlancePlus graphical interface
		See the Transaction Tracking screen

	      · glance(1), GlancePlus text-based interface
		Use the options to begin with the Transaction Tracking screen

	      · glance adviser, glance(1) with option
		Run the following adviser script to list the data:

		     % /opt/perf/bin/glance -j 10 -adviser_only -syntax \

       For more information on the ARM interface supplied with GlancePlus, see

       When the trans_user parameter is not specified to the collector reports
       values  that  only  include  an	application's  completed   transaction
       instances  with	no  defined  application user name. When trans_user is
       specified, only the application's transaction instances with a matching
       application user name are included in the values reported.

       The  metric_expr parameter to can be any valid Adviser expression, per‐
       mitting GlancePlus metrics from the GLOBAL and TABLE classes to be com‐
       bined  with TRANSACTION class metrics.  See the "METRICS" section for a
       more detailed discussion of Adviser expressions.

       The collector simulates and reports the values  of  several  GlancePlus
       TRANSACTION  class  metrics  for	 completed transaction instances whose
       defined application user name matches one of the trans_user parameters.
       If  is  specified  instead of multiple trans_users, the values reported
       will include application transaction instances for all  valid  applica‐
       tion  user  names, plus undefined.  The values are said to be simulated
       because GlancePlus does not directly report metrics that include a sub‐
       set  of	all the valid user names.  Instead, derives these metrics from
       calculations on their basic components  that  GlancePlus	 does  supply.
       See  the	 "WLM_TT Metric Class" subsection of the "METRICS" section for
       further details on these calculations.

   Choosing the right GlancePlus data collector
       HP-UX WLM provides several GlancePlus data collectors,  each  optimized
       for  collecting different classes of metrics.  If metric or metric_expr
       does not contain a TRANSACTION class metric,  then  one	of  the	 other
       GlancePlus  data	 collectors  should be used instead of In general, the
       data collector that requires the least number of parameters to  provide
       the desired metric value will be the one that provides that metric most
       efficiently. See glance_gbl(1M) for a discussion of the other available
       GlancePlus data collectors.

       Specifies the interval, in seconds, over which data is collected and a
		      metric  value is reported.  If not provided, the default
		      value of 30 is used.  This  adjusts  the	value  of  the
		      TT_INTERVAL metric.

       metric	      Specifies	 the  GlancePlus  TRANSACTION  class metric to
		      collect and report.  For a complete list of all TRANSAC‐
		      TION  class  metrics, see the "Performance Metrics" sec‐
		      tion in the gpm(1) online help.	Metrics	 that  have  a
		      string value are not valid.

       wlm_metric     Specifies	 the  WLM_TT  class  metric  to	 calculate and
		      report.  See the "WLM_TT Metric Class" subsection of the
		      "METRICS"	 section for a complete list of available met‐
		      rics and their definitions.

       metric_expr    Specifies an Adviser expression combining	 one  or  more
		      metrics  from the GlancePlus TRANSACTION, GLOBAL, or TA‐
		      BLE classes.  For a complete  list  of  all  metrics  in
		      these  classes, see the "Performance Metrics" section in
		      the gpm(1) online help.  The expression can be  suffixed
		      with  an	optional  formatting  string of the form where
		      width indicates the maximum number of characters in  the
		      value,  and decimals indicates the floating-point preci‐
		      sion.  The entire	 expression,  including	 the  optional
		      formatting  string, must be enclosed in quotes.  See the
		      "Expressions" and "Format" subsections of the  "METRICS"
		      section for further discussion.

       app_name	      Specifies	 the  name  of	the  application providing the
		      transaction data to be collected.	 The application  pro‐
		      vides  this name to the ARM interface at runtime, and it
		      is displayed in the "App Name" column of the  GlancePlus
		      Transaction Tracker window.  The name is case-sensitive,
		      and app_name must be quoted if the name contains spaces.

