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GROFF_MS(7)							   GROFF_MS(7)

       groff_ms - groff ms macros

       groff -ms [ options... ] [ files... ]
       groff -m ms [ options... ] [ files... ]

       This  manual  page  describes the GNU version of the ms macros, part of
       the groff typesetting system.  The ms macros are mostly compatible with
       the  documented behavior of the 4.3 BSD Unix ms macros (see Differences
       from troff ms below for details).   The	ms  macros  are	 suitable  for
       reports, letters, books, and technical documentation.

       The  ms	macro package expects files to have a certain amount of struc‐
       ture.  The simplest documents can begin with a paragraph macro and con‐
       sist of text separated by paragraph macros or even blank lines.	Longer
       documents have a structure as follows:

       Document type
	      If you use the RP (report) macro at the beginning of  the	 docu‐
	      ment,  groff  prints the cover page information on its own page;
	      otherwise it prints the information on the first page with  your
	      document	text  immediately  following.	Other document formats
	      found in AT&T troff are specific to AT&T or  Berkeley,  and  are
	      not supported in groff ms.

       Format and layout
	      By setting number registers, you can change your document's type
	      (font and size), margins,	 spacing,  headers  and	 footers,  and
	      footnotes.   See	Document  control  registers  below  for  more

       Cover page
	      A cover page consists of a title, and  optionally	 the  author's
	      name and institution, an abstract, and the date.	See Cover page
	      macros below for more details.

       Body   Following the cover page is your document.  It consists of para‐
	      graphs, headings, and lists.

       Table of contents
	      Longer  documents usually include a table of contents, which you
	      can add by placing the TC macro at the end of your document.

   Document control registers
       The following table lists the document control number  registers.   For
       the sake of consistency, set registers related to margins at the begin‐
       ning of your document, or just after the RP macro.

       Margin settings

	      Reg.	    Definition		   Effective	  Default
	      PO     Page offset (left margin)	 next page	  1i
	      LL     Line length		 next paragraph	  6i
	      LT     Header/footer length	 next paragraph	  6i
	      HM     Top (header) margin	 next page	  1i
	      FM     Bottom (footer) margin	 next page	  1i

       Text settings

	       Reg.		Definition		Effective      Default
	      PS       Point size		      next paragraph   10p
	      VS       Line spacing (leading)	      next paragraph   12p
	      PSINCR   Point size increment for	      next heading     1p
		       section headings of increas‐
		       ing importance
	      GROWPS   Heading level beyond which     next heading     0
		       PSINCR is ignored

       Paragraph settings

		Reg.		 Definition		Effective      Default
	      PI	 Initial indent		      next paragraph   5n
	      PD	 Space between paragraphs     next paragraph   0.3v
	      QI	 Quoted paragraph indent      next paragraph   5n
	      PORPHANS	 Number of initial lines to   next paragraph   1
			 be kept together
	      HORPHANS	 Number of initial lines to   next heading     1
			 be kept with heading

       Footnote settings

	      Reg.     Definition	 Effective	Default
	      FL     Footnote length   next footnote   \n[LL]*5/6
	      FI     Footnote indent   next footnote   2n
	      FF     Footnote format   next footnote   0
	      FPS    Point size	       next footnote   \n[PS]-2
	      FVS    Vert. spacing     next footnote   \n[FPS]+2
	      FPD    Para. spacing     next footnote   \n[PD]/2

       Other settings

	      Reg.		 Definition		 Effective    Default
	      DD      Display, table, eqn, pic spacing	 next para.   0.5v
	      MINGW   Minimum width between columns	 next page    2n

   Cover page macros
       Use  the	 following  macros to create a cover page for your document in
       the order shown.

       .RP [no]
	      Specifies the report format for your document.  The report  for‐
	      mat  creates  a  separate	 cover	page.  With no RP macro, groff
	      prints a subset of the cover page on page 1 of your document.

	      If you use the optional no argument, groff prints a  title  page
	      but  does	 not  repeat any of the title page information (title,
	      author, abstract, etc.) on page 1 of the document.

       .P1    (P-one) Prints the header on page 1.  The default is to suppress
	      the header.

