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GREFER(1)							     GREFER(1)

       grefer - preprocess bibliographic references for groff

       grefer [ -benvCPRS ] [ -an ] [ -cfields ] [ -fn ] [ -ifields ]
	      [ -kfield ] [ -lm,n ] [ -pfilename ] [ -sfields ] [ -tn ]
	      [ -Bfield.macro ] [ filename... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       This file documents the GNU version of refer,  which  is	 part  of  the
       groff  document	formatting system.  refer copies the contents of file‐
       name...	to the standard output, except that lines between  .[  and  .]
       are  interpreted as citations, and lines between .R1 and .R2 are inter‐
       preted as commands about how citations are to be processed.

       Each citation specifies a reference.  The citation can specify a refer‐
       ence  that  is contained in a bibliographic database by giving a set of
       keywords that only that reference contains.  Alternatively it can spec‐
       ify a reference by supplying a database record in the citation.	A com‐
       bination of these alternatives is also possible.

       For each citation, refer can produce a mark in  the  text.   This  mark
       consists	 of  some  label which can be separated from the text and from
       other labels in various ways.  For each reference it also outputs groff
       commands	 that  can  be	used by a macro package to produce a formatted
       reference for each citation.  The output of  refer  must	 therefore  be
       processed  using	 a suitable macro package.  The -ms and -me macros are
       both suitable.  The commands to format a citation's  reference  can  be
       output immediately after the citation, or the references may be accumu‐
       lated, and the commands output at some later point.  If the  references
       are  accumulated,  then	multiple  citations of the same reference will
       produce a single formatted reference.

       The interpretation of lines between .R1 and .R2 as commands  is	a  new
       feature	of  GNU refer.	Documents making use of this feature can still
       be processed by Unix refer just by adding the lines

	      .de R1
	      .ig R2
       to the beginning of the document.  This	will  cause  troff  to	ignore
       everything  between  .R1 and .R2.  The effect of some commands can also
       be achieved by options.	These options are supported mainly for compat‐
       ibility	with  Unix  refer.   It is usually more convenient to use com‐

       refer generates .lf lines so that filenames and line  numbers  in  mes‐
       sages  produced	by commands that read refer output will be correct; it
       also interprets lines beginning with .lf so  that  filenames  and  line
       numbers in the messages and .lf lines that it produces will be accurate
       even if the input has been preprocessed by  a  command  such  as	 gsoe‐

       Most  options  are  equivalent  to commands (for a description of these
       commands see the Commands subsection):

       -b     no-label-in-text; no-label-in-reference

       -e     accumulate

       -n     no-default-database

       -C     compatible

       -P     move-punctuation

       -S     label "(A.n|Q) ', ' (D.y|D)"; bracket-label " (" ) "; "

       -an    reverse An

	      capitalize fields

       -fn    label %n

	      search-ignore fields

       -k     label L~%a

	      label field~%a

       -l     label A.nD.y%a

       -lm    label A.n+mD.y%a

       -l,n   label A.nD.y-n%a

       -lm,n  label A.n+mD.y-n%a

	      database filename

       -sspec sort spec

       -tn    search-truncate n

       These options are equivalent to the following commands with  the	 addi‐
       tion  that the filenames specified on the command line are processed as
       if they were arguments to the bibliography command instead  of  in  the
       normal way:

       -B     annotate X AP; no-label-in-reference

	      annotate field macro; no-label-in-reference

       The following options have no equivalent commands:

       -v     Print the version number.

       -R     Don't recognize lines beginning with .R1/.R2.

   Bibliographic databases
       The  bibliographic  database is a text file consisting of records sepa‐
       rated by one or more blank lines.  Within each record fields start with
       a  %  at	 the beginning of a line.  Each field has a one character name
       that immediately follows the %.	It is best to use only upper and lower
       case  letters for the names of fields.  The name of the field should be
       followed by exactly one space, and then by the contents of  the	field.
       Empty fields are ignored.  The conventional meaning of each field is as

       A      The name of an author.  If the name contains a title such as Jr.
	      at  the  end,  it	 should	 be  separated from the last name by a
	      comma.  There can be multiple occurrences of the A  field.   The
	      order  is	 significant.  It is a good idea always to supply an A
	      field or a Q field.

       B      For an article that is part of a book, the title of the book

       C      The place (city) of publication.