       trans_name     Specifies the name of the transaction of interest within
		      the  application specified by app_name.  The application
		      provides this name to the ARM interface at runtime,  and
		      it is displayed in the "Tran Name" column of the Glance‐
		      Plus Transaction Tracker window.	The name is  case-sen‐
		      sitive,  and  trans_name must be quoted if the name con‐
		      tains spaces.

       trans_user     Specifies the application user name  used	 in  selecting
		      transaction  instances  to include in metric collection.
		      The application optionally provides this name to the ARM
		      interface	 at  runtime, and it is displayed in the "User
		      Name" column of the GlancePlus Transaction Tracker  win‐
		      dow.  If trans_user is not specified to the metric value
		      reported will only include transaction instances	gener‐
		      ated  by	undefined  application	users.	If one or more
		      comma-separated trans_users are specified, then the met‐
		      ric value reported will only include transactions gener‐
		      ated by any of those application	users.	 The  name  is
		      case-sensitive,  and  trans_user	must  be quoted if the
		      name contains spaces.

       Metrics are used by WLM in the construction of service-level objectives
       (SLOs).	Specifically, they are used in:

	      ·	 statements, telling WLM how well a workload is performing

	      ·	 statements, assigning CPU shares

	      ·	 and statements, enabling SLOs based on the metric's value

       GlancePlus provides a large number of metrics that are suitable for use
       with WLM.  and each provide access to a subset of those metrics.

   TRANSACTION metric class
       Listed here are only a few of the applicable metrics from  the  Glance‐
       Plus  TRANSACTION  metric  class.  For a complete listing of GlancePlus
       metrics and important usage notes, please consult the "The Adviser" and
       "Performance Metrics" sections of the gpm(1) online help.

       The number of completed transactions during the last interval for this

		      NOTE:  will  not deliver this metric (nor any other met‐
		      ric) unless one or more of the named  transactions  com‐
		      pletes  in  the  interval--that  is,  unless TT_COUNT is
		      greater than zero. Hence, will never receive a  TT_COUNT
		      value of zero (0) from

       The number of completed transactions that exceeded the threshold time
		      set  in  the  GlancePlus ttd.conf file.  This SLO should
		      not be confused with SLOs defined in the WLM  configura‐
		      tion file.  For more information on ttd.conf and Glance‐
		      Plus SLOs, see ttd.conf(4).

       The average transaction time, in seconds, during the last interval for
		      this transaction.

   WLM_TT metric class
       The collector only accepts metrics from the WLM_TT metric class.	  This
       class  is  implemented  within the collector and provides metric values
       that are analogous to those  provided  in  the  GlancePlus  TRANSACTION
       class.  The difference is that data from transactions generated by mul‐
       tiple application users is combined into a single metric in the	WLM_TT
       metric class.

       The  following  is  a  list  of	available metrics in the WLM_TT class.
       While all of the metrics described here are available for collection, a
       number  of  them may not be especially useful measures for WLM. In par‐
       ticular,	   cumulative	 (*_CUM)    and	   per-transaction    resource
       (*_resource_PER_TRAN)  metrics are likely of use in only limited situa‐

       In the formulas, the sum() pseudo function aggregates the  metric  over
       all transaction instances matching app_name, trans_name, and any of the
       provided trans_user names.

       Average transaction completion time, in seconds, over the  last	inter‐
       val, and
		      since  the last counter reset respectively.  This metric
		      is calculated with the following formulas.

		      sum(TT_WALL_TIME) / sum(TT_COUNT)
		      sum(TT_WALL_TIME_CUM) / sum(TT_COUNT_CUM)

       The percent of transactions that exceeded the GlancePlus SLO threshold
		      defined in ttd.conf.