       .DA [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro
	      if any, on the title page (if specified)	and  in	 the  footers.
	      This is the default for nroff.

       .ND [xxx]
	      (optional) Print the current date, or the arguments to the macro
	      if any, on the title page (if specified) but not in the footers.
	      This is the default for troff.

       .TL    Specifies the document title.  Groff collects text following the
	      TL macro into the title,	until  reaching	 the  author  name  or

       .AU    Specifies	 the  author's name.  You can specify multiple authors
	      by using an AU macro for each author.

       .AI    Specifies the author's institution.  You	can  specify  multiple

       .AB [no]
	      Begins the abstract.  The default is to print the word ABSTRACT,
	      centered and in italics, above the text of  the  abstract.   The
	      option no suppresses this heading.

       .AE    End the abstract.

       Use  the	 PP  macro  to create indented paragraphs, and the LP macro to
       create paragraphs with no initial indent.

       The QP macro indents all text at both  left  and	 right	margins.   The
       effect  is  identical to the HTML <BLOCKQUOTE> element.	The next para‐
       graph or heading returns margins to normal.

       The XP macro produces an exdented paragraph.  The  first	 line  of  the
       paragraph  begins at the left margin, and subsequent lines are indented
       (the opposite of PP).

       For each of the above paragraph types, and  also	 for  any  list	 entry
       introduced by the IP macro (described later), the document control reg‐
       ister PORPHANS, sets the minimum number of lines which must be printed,
       after the start of the paragraph, and before any page break occurs.  If
       there is insufficient space remaining on the current page  to  accommo‐
       date this number of lines, then a page break is forced before the first
       line of the paragraph is printed.

       Similarly, when a section heading (see subsection Headings below)  pre‐
       cedes  any of these paragraph types, the HORPHANS document control reg‐
       ister specifies the minimum number of lines of the paragraph which must
       be kept on the same page as the heading.	 If insufficient space remains
       on the current page to accommodate the heading and this number of lines
       of  paragraph  text,  then a page break is forced before the heading is

       Use headings to create a hierarchical structure for your document.   By
       default,	 the ms macros print headings in bold using the same font fam‐
       ily and point size as the body text.  For output devices which  support
       scalable	 fonts,	 this behaviour may be modified, by defining the docu‐
       ment control registers, GROWPS and PSINCR.

       The following heading macros are available:

       .NH xx Numbered heading.	 The argument xx is either a numeric  argument
	      to  indicate  the level of the heading, or S xx xx "..."	to set
	      the section number explicitly.  If you  specify  heading	levels
	      out  of  sequence,  such	as  invoking  .NH 3 after .NH 1, groff
	      prints a warning on standard error.

	      If the GROWPS register is set to a value greater than the	 level
	      of  the  heading,	 then  the  point  size of the heading will be
	      increased by PSINCR units over the text size specified by the PS
	      register, for each level by which the heading level is less than
	      the value of GROWPS.  For example, the sequence:

		     .nr PS 10
		     .nr GROWPS 3
		     .nr PSINCR 1.5p
		     .NH 1
		     Top Level Heading
		     .NH 2
		     Second Level Heading
		     .NH 3
		     Third Level Heading

	      will cause “1. Top Level Heading” to be  printed	in  13pt  bold
	      text,  followed  by  “1.1. Second Level Heading”	in 11.5pt bold
	      text, while “1.1.1. Third Level Heading”, and  all  more	deeply
	      nested  heading  levels, will remain in the 10pt bold text which
	      is specified by the PS register.

	      Note that the value stored in PSINCR  is	interpreted  in	 groff
	      basic  units;  the  p  scaling  factor  should be employed, when
	      assigning a value specified in points.

	      The style used to represent the section number,  within  a  num‐
	      bered heading, is controlled by the SN-STYLE string; this may be
	      set to either the SN-DOT	or  the	 SN-NO-DOT  style,  (described
	      below),  by aliasing SN-STYLE accordingly.  By default, SN-STYLE
	      is initialised by defining the alias

		     .als SN-STYLE SN-DOT

	      it may be changed to  the	 SN-NO-DOT  style,  if	preferred,  by
	      defining the alternative alias

		     .als SN-STYLE SN-NO-DOT

	      Any  such	 change	 becomes  effective with the first use of .NH,
	      after the new alias is defined.

