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grep(1)								       grep(1)

       grep, egrep, fgrep - search a file for a pattern

   Plain call with pattern
       pattern [file ...]

   Call with (multiple) −e pattern
       pattern] ...  [file ...]

   Call with −f file
       pattern_file] [file ...]

       [expression] [file ...]

       [strings] [file ...]

       The  command searches the input text files (standard input default) for
       lines matching a pattern.  Normally, each line found is copied  to  the
       standard	 output.   supports  the  Basic Regular Expression syntax (see
       regexp(5)).  The option supports Extended Regular Expression (ERE) syn‐
       tax  (see  regexp(5)).  The option searches for fixed strings using the
       fast Boyer-Moore string searching algorithm.   The  and	options	 treat
       newlines	 embedded  in  the  pattern as alternation characters.	A null
       expression or string matches every line.

       The forms and are maintained for backward compatibility.	  The  use  of
       the and options is recommended for portability.

	      Extended regular expressions.
				  Each	pattern specified is a sequence of one
				  or more EREs.	 The EREs can be separated  by
				  newline  characters  or  given  in  separate
				  expression options.  A  pattern  matches  an
				  input	 line  if  any	ERE  in	 the  sequence
				  matches the contents of the input line with‐
				  out  its  trailing  newline  character.  The
				  same functionality is obtained by using

	      Fixed strings.	  Each pattern specified is a sequence of  one
				  or  more  strings.  Strings can be separated
				  by newline characters or given  in  separate
				  expression  options.	 A  pattern matches an
				  input line if the line contains any  of  the
				  strings in the sequence.  The same function‐
				  ality is obtained by using

	      Each line is preceded by the block number on which it was found.
				  This is useful in locating disk  block  num‐
				  bers	by  context.  Block numbers are calcu‐
				  lated by dividing by 512 the number of bytes
				  that have been read from the file and round‐
				  ing down the result.

	      Only a count of matching lines is printed.

	      Same as a simple	  expression argument,	but  useful  when  the
				  expression  begins  with  a  hyphen Multiple
				  options can be used to specify multiple pat‐
				  terns;  an  input  line  is  selected	 if it
				  matches any of the specified patterns.

	      The regular	  expression and or strings list is taken from
				  the pattern_file.

	      Suppress printing of filenames when searching multiple files.

	      Ignore uppercase/lowercase distinctions during comparisons.

	      Only the names of files with matching lines are listed (once),
				  separated by newlines.  If standard input is
				  searched, a path name of will be written, in
				  the  POSIX  locale. In other locales, may be
				  replaced by something	 more  appropriate  in
				  those locales.

	      Each  line  is  preceded by its relative line number in the file
	      starting at 1.
				  The line  number  is	reset  for  each  file
				  searched.   This  option is ignored if or is

	      (Quiet)		  Do not write anything to the	standard  out‐
				  put,	regardless  of	matching  lines.  Exit
				  with zero  status  upon  finding  the	 first
				  matching  line.   Overrides any options that
				  would produce output.

	      Error messages produced for nonexistent or unreadable files  are

	      All lines but those matching are printed.

	      Select only those lines containing matches that
				  form	whole  words.  The  test  is  that the
				  matching substring must  either  be  at  the
				  beginning of the line, or preceded by a non-
				  word constituent character.	Similarly,  it
				  must	be  either  at	the end of the line or
				  followed by a non-word  constituent  charac‐
				  ter.	Word-constituent  characters  are let‐
				  ters, digits, and the underscore.

	      (eXact)		  Matches are recognized only when the	entire
				  input line matches the fixed string or regu‐
				  lar expression.

       The file name is output in all the cases in which output	 is  generated
       if  there  are more than one input file, unless the -h option is speci‐
       fied.  Care should be taken when using the characters  and  in  expres‐
       sion,  because  they are also meaningful to the shell.  It is safest to
       enclose the entire expression argument in single quotes

   Environment Variables
       determines the locale to use for the locale categories  when  both  and
       the corresponding environment variable (beginning with do not specify a
       locale.	If is not specified or is set to the empty string,  a  default
       of (see lang(5)) is used.

       determines  the	locale	to use to override any values for locale cate‐
       gories specified by the settings of or any environment variables begin‐
       ning with

       determines  the	collating  sequence used in evaluating regular expres‐

       determines the interpretation of text as single byte and/or  multi-byte
       characters,  the	 classification	 of  characters	 as  letters, the case
       information for the option, and the  characters	matched	 by  character
       class expressions in regular expressions.

       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If  any	internationalization variable contains an invalid setting, the
       commands behave as if all internationalization variables are set to See

   International Code Set Support
       Single-byte and multi-byte character code sets are supported.

       Upon completion, returns one of the following values:

	      One or more matches found.
	      No match found.
	      Syntax error or inaccessible file (even if matches were found).

       In  the	POSIX  shell (sh(1)) the following example searches two files,
       finding all lines containing occurrences of any of four strings:

       Note that the single quotes are necessary to tell when the strings have
       ended and the file names have begun.

       For the C shell (see csh(1)) the following command can be used:

       To search a file named containing the following entries:

       the command:


       To  search  a file for lines that contain either a or use either of the
       following commands:

       Search all files in the current directory for the string

       Search all files in the current directory subtree for  the  string  and
       ensure that no error occurs due to file name expansion exceeding system
       argument list limits:

       The previous example does not print the	name  of  files	 where	string
       appears.	  To  force  to print file names, add a second argument to the
       command portion of the command line:

       In this form, the first file name is that produced by  and  the	second
       file name is the null file.

       (XPG4  only.)  If the option is specified, the exit status will be zero
       if an input line is selected, even if an error  was  detected.	Other‐
       wise, default actions will be performed.

       If  the	option is specified with non-word constituent characters, then
       the output is unexpected.

       sed(1), sh(1), regcomp(3C), environ(5), lang(5), regexp(5).


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