groff_char man page on OpenDarwin

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       groff_char - groff character names

       This manual page lists the standard groff input characters.  The output
       characters in this document will look different depending on which out‐
       put  device  was	 chosen	 (with option -T for the man(1) program or the
       roff formatter).	 Only the characters that are available for the device
       that  is being used to print or view this manual page will be displayed
       (the device currently used is `utf8').

       In the actual version, groff provides only 8-bit characters for	direct
       input  and  named  characters  for further glyphs.  On ASCII platforms,
       character codes in the range 0 to 127  (decimal)	 represent  the	 usual
       7-bit ASCII characters, while codes between 127 and 255 are interpreted
       as the corresponding characters in the Latin-1 (ISO-8859-1)  code  set.
       On EBCDIC platforms, only the code page cp1047 is supported (which con‐
       tains the same characters as Latin-1).  It  is  rather  straightforward
       (for the experienced user) to set up other 8bit encodings like Latin-2;
       since groff will use Unicode in the next major version,	no  additional
       encodings are provided.

       All  roff  systems  provide the concept of named characters.  In tradi‐
       tional roff systems, only names of length 2 were used, while groff also
       provides	 support for longer names.  It is strongly suggested that only
       named characters are used for all characters outside of the 7-bit ASCII

       Some  of the predefined groff escape sequences (with names of length 1)
       also produce single characters; these exist for historical  reasons  or
       are printable versions of syntactical characters.  They include \\, \',
       \`, \-, \., and \e; see groff(7).

       In groff, all of these different types of characters can be tested pos‐
       itively with the .if c conditional.

       In this section, the characters in groff are specified in tabular form.
       The meaning of the columns is as follows.

       Output shows how the character  is  printed  for	 the  current  device;
	      although this can have quite a different shape on other devices,
	      it always represents the same glyph.

       Input name
	      specifies how the character is input either directly by a key on
	      the keyboard, or by a groff escape sequence.

       Input code
	      applies  to  characters which can be input with a single charac‐
	      ter, and gives the ISO Latin-1 decimal code of that input	 char‐
	      acter.  Note that this code is equivalent to the lowest 256 Uni‐
	      code characters; (including 7-bit ASCII in the range 0 to 127).

       PostScript name
	      gives the usual PostScript name of the output character.

   ASCII Characters
       These are the basic characters having 7-bit ASCII code  values.	 These
       are  identical  to  the first 127 characters of the character standards
       ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) and Unicode (range C0 Controls and	Basic  Latin).
       To save space, not every code has an entry in the following because the
       following code ranges are well known.

       0-32   Control characters (print as themselves).

       48-57  Decimal digits 0 to 9 (print as themselves).

       65-90  Upper case letters A-Z (print as themselves).

       97-122 Lower case letters a-z (print as themselves).

       127    Control character (prints as itself).

       The remaining ranges constitute the printable,  non-alphanumeric	 ASCII
       characters;  only  these are listed below.  As can be seen in the table
       below, most of these characters print as themselves;  the  only	excep‐
       tions are the following characters:

       `      the  ISO	Latin-1	 `Grave	 Accent' (code 96) prints as `, a left
	      single quotation mark,

       '      the ISO Latin-1 `Apostrophe' (code 39) prints as ', a right sin‐
	      gle quotation mark; the corresponding ISO Latin-1 characters can
	      be obtained with \` and \(aq.

       -      the ISO Latin-1 `Hyphen,	Minus  Sign'  (code 45)	 prints	 as  a
	      hyphen; a minus sign can be obtained with \-.

       ~      the  ISO	Latin-1	 `Tilde'  (code 126);  a  larger  glyph can be
	      obtained with \(ti.

       ^      the ISO Latin-1 `Circumflex Accent' (code 94);  a	 larger	 glyph
	      can be obtained with \(ha.