	      After invoking .NH, the assigned heading number is available  in
	      the  strings  SN-DOT  (as	 it  appears in the default formatting
	      style for numbered headings, with a terminating period following
	      the  number),  and SN-NO-DOT (with this terminating period omit‐
	      ted).  The string SN is also defined, as an alias for SN-DOT; if
	      preferred,  the  user may redefine it as an alias for SN-NO-DOT,
	      by including the initialisation:

		     .als SN SN-NO-DOT

	      at any time; the change becomes effective with the next  use  of
	      .NH, after the new alias is defined.

       .SH [xx]
	      Unnumbered subheading.  The use of the optional xx argument is a
	      GNU extension, which adjusts the point size  of  the  unnumbered
	      subheading to match that of a numbered heading, introduced using
	      .NH xx with the same value of xx.	 For example, given  the  same
	      settings for PS, GROWPS and PSINCR, as used in the preceding .NH
	      example, the sequence:

		     .SH 2
		     An Unnumbered Subheading

	      will print “An Unnumbered Subheading” in 11.5pt bold text.

       The ms macros provide a variety of methods to  highlight	 or  emphasize

       .B [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	 first argument in bold type.  If you specify a second
	      argument, groff prints it in the previous font  after  the  bold
	      text, with no intervening space (this allows you to set punctua‐
	      tion after the highlighted text without highlighting the punctu‐
	      ation).  Similarly, it prints the third argument (if any) in the
	      previous font before the first argument.	For example,

		     .B foo ) (

	      prints (foo).

	      If you give this macro no arguments, groff prints all text  fol‐
	      lowing  in bold until the next highlighting, paragraph, or head‐
	      ing macro.

       .R [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in roman (or regular) type.  It operates
	      similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .I [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its	 first argument in italic type.	 It operates similarly
	      to the B macro otherwise.

       .CW [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets its first argument in a constant width face.	  It  operates
	      similarly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BI [txt [post [pre]]]
	      Sets  its first argument in bold italic type.  It operates simi‐
	      larly to the B macro otherwise.

       .BX [txt]
	      Prints its argument and draws a box around it.  If you  want  to
	      box a string that contains spaces, use a digit-width space (\0).

       .UL [txt [post]]
	      Prints  its  first argument with an underline.  If you specify a
	      second argument, groff prints it in the previous font after  the
	      underlined text, with no intervening space.

       .LG    Prints  all  text following in larger type (2 points larger than
	      the current point size) until the next font size,	 highlighting,
	      paragraph,  or heading macro.  You can specify this macro multi‐
	      ple times to enlarge the point size as needed.

       .SM    Prints all text following in smaller type (2 points smaller than
	      the  current point size) until the next type size, highlighting,
	      paragraph, or heading macro.  You can specify this macro	multi‐
	      ple times to reduce the point size as needed.

       .NL    Prints all text following in the normal point size (that is, the
	      value of the PS register).

	      Print the enclosed text as a superscript.

       You may need to indent sections of text.	 A typical use for indents  is
       to create nested lists and sublists.

       Use  the	 RS and RE macros to start and end a section of indented text,
       respectively.  The PI register controls the amount of indent.

       You can nest indented sections as deeply as needed by  using  multiple,
       nested pairs of RS and RE.

       The IP macro handles duties for all lists.  Its syntax is as follows:

       .IP [marker [width]]

	      The  marker  is  usually	a  bullet character \(bu for unordered
	      lists, a number (or auto-incrementing number register) for  num‐
	      bered  lists,  or a word or phrase for indented (glossary-style)

	      The width specifies the indent for the body of each  list	 item.
	      Once  specified,	the indent remains the same for all list items
	      in the document until specified again.

   Tab stops
       Use the ta request to set tab stops as needed.  Use  the	 TA  macro  to
       reset tabs to the default (every 5n).  You can redefine the TA macro to
       create a different set of default tab stops.