		      100 * sum(TT_SLO_COUNT) / sum(TT_COUNT)
		      100 * sum(TT_SLO_COUNT_CUM) / sum(TT_COUNT_CUM)

       Various per-transaction resource stats.	The WLM_TT class supports
		      all the same _PER_TRAN and _PER_TRAN_CUM metrics as  the
		      GlancePlus TRANSACTION class.

		      sum(TT_*_PER_TRAN x TT_COUNT) / sum(TT_COUNT)
		      sum(TT_*_PER_TRAN_CUM x TT_COUNT_CUM) / sum(TT_COUNT_CUM)

		      NOTE:  These  per-transaction  resource  metrics require
		      transaction resource data collection to be enabled.  For
		      information  on how to do this, see the "Per-transaction
		      resource metrics" section below.

       Other TRANSACTION class metrics not covered by the above,  and  explic‐
		      excluding	 all  metrics  ending  _PCT, _UTIL, and _RATE.
		      These metrics will be simply summed together.


   Per-transaction resource metrics
       NOTE: Collection of per-transaction resource metrics incurs  additional
       measurement overhead. Enable only as required.

       You can collect the TT_WALL_TIME_PER_TRAN and WLM_TT_WALL_TIME_PER_TRAN
       metrics without enabling the  collection	 of  per-transaction  resource

       To enable collection of per-transaction resource usage:

       1. Modify the file /var/opt/perf/parm.

	  Edit	this  file to log transaction=resource data. For example, your
	  log line may look like the following	after  you  add	 the  transac‐
	  tion=resource portion:

	  log global application process dev=disk,lvm transaction=resource

	  By modifying the parm file, the setting will persist with each start
	  of the measurement agents.

       2. Restart the measurement agents:

	  mwa restart

       3. Restart all ARMed applications.

       For more information regarding transaction tracking, consult the gpm(1)
       online  help,  the  document  (available	 in a file starting with "tyt"
       under a subdirectory of /opt/perf/paperdocs/arm/), and midaemon(1)  and
       related manpages.

       You  can	 combine  numeric  metrics  and	 constants  into an arithmetic
       expression for use as the metric_expr parameter to A full discussion of
       Adviser	expression  syntax  can be found in the gpm(1) online help, in
       the section "The Adviser".  Some example expressions, using GLOBAL met‐


	      "( 100 - GBL_CPU_TOTAL_UTIL ) / 100.0"

       When  specifying	 a  metric_expr,  the  expression  must be enclosed in
       quotes to ensure it is passed as a single argument.

       (For information on metrics that are used, but not described,  in  this
       manpage, see the file /opt/perf/paperdocs/gp/C/metrics.txt.)

       Adviser	expressions,  especially  those	 involving division of integer
       quantities, can be formatted to	force  a  well-defined	floating-point
       precision.   Without  formatting,  undesired truncation and/or rounding
       may occur.

       When providing a format specification with a metric_expr, use parenthe‐
       ses  around  the expression to clearly indicate that the entire expres‐
       sion is to be formatted.


       To modify your C program to generate ARM transaction data  for  use  by

       1. Add ARM API calls to your program

	  Modify your program to use the ARM API calls described in the arm(3)
	  man page. To use these calls, you must reference  the	 include  file

	  Be sure to:

	      ·	 Register app_name with ARM through the arm_init API call

	      ·	 Mark  the start and stop of each transaction in which you are

       2. Compile your program

	  Compile your program, specifying the locations for  the  ARM	header
	  file and library--being sure to link against the ARM library.

	  For HP-UX 11i v1 (B.11.11), the compile/link line is:

	  % /opt/ansic/bin/cc -Ae prog.c -I /opt/perf/include \
	  -L /opt/perf/lib -larm

	  The -Ae option ensures you compile using the extended ANSI mode.