       Output	Input	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	code	name

       !	!	33	exclam
       "	"	34	quotedbl
       #	#	35	numbersign
       $	$	36	dollar
       %	%	37	percent
       &	&	38	ampersand
       '	'	39	quoteright
       (	(	40	parenleft
       )	)	41	parenright
       *	*	42	asterisk
       +	+	43	plus
       ,	,	44	comma
       -	-	45	hyphen
       .	.	46	period
       /	/	47	slash
       :	:	58	colon
       ;	;	59	semicolon
       <	<	60	less
       =	=	61	equal
       >	>	62	greater
       ?	?	63	question
       @	@	64	at
       [	[	91	bracketleft
       \	\	92	backslash
       ]	]	93	bracketright
       ^	^	94	circumflex	 circumflex accent
       _	_	95	underscore
       `	`	96	quoteleft
       {	{	123	braceleft
       |	|	124	bar
       }	}	125	braceright
       ~	~	126	tilde		 tilde accent

   Latin-1 Special Characters
       These  characters  have	character codes between 128 and 255.  They are
       interpreted as characters according to the  Latin-1  (iso-8859-1)  code
       set,  being identical to the Unicode range C1 Controls and Latin-1 Sup‐

	      the C1 Controls; they print as themselves,  but  the  effect  is
	      mostly undefined.

       160    the  ISO	Latin-1	 no-break space is mapped to `\ ', the escaped
	      space character.

       173    the soft hyphen control character	 (prints  as  itself).	 groff
	      never  use  this character for output (thus it is omitted in the
	      table below); the input character 173 is mapped onto \%.

       The remaining ranges (161-172, 174-255), called the Latin-1  Supplement
       in   Unicode,  are  printable  characters  that	print  as  themselves.
       Although they can be specified directly with the	 keyboard  on  systems
       with  a	Latin-1	 code  page, it is better to use their named character
       equivalent; see next section.

       Output	Input	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	code	name

       ¡	¡	161	exclamdown	 inverted exclamation mark
       ¢	¢	162	cent
       £	£	163	sterling
       ¤	¤	164	currency
       ¥	¥	165	yen
       ¦	¦	166	brokenbar
       §	§	167	section
       ¨	¨	168	dieresis
       ©	©	169	copyright
       ª	ª	170	ordfeminine
       «	«	171	guillemotleft
       ¬	¬	172	logicalnot
       ®	®	174	registered
       ¯	¯	175	macron
       °	°	176	degree
       ±	±	177	plusminus
       ²	²	178	twosuperior
       ³	³	179	threesuperior
       ´	´	180	acute		 acute accent
       µ	µ	181	mu		 micro sign
       ¶	¶	182	paragraph
       ·	·	183	periodcentered
       ¸	¸	184	cedilla
       ¹	¹	185	onesuperior
       º	º	186	ordmasculine
       »	»	187	guillemotright
       ¼	¼	188	onequarter
       ½	½	189	onehalf
       ¾	¾	190	threequarters
       ¿	¿	191	questiondown
       À	À	192	Agrave
       Á	Á	193	Aacute
       Â	Â	194	Acircumflex
       Ã	Ã	195	Atilde
       Ä	Ä	196	Adieresis
       Å	Å	197	Aring
       Æ	Æ	198	AE
       Ç	Ç	199	Ccedilla
       È	È	200	Egrave
       É	É	201	Eacute
       Ê	Ê	202	Ecircumflex
       Ë	Ë	203	Edieresis
       Ì	Ì	204	Igrave
       Í	Í	205	Iacute
       Î	Î	206	Icircumflex
       Ï	Ï	207	Idieresis
       Ð	Ð	208	Eth
       Ñ	Ñ	209	Ntilde
       Ò	Ò	210	Ograve
       Ó	Ó	211	Oacute
       Ô	Ô	212	Ocircumflex
       Õ	Õ	213	Otilde
       Ö	Ö	214	Odieresis
       ×	×	215	multiply
       Ø	Ø	216	Oslash
       Ù	Ù	217	Ugrave
       Ú	Ú	218	Uacute
       Û	Û	219	Ucircumflex
       Ü	Ü	220	Udieresis
       Ý	Ý	221	Yacute
       Þ	Þ	222	Thorn
       ß	ß	223	germandbls
       à	à	224	agrave
       á	á	225	aacute
       â	â	226	acircumflex
       ã	ã	227	atilde
       ä	ä	228	adieresis
       å	å	229	aring
       æ	æ	230	ae
       ç	ç	231	ccedilla
       è	è	232	egrave
       é	é	233	eacute
       ê	ê	234	ecircumflex
       ë	ë	235	edieresis
       ì	ì	236	igrave
       í	í	237	iacute
       î	î	238	icircumflex
       ï	ï	239	idieresis
       ð	ð	240	eth
       ñ	ñ	241	ntilde
       ò	ò	242	ograve
       ó	ó	243	oacute
       ô	ô	244	ocircumflex
       õ	õ	245	otilde
       ö	ö	246	odieresis
       ÷	÷	247	divide
       ø	ø	248	oslash
       ù	ù	249	ugrave
       ú	ú	250	uacute
       û	û	251	ucircumflex
       ü	ü	252	udieresis
       ý	ý	253	yacute
       þ	þ	254	thorn
       ÿ	ÿ	255	ydieresis