       D      The date of publication.	The year should be specified in	 full.
	      If  the  month  is specified, the name rather than the number of
	      the month should be used, but only the first three  letters  are
	      required.	  It is a good idea always to supply a D field; if the
	      date is unknown, a value such as in  press  or  unknown  can  be

       E      For  an article that is part of a book, the name of an editor of
	      the book.	 Where the work has editors and no authors, the	 names
	      of the editors should be given as A fields and , (ed) or , (eds)
	      should be appended to the last author.

       G      US Government ordering number.

       I      The publisher (issuer).

       J      For an article in a journal, the name of the journal.

       K      Keywords to be used for searching.

       L      Label.

       N      Journal issue number.

       O      Other information.  This is usually printed at the  end  of  the

       P      Page number.  A range of pages can be specified as m-n.

       Q      The  name	 of  the  author, if the author is not a person.  This
	      will only be used if there are no A fields.  There can  only  be
	      one Q field.

       R      Technical report number.

       S      Series name.

       T      Title.   For an article in a book or journal, this should be the
	      title of the article.

       V      Volume number of the journal or book.

       X      Annotation.

       For all fields except A and E, if there is more than one occurrence  of
       a particular field in a record, only the last such field will be used.

       If  accent  strings  are	 used,	they should follow the character to be
       accented.  This means that the AM macro	must  be  used	with  the  -ms
       macros.	 Accent	 strings  should  not be quoted: use one \ rather than

       The format of a citation is
	      flags keywords

       The opening-text, closing-text and flags components are optional.  Only
       one of the keywords and fields components need be specified.

       The keywords component says to search the bibliographic databases for a
       reference that contains all the words in keywords.  It is an  error  if
       more than one reference if found.

       The fields components specifies additional fields to replace or supple‐
       ment those specified in the reference.  When references are being accu‐
       mulated and the keywords component is non-empty, then additional fields
       should be specified only on the first occasion that a particular refer‐
       ence is cited, and will apply to all citations of that reference.

       The  opening-text  and  closing-text  component specifies strings to be
       used to bracket the label instead  of  the  strings  specified  in  the
       bracket-label command.  If either of these components is non-empty, the
       strings specified in the bracket-label command will not be  used;  this
       behaviour  can  be  altered using the [ and ] flags.  Note that leading
       and trailing spaces are significant for these components.

       The flags component is a list of non-alphanumeric  characters  each  of
       which  modifies	the treatment of this particular citation.  Unix refer
       will treat these flags as part of the keywords and so will ignore  them
       since  they  are	 non-alphanumeric.   The following flags are currently

       #      This says to use the label specified by the short-label command,
	      instead  of  that	 specified  by the label command.  If no short
	      label has been specified, the normal label will be used.	 Typi‐
	      cally  the  short label is used with author-date labels and con‐
	      sists of only the date and possibly a disambiguating letter; the
	      # is supposed to be suggestive of a numeric type of label.

       [      Precede  opening-text  with  the	first  string specified in the
	      bracket-label command.

       ]      Follow closing-text with the  second  string  specified  in  the
	      bracket-label command.

       One  advantages	of  using  the [ and ] flags rather than including the
       brackets in opening-text and closing-text is that you  can  change  the
       style  of  bracket  used	 in the document just by changing the bracket-
       label command.  Another advantage is that sorting and merging of	 cita‐
       tions will not necessarily be inhibited if the flags are used.

       If  a label is to be inserted into the text, it will be attached to the
       line preceding the .[ line.  If there is no such line,  then  an	 extra
       line will be inserted before the .[ line and a warning will be given.

       There  is  no special notation for making a citation to multiple refer‐
       ences.  Just use a sequence  of	citations,  one	 for  each  reference.
       Don't put anything between the citations.  The labels for all the cita‐
       tions will be attached to the line preceding the first  citation.   The
       labels  may  also  be  sorted or merged.	 See the description of the <>
       label expression, and of the sort-adjacent-labels and abbreviate-label-
       ranges  command.	 A label will not be merged if its citation has a non-
       empty opening-text or closing-text.  However, the labels for a citation
       using the ] flag and without any closing-text immediately followed by a
       citation using the [ flag and without any opening-text  may  be	sorted
       and  merged even though the first citation's opening-text or the second
       citation's closing-text is non-empty.  (If you  wish  to	 prevent  this
       just make the first citation's closing-text \&.)

       Commands are contained between lines starting with .R1 and .R2.	Recog‐
       nition of these lines can be prevented by the -R option.	  When	a  .R1
       line is recognized any accumulated references are flushed out.  Neither
       .R1 nor .R2 lines, nor anything between them is output.

