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grep(1)								       grep(1)

Name
       grep, egrep, fgrep - search file for regular expression

Syntax
       grep [option...] expression [file...]

       egrep [option...] [expression] [file...]

       fgrep [option...] [strings] [file]

Description
       Commands	 of the family search the input files (standard input default)
       for lines matching a pattern.  Normally, each line found is  copied  to
       the standard output.

       The  command  patterns  are limited regular expressions in the style of
       which uses a compact nondeterministic algorithm.	 The command  patterns
       are  full  regular  expressions.	 The command uses a fast deterministic
       algorithm that sometimes needs exponential space.  The command patterns
       are fixed strings.  The command is fast and compact.

       In  all	cases  the  file name is shown if there is more than one input
       file.  Take care when using the characters $ * [ ^ | ( ) and \  in  the
       expression because they are also meaningful to the Shell.  It is safest
       to enclose the entire expression argument in single quotes ´ ´.

       The command searches for lines that contain one of the (new  line-sepa‐
       rated) strings.

       The  command  accepts  extended	regular expressions.  In the following
       description `character' excludes new line:

	      A backslash (\) followed by a single character  other  than  new
	      line matches that character.

	      The circumflex (^) character matches the beginning of a line.

	      The dollar sign ($) character matches the end of a line.

	      A dot (.) matches any character.

	      A	 single	 character  not otherwise endowed with special meaning
	      matches that character.

	      A string enclosed in brackets [] matches	any  single  character
	      from  the string.	 Ranges of ASCII character codes may be abbre‐
	      viated as in `a-z0-9'.  A right bracket (]) may  occur  only  as
	      the  first  character of the string.  A literal dash (-) must be
	      placed where it can not be mistaken as a range indicator.

	      A regular expression followed  by	 an  asterisk  (*)  matches  a
	      sequence of 0 or more matches of the regular expression.	A reg‐
	      ular expression followed by a plus (+) matches a sequence	 of  1
	      or more matches of the regular expression.  A regular expression
	      followed by a question mark (?) matches a sequence  of  0	 or  1
	      matches of the regular expression.

	      Two  regular expressions concatenated match a match of the first
	      followed by a match of the second.

	      Two regular expressions separated by a vertical  bar (|) or  new
	      line  match either a match for the first or a match for the sec‐
	      ond.

	      A regular expression enclosed in parentheses matches a match for
	      the regular expression.

       The  order  of precedence of operators at the same parenthesis level is
       the following:  [], then *+?, then concatenation, then | and new line.

Options
       -b	   Precedes each output line with its block number.   This  is
		   sometimes useful in locating disk block numbers by context.

       -c	   Produces count of matching lines only.

       -e expression
		   Uses	 next  argument as expression that begins with a minus
		   (-).

       -f file	   Takes regular expression or string list from file.

       -i	   Considers uppercase and lowercase letters identical in mak‐
		   ing comparisons and only).

       -l	   Lists  files	 with matching lines only once, separated by a
		   new line.

       -n	   Precedes each matching line with its line number.

       -s	   Silent mode and nothing is printed (except error messages).
		   This	 is useful for checking the error status (see DIAGNOS‐
		   TICS).

       -v	   Displays all lines that do not match specified expression.

       -w	   Searches for an expression as for a word (as if  surrounded
		   by `\<' and `\>').  For further information, see only.

       -x	   Prints exact lines matched in their entirety only).

Restrictions
       Lines are limited to 256 characters; longer lines are truncated.

       When  using  the option with a string list can not be greater than 6000
       bytes minus newline characters

Diagnostics
       Exit status is 0 if any matches are found, 1  if	 none,	2  for	syntax
       errors or inaccessible files.

See Also
       ex(1), sed(1), sh(1)

								       grep(1)
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