	  For  HP-UX 11i v2 (B.11.23) on IA64 platforms, the compile/link line
	  for 32-bit IA ARMed programs is:

	  % /opt/ansic/bin/cc -Ae prog.c -I /opt/perf/include \
	  -L /opt/perf/lib/hpux32 -larm

	  For HP-UX 11i v2 (B.11.23) and HP-UX 11i v3 (B.11.31) on IA64	 plat‐
	  forms, the compile/link line for 64-bit IA ARMed programs is:

	  % /opt/ansic/bin/cc -Ae +DD64 prog.c -I /opt/perf/include \
	  -L /opt/perf/lib/hpux64 -larm

       3. Ensure that ttd is configured and running

       4. Start the program you instrumented with ARM calls

	  The  start  and  stop	 times	for your transactions will now be made
	  available through HP's ARM implementation. For more information, see
	  ttd(1) and midaemon(1).

       5. Edit your WLM configuration to pick up the transaction data

	  To extract ARM data (from HP's ARM implementation) and forward it to
	  WLM, use wlmrcvdc with the glance_tt command	in  the	 configuration

	      tune metricA {
		  coll_argv = wlmrcvdc glance_tt
			  metric  # Metric you choose to monitor
			  app_name  # Application registered with ARM
			  trans_name [trans_user]; # Transaction in the
			  # application to get the metric for, along
			  # with an application user

	  The metric used above is typically from the TRANSACTION metric class
	  (TT_*), but can also be an expression that  combines	a  transaction
	  metric with metrics from the GLOBAL (GBL_*) and TABLE (TBL_*) metric

	  You can fine-tune transaction tracking in the /var/opt/perf/ttd.conf
	  file	if  desired.  This file has an entry (tran=*) that enables all
	  transactions to be tracked. However, you may want to fine-tune  what
	  is  tracked.	For  more  information, see the ttd(1) manpage and the
	  ttd.conf file or the ttd.conf(4) manpage.

       6. Activate your WLM configuration:


       WLM is configured to collect metrics provided  by  and  by  creating  a
       structure for the metric and setting the tunable as shown in the proto‐
       type below.

	      tune metric {
		  coll_argv = wlmrcvdc
			      glance_tt metric
			      app_name trans_name trans_user;

       When loaded by WLM, this structure causes to start  as  the  source  of
       values for the metric. In turn, will start to do the work of collecting
       the metric values from GlancePlus.  With this  structure	 defined,  the
       metric can then be used in and statements throughout the WLM configura‐
       tion file.

       The following examples show some ways of using metrics  collected  with

   Example #1
       This example shows the collection of average wall time for a frequently
       occurring transaction in a busy application.  The application is regis‐
       tered  using the name "Transaction Application".	 The transaction being
       measured is named "Insert".  The application  does  not	register  user

	      # Keep average response time within acceptable limit.
	      slo tran_slo {
		  pri = 5;
		  mincpu = 10;
		  maxcpu = 75;
		  entity = PRM group tran_grp;
		  goal = metric tran_time < 3.0;

	      # Report average response time for Insert transactions.
	      tune tran_time {
		  coll_argv = wlmrcvdc
			      glance_tt TT_WALL_TIME_PER_TRAN
			      "Transaction Application"

   Example #2
       This is essentially the same as the previous example, except that here,
       the application does register a user name.  In this example, there  are
       instances  of  the  application	being  run by user "finance" and other
       instances registered to user "purchase".	 In order to  collect  a  com‐
       bined metric, must be used.

	      # Keep average response time within acceptable limit.
	      slo tran_slo {
		  pri = 5;
		  mincpu = 10;
		  maxcpu = 75;
		  entity = PRM group tran_grp;
		  goal = metric tran_time < 3.0;

	      # Report average response time for Insert transactions
	      # by finance and purchasing users.
	      tune tran_time {
		  coll_argv = wlmrcvdc
			      glance_tt+ WLM_TT_WALL_TIME_PER_TRAN
			      "Transaction Application"
			      Insert "finance,purchase";

       calculates  the	metric by performing the following calculation on data
       collected from GlancePlus in each interval with transaction activity:

	      ( ( TT_WALL_TIME[finance] + TT_WALL_TIME[purchase] ) ÷
		( TT_COUNT[finance] + TT_COUNT[purchase] ) )

   Example #3
       This example demonstrates use of an Adviser expression.