   Displays and keeps
       Use displays to show text-based examples or figures (such as code list‐
       ings).	Displays  turn	off filling, so lines of code can be displayed
       as-is without inserting br requests in between each line.  Displays can
       be  kept	 on a single page, or allowed to break across pages.  The fol‐
       lowing table shows the display types available.

		   Display macro		    Type of display
		With keep      No keep
	      .DS L	       .LD	 Left-justified.
	      .DS I [indent]   .ID	 Indented (default indent in the DI
	      .DS B	       .BD	 Block-centered (left-justified, long‐
					 est line centered).
	      .DS C	       .CD	 Centered.
	      .DS R	       .RD	 Right-justified.

       Use the DE macro to end any display type.  The macros Ds	 and  De  were
       formerly provided as aliases for DS and DE, respectively, but they have
       been removed, and should no longer be used.  X11 documents which	 actu‐
       ally  use Ds and De always load a specific macro file from the X11 dis‐
       tribution (macros.t) which provides  proper  definitions	 for  the  two

       To  keep	 text together on a page, such as a paragraph that refers to a
       table (or list, or other item) immediately following, use the KS and KE
       macros.	 The  KS  macro	 begins a block of text to be kept on a single
       page, and the KE macro ends the block.

       You can specify a floating keep using the KF and	 KE  macros.   If  the
       keep  cannot  fit  on the current page, groff holds the contents of the
       keep and allows text following the keep (in the source file) to fill in
       the remainder of the current page.  When the page breaks, whether by an
       explicit bp request or by reaching the end of the  page,	 groff	prints
       the  floating  keep  at	the  top  of the new page.  This is useful for
       printing large graphics or tables that do not need  to  appear  exactly
       where specified.

       The  macros  B1	and B2 can be used to enclose a text within a box; .B1
       begins the box, and .B2 ends it.	 Text  in  the	box  is	 automatically
       placed in a diversion (keep).

   Tables, figures, equations, and references
       The -ms macros support the standard groff preprocessors: tbl, pic, eqn,
       and refer.  Mark text meant for preprocessors by enclosing it in	 pairs
       of tags as follows:

       .TS [H] and .TE
	      Denotes  a  table, to be processed by the tbl preprocessor.  The
	      optional H argument instructs groff to create a  running	header
	      with  the	 information  up  to  the  TH macro.  Groff prints the
	      header at the beginning of the table; if	the  table  runs  onto
	      another page, groff prints the header on the next page as well.

       .PS and .PE
	      Denotes a graphic, to be processed by the pic preprocessor.  You
	      can create a pic file by hand, using the AT&T pic manual	avail‐
	      able  on	the Web as a reference, or by using a graphics program
	      such as xfig.

       .EQ [align] and .EN
	      Denotes an equation, to be processed by  the  eqn	 preprocessor.
	      The  optional  align  argument  can be C, L, or I to center (the
	      default), left-justify, or indent the equation.

       .[ and .]
	      Denotes a reference, to be processed by the refer	 preprocessor.
	      The  GNU refer(1) manual page provides a comprehensive reference
	      to the preprocessor and the format of  the  bibliographic	 data‐

       The  ms	macros	provide a flexible footnote system.  You can specify a
       numbered footnote by using the \** escape, followed by the text of  the
       footnote enclosed by FS and FE macros.

       You  can specify symbolic footnotes by placing the mark character (such
       as \(dg for the dagger character) in the body  text,  followed  by  the
       text of the footnote enclosed by FS \(dg and FE macros.

       You can control how groff prints footnote numbers by changing the value
       of the FF register as follows:

	      0	     Prints the footnote number as a superscript; indents  the
		     footnote (default).

	      1	     Prints  the  number  followed  by	a period (like 1.) and
		     indents the footnote.

	      2	     Like 1, without an indent.

	      3	     Like 1, but prints the footnote number as a hanging para‐

       You can use footnotes safely within keeps and displays, but avoid using
       numbered footnotes within floating keeps.  You can  set	a  second  \**
       between	a  \**	and  its corresponding .FS; as long as each .FS occurs
       after the corresponding \** and the occurrences of .FS are in the  same
       order as the corresponding occurrences of \**.