       Commands are separated by newlines or ;s.  # introduces a comment  that
       extends	to  the	 end  of  the line (but does not conceal the newline).
       Each command is broken up into words.  Words are separated by spaces or
       tabs.  A word that begins with " extends to the next " that is not fol‐
       lowed by another ".  If there is no such " the word extends to the  end
       of  the line.  Pairs of " in a word beginning with " collapse to a sin‐
       gle ".  Neither # nor ; are recognized inside "s.  A line can  be  con‐
       tinued by ending it with \; this works everywhere except after a #.

       Each command name that is marked with * has an associated negative com‐
       mand no-name that undoes the effect of name.  For example, the  no-sort
       command	specifies  that references should not be sorted.  The negative
       commands take no arguments.

       In the following description each argument must be a single word; field
       is  used for a single upper or lower case letter naming a field; fields
       is used for a sequence of such letters; m and n are used for a non-neg‐
       ative numbers; string is used for an arbitrary string; filename is used
       for the name of a file.

       abbreviate* fields string1 string2 string3 string4
				Abbreviate the first names of fields.  An ini‐
				tial  letter  will  be	separated from another
				initial letter by string1, from the last  name
				by  string2, and from anything else (such as a
				von or de) by string3.	 These	default	 to  a
				period	followed  by a space.  In a hyphenated
				first name, the initial of the first  part  of
				the  name will be separated from the hyphen by
				string4;  this	defaults  to  a	 period.    No
				attempt is made to handle any ambiguities that
				might result  from  abbreviation.   Names  are
				abbreviated  before  sorting  and before label

       abbreviate-label-ranges* string
				Three or more adjacent labels  that  refer  to
				consecutive  references will be abbreviated to
				a label consisting of the  first  label,  fol‐
				lowed  by  string  followed by the last label.
				This is mainly useful with numeric labels.  If
				string is omitted it defaults to -.

       accumulate*		Accumulate  references	instead of writing out
				each reference as it is encountered.   Accumu‐
				lated  references will be written out whenever
				a reference of the form


				is encountered, after all input files hve been
				processed,  and	 whenever  .R1	line is recog‐

       annotate* field string	field is an annotation; print it at the end of
				the  reference	as a paragraph preceded by the


				If macro is omitted it will default to AP;  if
				field  is  also	 omitted it will default to X.
				Only one field can be an annotation.

       articles string...	string...  are definite	 or  indefinite	 arti‐
				cles,  and  should be ignored at the beginning
				of T fields when sorting.  Initially,  the,  a
				and an are recognized as articles.

       bibliography filename... Write  out all the references contained in the
				bibliographic databases filename...

       bracket-label string1 string2 string3
				In the text, bracket each label	 with  string1
				and string2.  An occurrence of string2 immedi‐
				ately followed by string1 will be turned  into
				string3.  The default behaviour is

				       bracket-label \*([. \*(.] ", "

       capitalize fields	Convert fields to caps and small caps.

       compatible*		Recognize  .R1 and .R2 even when followed by a
				character other than space or newline.

       database filename...	Search the bibliographic databases filename...
				For  each filename if an index filename.i cre‐
				ated by gindxbib(1) exists, then  it  will  be
				searched  instead; each index can cover multi‐
				ple databases.

       date-as-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies  a
				string with which to replace the D field after
				constructing the label.	 See the Label expres‐
				sions  subsection  for	a description of label
				expressions.  This command is useful if you do
				not  want  explicit  labels  in	 the reference
				list, but instead want to handle any necessary
				disambiguation	by qualifying the date in some
				way.  The label used in the text  would	 typi‐
				cally  be  some	 combination of the author and
				date.  In most cases you should also  use  the
				no-label-in-reference command.	For example,

				       date-as-label D.+yD.y%a*D.-y

				would  attach  a  disambiguating letter to the
				year part of the D field in the reference.

       default-database*	The default database should be searched.  This
				is the default behaviour, so the negative ver‐
				sion of this command is	 more  useful.	 refer
				determines whether the default database should
				be searched on	the  first  occasion  that  it
				needs to do a search.  Thus a no-default-data‐
				base command must be  given  before  then,  in
				order to be effective.

       discard* fields		When  the  reference is read, fields should be
				discarded; no string  definitions  for	fields
				will be output.	 Initially, fields are XYZ.