   Named Characters
       The named character idiom is the standard way to specify special	 char‐
       acters in roff systems.	They can be embedded into the document text by
       using escape sequences.	groff(7) describes how these escape  sequences
       look.   The  character  names can consist of quite arbitrary characters
       from the ASCII or Latin-1 code set, not only  alphanumeric  characters.
       Here some examples:

       \c     named  character	having	the name c, which consists of a single
	      character (length 1).

       \(ch   named character having the 2-character name ch.

	      named character having the name char_name (having length	1,  2,
	      3, ...).

       In  groff,  each	 8bit input character can also referred to by the con‐
       struct \n[charn] where n is the decimal code of the character, a number
       between	0  and 255  without leading zeros.  They are mapped onto glyph
       entities using the .trin request.  Moreover, new character names can be
       created by the .char request; see groff(7).

       Output	Input	PostScript	 Notes
		name	name

       Ð	\[-D]	Eth		 Icelandic uppercase eth
       ð	\[Sd]	eth		 Icelandic lowercase eth
       Þ	\[TP]	Thorn		 Icelandic uppercase thorn
       þ	\[Tp]	thorn		 Icelandic lowercase thorn
       ß	\[ss]	germandbls	 German sharp s

       ff	\[ff]	ff		 ff ligature
       fi	\[fi]	fi		 fi ligature
       fl	\[fl]	fl		 fl ligature
       ffi	\[Fi]	ffi		 ffi ligature
       ffl	\[Fl]	ffl		 ffl ligature
       Æ	\[AE]	AE
       æ	\[ae]	ae
       Œ	\[OE]	OE
       œ	\[oe]	oe
       IJ	\[IJ]	IJ		 Dutch IJ ligature
       ij	\[ij]	ij		 Dutch ij ligature
       ı	\[.i]	dotlessi	 i without a dot (Turkish)