   Headers and footers
       There are three ways to define headers and footers:

       ·  Use  the  strings  LH, CH, and RH to set the left, center, and right
	  headers; use LF, CF, and RF to set the left, center, and right foot‐
	  ers.	 This works best for documents that do not distinguish between
	  odd and even pages.

       ·  Use the OH and EH macros to define headers  for  the	odd  and  even
	  pages;  and  OF and EF macros to define footers for the odd and even
	  pages.  This is more flexible than defining the individual  strings.
	  The syntax for these macros is as follows:

		 .OH 'left'center'right'

	  You can replace the quote (') marks with any character not appearing
	  in the header or footer text.

       You can also redefine the PT and BT macros to change  the  behavior  of
       the header and footer, respectively.  The header process also calls the
       (undefined) HD macro after PT ; you can define this macro if  you  need
       additional processing after printing the header (for example, to draw a
       line below the header).

       You control margins using a set of number registers.  The following ta‐
       ble lists the register names and defaults:

	      Reg.	    Definition		   Effective	  Default
	      PO     Page offset (left margin)	 next page	  1i
	      LL     Line length		 next paragraph	  6i
	      LT     Header/footer length	 next paragraph	  6i
	      HM     Top (header) margin	 next page	  1i
	      FM     Bottom (footer) margin	 next page	  1i

       Note  that  there  is no right margin setting.  The combination of page
       offset and line length provide the information necessary to derive  the
       right margin.

   Multiple columns
       The ms macros can set text in as many columns as will reasonably fit on
       the page.  The following macros are available.  All  of	them  force  a
       page break if a multi-column mode is already set.  However, if the cur‐
       rent mode is single-column, starting a multi-column mode does not force
       a page break.

       .1C    Single-column mode.

       .2C    Two-column mode.

       .MC [width [gutter]]
	      Multi-column  mode.   If you specify no arguments, it is equiva‐
	      lent to the 2C macro.  Otherwise, width is  the  width  of  each
	      column  and gutter is the space between columns.	The MINGW num‐
	      ber register is the default gutter width.

   Creating a table of contents
       Wrap text that you want to appear in the table of contents in XS and XE
       macros.	 Use the TC macro to print the table of contents at the end of
       the document, resetting the page number to i (Roman numeral 1).

       You can manually create a table of contents by specifying a page number
       as  the	first  argument	 to  XS.   Add subsequent entries using the XA
       macro.  For example:

	      .XS 1
	      .XA 2
	      A Brief History of the Universe
	      .XA 729
	      Details of Galactic Formation

       Use the PX macro to print a manually-generated table of contents	 with‐
       out resetting the page number.

       If you give the argument no to either PX or TC, groff suppresses print‐
       ing the title specified by the \*[TOC] string.

   Fractional point sizes
       Traditionally, the ms macros only support integer values for the	 docu‐
       ment's  font  size and vertical spacing.	 To overcome this restriction,
       values larger than or equal to 1000 are	taken  as  fractional  values,
       multiplied  by 1000.  For example, `.nr PS 10250' sets the font size to
       10.25 points.

       The following four registers accept fractional  point  sizes:  PS,  VS,
       FPS, and FVS.

       Due  to	backwards  compatibility, the value of VS must be smaller than
       40000 (this is 40.0 points).

       The groff ms macros are a complete re-implementation, using no original
       AT&T  code.   Since  they  take	advantage  of the extended features in
       groff, they cannot be used with AT&T troff.  Other differences include:

       ·  The internals of groff ms differ from	 the  internals	 of  Unix  ms.
	  Documents that depend upon implementation details of Unix ms may not
	  format properly with groff ms.

       ·  The error-handling policy of	groff  ms  is  to  detect  and	report
	  errors, rather than silently to ignore them.

       ·  Some	Bell  Labs localisms are not implemented by default.  However,
	  if you call the otherwise undocumented SC section-header macro,  you
	  will enable implementations of three other archaic Bell Labs macros:
	  UC, P1, and P2.  These are not enabled by default because  (a)  they
	  were	not  documented, in the original ms manual, and (b) the P1 and
	  UC macros both collide with different macros in the Berkeley version
	  of ms.