       et-al* string m n	Control	 use  of  et al in the evaluation of @
				expressions in label expressions.  If the num‐
				ber  of	 authors  needed  to  make  the author
				sequence unambiguous is u and the total number
				of authors is t then the last t-u authors will
				be replaced by string provided that t-u is not
				less  than  m  and  t is not less than n.  The
				default behaviour is

				       et-al " et al" 2 3

       include filename		Include filename and interpret the contents as

       join-authors string1 string2 string3
				This   says   how  authors  should  be	joined
				together.  When there are exactly two authors,
				they  will be joined with string1.  When there
				are more than two authors, all	but  the  last
				two  will be joined with string2, and the last
				two authors will be joined with	 string3.   If
				string3	  is   omitted,	 it  will  default  to
				string1; if string2 is also  omitted  it  will
				also default to string1.  For example,

				       join-authors " and " ", " ", and "

				will  restore  the  default method for joining

       label-in-reference*	When  outputting  the  reference,  define  the
				string	[F  to be the reference's label.  This
				is the default behaviour; so the negative ver‐
				sion of this command is more useful.

       label-in-text*		For each reference output a label in the text.
				The label will be separated from the surround‐
				ing  text  as  described  in the bracket-label
				command.  This is the  default	behaviour;  so
				the  negative  version of this command is more

       label string		string is a label expression describing how to
				label each reference.

       separate-label-second-parts string
				When  merging  two-part	 labels,  separate the
				second part of the second label from the first
				label with string.  See the description of the
				<> label expression.

       move-punctuation*	In the text, move any punctuation at  the  end
				of  line past the label.  It is usually a good
				idea to give this command unless you are using
				superscripted numbers as labels.

       reverse* string		Reverse	 the fields whose names are in string.
				Each field name can be followed	 by  a	number
				which  says  how  many	such  fields should be
				reversed.  If no number is given for a	field,
				all such fields will be reversed.

       search-ignore* fields	While  searching  for  keys  in	 databases for
				which no index exists, ignore the contents  of
				fields.	 Initially, fields XYZ are ignored.

       search-truncate* n	Only require the first n characters of keys to
				be given.  In  effect  when  searching	for  a
				given  key words in the database are truncated
				to the maximum of n and the length of the key.
				Initially n is 6.

       short-label* string	string is a label expression that specifies an
				alternative (usually shorter) style of	label.
				This  is  used when the # flag is given in the
				citation.   When   using   author-date	 style
				labels,	 the identity of the author or authors
				is sometimes clear from the context, and so it
				may be desirable to omit the author or authors
				from the label.	 The short-label command  will
				typically  be used to specify a label contain‐
				ing just a date and possibly a	disambiguating

       sort* string		Sort  references  according to string.	Refer‐
				ences  will  automatically   be	  accumulated.
				string	should	be a list of field names, each
				followed by  a	number,	 indicating  how  many
				fields	with the name should be used for sort‐
				ing.  + can be used to indicate that  all  the
				fields	with  the name should be used.	Also .
				can be used to indicate the references	should
				be  sorted  using the (tentative) label.  (The
				Label  expressions  subsection	describes  the
				concept of a tentative label.)

       sort-adjacent-labels*	Sort  labels  that  are	 adjacent  in the text
				according to their position in	the  reference
				list.  This command should usually be given if
				the abbreviate-label-ranges command  has  been
				given,	or  if the label expression contains a
				<>  expression.	  This	will  have  no	effect
				unless references are being accumulated.

   Label expressions
       Label  expressions can be evaluated both normally and tentatively.  The
       result of normal evaluation is used for output.	The result  of	tenta‐
       tive  evaluation,  called  the  tentative  label, is used to gather the
       information that normal evaluation needs	 to  disambiguate  the	label.
       Label  expressions  specified by the date-as-label and short-label com‐
       mands are not evaluated tentatively.  Normal and	 tentative  evaluation
       are the same for all types of expression other than @, *, and % expres‐
       sions.  The description below  applies  to  normal  evaluation,	except
       where otherwise specified.

       field n
	      The n-th part of field.  If n is omitted, it defaults to 1.

	      The characters in string literally.