       Accented Characters
       Á	\['A]	Aacute
       Ć	\['C]	Cacute
       É	\['E]	Eacute
       Í	\['I]	Iacute
       Ó	\['O]	Oacute
       Ú	\['U]	Uacute
       Ý	\['Y]	Yacute
       á	\['a]	aacute
       ć	\['c]	cacute
       é	\['e]	eacute
       í	\['i]	iacute
       ó	\['o]	oacute
       ú	\['u]	uacute
       ý	\['y]	yacute
       Ä	\[:A]	Adieresis	 A with umlaut
       Ë	\[:E]	Edieresis
       Ï	\[:I]	Idieresis
       Ö	\[:O]	Odieresis
       Ü	\[:U]	Udieresis
       Ÿ	\[:Y]	Ydieresis
       ä	\[:a]	adieresis
       ë	\[:e]	edieresis
       ï	\[:i]	idieresis
       ö	\[:o]	odieresis
       ü	\[:u]	udieresis
       ÿ	\[:y]	ydieresis
       Â	\[^A]	Acircumflex
       Ê	\[^E]	Ecircumflex
       Î	\[^I]	Icircumflex
       Ô	\[^O]	Ocircumflex
       Û	\[^U]	Ucircumflex
       â	\[^a]	acircumflex
       ê	\[^e]	ecircumflex
       î	\[^i]	icircumflex
       ô	\[^o]	ocircumflex
       û	\[^u]	ucircumflex
       À	\[`A]	Agrave
       È	\[`E]	Egrave
       Ì	\[`I]	Igrave
       Ò	\[`O]	Ograve
       Ù	\[`U]	Ugrave
       à	\[`a]	agrave
       è	\[`e]	egrave
       ì	\[`i]	igrave
       ò	\[`o]	ograve
       ù	\[`u]	ugrave
       Ã	\[~A]	Atilde
       Ñ	\[~N]	Ntilde
       Õ	\[~O]	Otilde
       ã	\[~a]	atilde
       ñ	\[~n]	ntilde
       õ	\[~o]	otilde
       Š	\[vS]	Scaron
       š	\[vs]	scaron
       Ž	\[vZ]	Zcaron
       ž	\[vz]	zcaron
       Ç	\[,C]	Ccedilla
       ç	\[,c]	ccedilla
       Ł	\[/L]	Lslash		 Polish L with a slash
       ł	\[/l]	lslash		 Polish l with a slash
       Ø	\[/O]	Oslash		 Scandinavic slashed O
       ø	\[/o]	oslash		 Scandinavic slashed o
       Å	\[oA]	Aring
       å	\[oa]	aring

       ˝	\[a"]	hungarumlaut	 Hungarian umlaut
       ¯	\[a-]	macron		 macron or bar accent
       ˙	\[a.]	dotaccent	 dot accent
       ^	\[a^]	circumflex	 circumflex accent
       ´	\[aa]	acute		 acute accent
       `	\[ga]	grave		 grave accent
       ˘	\[ab]	breve		 breve accent
       ¸	\[ac]	cedilla		 cedilla accent
       ¨	\[ad]	dieresis	 umlaut or dieresis
       ˇ	\[ah]	caron		 háˇek accent
       ˚	\[ao]	ring		 ring or circle accent
       ~	\[a~]	tilde		 tilde accent
       ˛	\[ho]	ogonek		 hook or ogonek accent
       ^	\[ha]	asciicircum	 ASCII circumflex, hat, caret
       ~	\[ti]	asciitilde	 ASCII tilde, large tilde

       „	\[Bq]	quotedblbase	 low double comma quote
       ‚	\[bq]	quotesinglbase	 low single comma quote
       “	\[lq]	quotedblleft
       ”	\[rq]	quotedblright
       ‘	\[oq]	quoteleft	 single open quote
       ’	\[cq]	quoteright	 single closing quote (ASCII 39)
       '	\[aq]	quotesingle	 apostrophe quote
       "	\[dq]	quotedbl	 double quote (ASCII 34)
       «	\[Fo]	guillemotleft
       »	\[Fc]	guillemotright
       ‹	\[fo]	guilsinglleft
       ›	\[fc]	guilsinglright

       ¡	\[r!]	exclamdown
       ¿	\[r?]	questiondown
       —	\[em]	emdash		 em dash
       –	\[en]	endash		 en dash
       ‐	\[hy]	hyphen

       [	\[lB]	bracketleft
       ]	\[rB]	bracketright
       {	\[lC]	braceleft
       }	\[rC]	braceright
       ⟨	\[la]	angleleft	 left angle bracket
       ⟩	\[ra]	angleright	 right angle bracket

       ←	\[<-]	arrowleft
       →	\[->]	arrowright
       ↔	\[<>]	arrowboth	 horizontal double-headed arrow
       ↓	\[da]	arrowdown
       ↑	\[ua]	arrowup
       ↕	\[va]	arrowupdn	 vertical double-headed arrow
       ⇐	\[lA]	arrowdblleft
       ⇒	\[rA]	arrowdblright
       ⇔	\[hA]	arrowdblboth	 horizontal double-headed double arrow
       ⇓	\[dA]	arrowdbldown
       ⇑	\[uA]	arrowdblup
       ⇕	\[vA]			 vertical double-headed double arrow
       ⎯	\[an]	arrowhorizex	 horizontal arrow extension