	      # Hold to 15% or below the percentage of sales Update
	      # transactions that exceed the ttd.conf threshold.
	      slo tran_slo {
		  pri = 5;
		  mincpu = 10;
		  maxcpu = 75;
		  entity = PRM group tran_grp;
		  goal = metric sales_violations < 15;

	      # Report percentage of Update transactions by sales
	      # that take longer than the ttd.conf threshold.
	      tune sales_violations {
		  coll_argv = wlmrcvdc
			      "((TT_SLO_COUNT * 100) / TT_COUNT)|6|2"
			      "Transaction Application"
			      Update sales;

   Environment Variables
       The value of if set and not null, is displayed  in  certain  diagnostic
       messages.  If it is not set or is null, the word is substituted.

       and  write  invalid  argument,  usage, and unexpected termination error
       messages on stderr if the terminal is available; otherwise  such	 error
       messages are directed to syslogd (using the facility).  Notification of
       unexpected death of the Adviser will include the value of if available.

       Error messages from the Adviser are written on  stderr.	 When  invoked
       from  stderr is directed to /dev/null; hence, these diagnostic messages
       are discarded. However, using the tunable in  your  WLM	configuration,
       you  can	 redirect  stderr to a location of your choosing. (See "NOTES"
       for additional troubleshooting tips.)

       If transactions are not appearing as expected, ensure that  is  config‐
       ured and running.

       and  do	not  report a metric value for intervals where no transactions

       and are located in /opt/wlm/lbin/coll/.	Under normal operating	condi‐
       tions, it should not be necessary to run these data collectors interac‐
       tively.	However, during initial setup, or when debugging configuration
       problems, it may be helpful to invoke them from an interactive shell to
       test that the proper metric values are being reported.

       While some metrics are normalized,  others  may	be  in	proportion  to
       pseudo  constants  such as These constants are generally static, but it
       is possible for them to be changed. Be sure to take this	 into  account
       when specifying a metric.  For metrics that vary with "constant" values
       (such as TT_COUNT, being in proportion to TT_INTERVAL), it may be  nec‐
       essary  to  form	 an expression that normalizes the metric to a rate or
       percentage.  This can be especially important if the interval  is  ever
       adjusted	 or WLM operates in an environment where system configurations
       may vary. For example, to extrapolate the number of  transactions  com‐
       pleted  per  second, normalized to a 30-second block, use the following
       Adviser expression:

	      "(30 * TT_COUNT / TT_INTERVAL)|8|2"

       metric_exprs that may evaluate to a floating-point value should specify
       a  precision  to	 avoid truncation and/or rounding.  This is especially
       important in cases involving division of an integer.

       Specifying an unregistered application name, transaction name, or  user
       name will not result in an error, nor will it produce any data.

       TRANSACTION metrics are only available if the transaction tracking reg‐
       istration daemon (ttd) is properly configured and running.

       and require the optional HP product, GlancePlus.

       was developed by HP.

       If you would like to comment on the current HP-UX WLM functionality  or
       make suggestions for future releases, please send email to:

       The default log file for syslogd's
				     facility.	 Check here for possible diag‐

       Configures logging of transaction metrics.

       Configuration file for the transaction tracking registration daemon
				     (ttd).  It enables	 the  registration  of
				     transactions by name.

       glance(1),   ttd(1),  glance_app(1M),  glance_gbl(1M),  glance_prm(1M),
       glance_prm_by_vg(1M), wlmrcvdc(1M),  arm(3),  ttd.conf(4),  wlmconf(4),

       HP-UX Workload Manager User's Guide (/opt/wlm/share/doc/WLMug.pdf)

       HP-UX Workload Manager homepage (

       GlancePlus (gpm) online help

			  Optional Software Required		 glance_tt(1M)

List of man pages available for HP-UX

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