       @      All the authors joined as specified by the join-authors command.
	      The whole of each author's name will be used.  However,  if  the
	      references  are sorted by author (that is the sort specification
	      starts with A+), then authors' last names will be used  instead,
	      provided	that  this  does  not introduce ambiguity, and also an
	      initial subsequence of the authors may be used  instead  of  all
	      the authors, again provided that this does not introduce ambigu‐
	      ity.  The use of only the last name for the i-th author of  some
	      reference	 is  considered to be ambiguous if there is some other
	      reference, such that the first i-1 authors of the references are
	      the  same,  the  i-th  authors  are  not	the same, but the i-th
	      authors' last names are the same.	 A proper initial  subsequence
	      of  the  sequence of authors for some reference is considered to
	      be ambiguous if there is a reference with some other sequence of
	      authors which also has that subsequence as a proper initial sub‐
	      sequence.	 When an initial subsequence of authors is  used,  the
	      remaining	 authors  are  replaced by the string specified by the
	      et-al command; this command may also specify additional require‐
	      ments  that  must	 be  met  before an initial subsequence can be
	      used.  @ tentatively evaluates to a canonical representation  of
	      the  authors, such that authors that compare equally for sorting
	      purpose will have the same representation.

       %I     The serial number of the reference formatted  according  to  the
	      character	 following the %.  The serial number of a reference is
	      1 plus the number of  earlier  references	 with  same  tentative
	      label as this reference.	These expressions tentatively evaluate
	      to an empty string.

       expr*  If there is another reference with the same tentative  label  as
	      this reference, then expr, otherwise an empty string.  It tenta‐
	      tively evaluates to an empty string.

       expr-n The first (+) or last (-) n upper or lower case letters or  dig‐
	      its of expr.  Troff special characters (such as \('a) count as a
	      single letter.  Accent strings are retained  but	do  not	 count
	      towards the total.

       expr.l expr converted to lowercase.

       expr.u expr converted to uppercase.

       expr.c expr converted to caps and small caps.

       expr.r expr reversed so that the last name is first.

       expr.a expr  with  first names abbreviated.  Note that fields specified
	      in the abbreviate command are abbreviated before any labels  are
	      evaluated.   Thus	 .a is useful only when you want a field to be
	      abbreviated in a label but not in a reference.

       expr.y The year part of expr.

	      The part of expr before the year, or the whole  of  expr	if  it
	      does not contain a year.

	      The part of expr after the year, or an empty string if expr does
	      not contain a year.

       expr.n The last name part of expr.

	      expr1 except that if the last character of expr1 is  -  then  it
	      will be replaced by expr2.

       expr1 expr2
	      The concatenation of expr1 and expr2.

	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr1 otherwise expr2.

	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise an empty string.

	      If expr1 is non-empty then expr2 otherwise expr3.

       <expr> The  label  is  in  two parts, which are separated by expr.  Two
	      adjacent two-part labels which have the same first part will  be
	      merged by appending the second part of the second label onto the
	      first label separated by the string specified in	the  separate-
	      label-second-parts  command  (initially,	a  comma followed by a
	      space); the resulting label will also be a two-part  label  with
	      the  same first part as before merging, and so additional labels
	      can be merged into it.  Note that	 it  is	 permissible  for  the
	      first  part  to  be  empty; this maybe desirable for expressions
	      used in the short-label command.

       (expr) The same as expr.	 Used for grouping.

       The above expressions  are  listed  in  order  of  precedence  (highest
       first); & and | have the same precedence.

   Macro interface
       Each  reference starts with a call to the macro ]-.  The string [F will
       be defined to be the label for this reference, unless the  no-label-in-
       reference  command  has	been  given.   There  then follows a series of
       string definitions, one for each field: string [X corresponds to	 field
       X.   The number register [P is set to 1 if the P field contains a range
       of pages.  The [T, [A and [O number registers are set to 1 according as
       the  T, A and O fields end with one of the characters .?!.  The [E num‐
       ber register will be set to 1 if the [E string contains more  than  one
       name.   The reference is followed by a call to the ][ macro.  The first
       argument to this macro gives a number representing the type of the ref‐
       erence.	 If  a	reference contains a J field, it will be classified as
       type 1, otherwise if it contains a B field, it will type	 3,  otherwise
       if  it contains a G or R field it will be type 4, otherwise if contains
       a I field it will be type 2, otherwise it will be type 0.   The	second
       argument is a symbolic name for the type: other, journal-article, book,
       article-in-book or tech-report.	Groups of references  that  have  been
       accumulated or are produced by the bibliography command are preceded by
       a call to the ]< macro and followed by a call to the ]> macro.

       /usr/dict/papers/Ind  Default database.

       file.i		     Index files.

       gindxbib(1), glookbib(1), lkbib(1)

       In label expressions, <> expressions are ignored inside	.char  expres‐

Groff Version 1.17.2		 27 June 2001			     GREFER(1)

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