       ℏ	\[-h]	hbar
       |	\[or]	bar
       |	\[ba]	bar
       │	\[br]	br		 box rule with traditional troff metrics
       _	\[ru]	ru		 baseline rule
       _	\[ul]	ul		 underline with traditional troff metrics
       ⎪	\[bv]	bv		 bar vertical
       ¦	\[bb]	brokenbar
       /	\[sl]	slash
       \	\[rs]	backslash

       Text markers
       ○	\[ci]	circle
       ·	\[bu]	bullet
       ‡	\[dd]	daggerdbl	 double dagger sign
       †	\[dg]	dagger
       ◊	\[lz]	lozenge
       □	\[sq]	square
       ¶	\[ps]	paragraph
       §	\[sc]	section
       ☜	\[lh]	handleft
       ☞	\[rh]	handright
       @	\[at]	at
       #	\[sh]	numbersign
       ↵	\[CR]	carriagereturn	 carriage return symbol
       ✓	\[OK]	a19		 check mark, tick

       ©	\[co]	copyright
       ®	\[rg]	registered
       ™	\[tm]	trademark

       Currency symbols
       $	\[Do]	dollar
       ¢	\[ct]	cent
       €	\[eu]			 official Euro symbol
       €	\[Eu]	Euro		 font-specific Euro glyph variant
       ¥	\[Ye]	yen
       £	\[Po]	sterling	 British currency sign
       ¤	\[Cs]	currency	 Scandinavian currency sign
       ƒ	\[Fn]	florin		 Dutch currency sign

       °	\[de]	degree
       ‰	\[%0]	perthousand	 per thousand, per mille sign
       ′	\[fm]	minute		 footmark, prime
       ″	\[sd]	second
       µ	\[mc]	mu		 micro sign
       ª	\[Of]	ordfeminine
       º	\[Om]	ordmasculine

       Logical Symbols
       ∧	\[AN]	logicaland
       ∨	\[OR]	logicalor
       ¬	\[no]	logicalnot
       ∃	\[te]	existential	 there exists, existential quantifier
       ∀	\[fa]	universal	 for all, universal quantifier
       ∋	\[st]	suchthat
       ∴	\[3d]	therefore
       ∴	\[tf]	therefore

       Mathematical Symbols
       ½	\[12]	onehalf
       ¼	\[14]	onequarter
       ¾	\[34]	threequarters
       ¹	\[S1]	onesuperior
       ²	\[S2]	twosuperior
       ³	\[S3]	threesuperior
       +	\[pl]	plusmath	 plus sign in special font
       -	\-	minus		 minus sign from current font
       ∓	\[-+]	minusplus
       ±	\[+-]	plusminus
       ±	\[t+-]	plusminus	 text variant of `+-'
       ·	\[pc]	periodcentered	 multiplication dot
       ⋅	\[md]	dotmath
       ×	\[mu]	multiply
       ×	\[tmu]	multiply	 text variant of `mu'
       ⊗	\[c*]	circlemultiply	 multiply sign in a circle
       ⊕	\[c+]	circleplus	 plus sign in a circle
       ÷	\[di]	divide		 division sign
       ÷	\[tdi]	divide		 text variant of `di'
       ⁄	\[f/]	fraction	 bar for fractions
       ∗	\[**]	asteriskmath
       ≤	\[<=]	lessequal
       ≥	\[>=]	greaterequal
       ≪	\[<<]			 much less
       ≫	\[>>]			 much greater
       ≠	\[!=]	notequal
       =	\[eq]	equalmath	 equals sign in special font
       ≡	\[==]	equivalence
       ≅	\[=~]	congruent
       ∼	\[ap]	similar
       ≈	\[~~]	approxequal
       ≈	\[~=]	approxequal
       ∝	\[pt]	proportional
       ∅	\[es]	emptyset
       ∈	\[mo]	element
       ∉	\[nm]	notelement
       ⊄	\[nb]	notsubset
       ⊅	\[nc]	notpropersuperset
       ≢	\[ne]	notequivalence
       ⊂	\[sb]	propersubset
       ⊃	\[sp]	propersuperset
       ⊆	\[ib]	reflexsubset
       ⊇	\[ip]	reflexsuperset
       ∩	\[ca]	intersection	 intersection, cap
       ∪	\[cu]	union		 union, cup
       ∠	\[/_]	angle
       ⊥	\[pp]	perpendicular
       ∫	\[is]	integral
       ∑	\[sum]	sum
       ∏	\[product]		 product
       ∇	\[gr]	gradient
       √	\[sr]	radical		 square root
       ‾	\[rn]			 overline
       ∞	\[if]	infinity
       ℵ	\[Ah]	aleph
       ℑ	\[Im]	Ifraktur	 Gothic I, imaginary
       ℜ	\[Re]	Rfraktur	 Gothic R, real
       ℘	\[wp]	weierstrass	 Weierstrass p
       ∂	\[pd]	partialdiff	 partial differentiation sign

       Greek characters
       Α	\[*A]	Alpha
       Β	\[*B]	Beta
       Ξ	\[*C]	Xi
       Δ	\[*D]	Delta
       Ε	\[*E]	Epsilon
       Φ	\[*F]	Phi
       Γ	\[*G]	Gamma
       Θ	\[*H]	Theta
       Ι	\[*I]	Iota
       Κ	\[*K]	Kappa
       Λ	\[*L]	Lambda
       Μ	\[*M]	Mu
       Ν	\[*N]	Nu
       Ο	\[*O]	Omicron
       Π	\[*P]	Pi
       Ψ	\[*Q]	Psi
       Ρ	\[*R]	Rho
       Σ	\[*S]	Sigma
       Τ	\[*T]	Tau
       Υ	\[*U]	Upsilon
       Ω	\[*W]	Omega
       Χ	\[*X]	Chi
       Η	\[*Y]	Eta
       Ζ	\[*Z]	Zeta
       α	\[*a]	alpha
       β	\[*b]	beta
       ξ	\[*c]	xi
       δ	\[*d]	delta
       ε	\[*e]	epsilon
       ϕ	\[*f]	phi
       φ	\[+f]	phi1		 variant phi
       γ	\[*g]	gamma
       θ	\[*h]	theta
       ϑ	\[+h]	theta1		 variant theta
       ι	\[*i]	iota
       κ	\[*k]	kappa
       λ	\[*l]	lambda
       μ	\[*m]	mu
       ν	\[*n]	nu
       ο	\[*o]	omicron
       π	\[*p]	pi
       ϖ	\[+p]	omega1		 variant pi, looking like omega
       ψ	\[*q]	psi
       ρ	\[*r]	rho
       σ	\[*s]	sigma
       τ	\[*t]	tau
       υ	\[*u]	upsilon
       ω	\[*w]	omega
       χ	\[*x]	chi
       η	\[*y]	eta
       ζ	\[*z]	zeta
       ς	\[ts]	sigma1		 terminal sigma

       Card symbols
       ♣	\[CL]	club		 club suit
       ♠	\[SP]	spade		 spade suit
       ♥	\[HE]	heart		 heart suit
       ♦	\[DI]	diamond		 diamond suit

       Copyright © 1989-2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       This document is distributed under the terms of the FDL (GNU Free Docu‐
       mentation License) version 1.1 or later.	 You should  have  received  a
       copy of the FDL on your system, it is also available on-line at the GNU
       copyleft site ⟨⟩.

       This document is part of groff, the  GNU	 roff  distribution.   It  was
       written	by  James Clark ⟨⟩ with additions by Werner Lem‐
       berg ⟨⟩ and Bernd Warken ⟨⟩.

	      the GNU roff formatter.

	      a short reference of the groff formatting language.

       An extension to the troff character set for Europe, E.G.	 Keizer,  K.J.
       Simonsen, J. Akkerhuis; EUUG Newsletter, Volume 9, No. 2, Summer 1989

       The Unicode Standard ⟨⟩

Groff Version 1.18.1		   Nov	2003			 GROFF_CHAR(7)

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