	  These	 emulations  are  sufficient to give back the 1976 Kernighan &
	  Cherry paper Typsetting Mathematics – User's Guide its section head‐
	  ings,	 and  restore  some text that had gone missing as arguments of
	  undefined macros.  No warranty express or implied is given as to how
	  well	the  typographic details these produce match the original Bell
	  Labs macros.

       ·  Berkeley localisms, in particular the TM  and	 CT  macros,  are  not

       ·  Groff	 ms  does  not	work  in compatibility mode (e.g., with the -C

       ·  There is no support for typewriter-like devices.

       ·  Groff ms does not provide cut marks.

       ·  Multiple line spacing is not supported (use a larger vertical	 spac‐
	  ing instead).

       ·  Some	Unix ms documentation says that the CW and GW number registers
	  can be used to control the column width and  gutter  width,  respec‐
	  tively.  These number registers are not used in groff ms.

       ·  Macros  that	cause  a reset (paragraphs, headings, etc.) may change
	  the indent.  Macros that change  the	indent	do  not	 increment  or
	  decrement  the indent, but rather set it absolutely.	This can cause
	  problems for documents that define additional macros of  their  own.
	  The  solution is to use not the in request but instead the RS and RE

       ·  The number register GS is set to 1 by the groff ms  macros,  but  is
	  not  used  by	 the Unix ms macros.  Documents that need to determine
	  whether they are being formatted with Unix ms or groff ms should use
	  this number register.

       ·  To  make  groff ms use the default page offset (which also specifies
	  the left margin), the PO number register must stay  undefined	 until
	  the first ms macro is evaluated.  This implies that PO should not be
	  used early in the document, unless it is changed also: Remember that
	  accessing an undefined register automatically defines it.

       You  can redefine the following strings to adapt the groff ms macros to
       languages other than English:

			     String	  Default Value
			   REFERENCES	References
			   TOC		Table of Contents
			   MONTH1	January
			   MONTH2	February
			   MONTH3	March
			   MONTH4	April
			   MONTH5	May
			   MONTH6	June
			   MONTH7	July
			   MONTH8	August
			   MONTH9	September
			   MONTH10	October
			   MONTH11	November
			   MONTH12	December

       The \*- string produces an em dash — like this.

       Use \*Q and \*U to get a left and right	typographer's  quote,  respec‐
       tively, in troff (and plain quotes in nroff).

   Text Settings
       The  FAM	 string sets the default font family.  If this string is unde‐
       fined at initialization, it is set to Times.

       The point size, vertical spacing, and inter-paragraph spacing for foot‐
       notes are controlled by the number registers FPS, FVS, and FPD; at ini‐
       tialization these are set to \n(PS-2, \n[FPS]+2, and  \n(PD/2,  respec‐
       tively.	 If  any of these registers are defined before initialization,
       the initialization macro does not change them.

       The hyphenation flags (as set by the hy request) are set	 from  the  HY
       register; the default is 14.

       Improved	 accent marks (as originally defined in Berkeley's ms version)
       are available by specifying the AM macro at the beginning of your docu‐
       ment.   You  can place an accent over most characters by specifying the
       string defining the accent directly after the character.	 For  example,
       n\*~ produces an n with a tilde over it.

       The  following  conventions  are	 used for names of macros, strings and
       number registers.  External names available to documents that  use  the
       groff ms macros contain only uppercase letters and digits.

       Internally  the macros are divided into modules; naming conventions are
       as follows:

       ·  Names used only within one module are of the form module*name.

       ·  Names used outside the module in which they are defined are  of  the
	  form module@name.

       ·  Names	 associated  with  a  particular  environment  are of the form
	  environment:name; these are used only within the par module.

       ·  name does not have a module prefix.

       ·  Constructed  names  used  to	implement  arrays  are	of  the	  form

       Thus the groff ms macros reserve the following names:

       ·  Names containing the characters *, @, and :.

       ·  Names containing only uppercase letters and digits.

       /usr/share/groff/1.22.2/tmac/ms.tmac (a wrapper file for s.tmac)

       groff(1),  troff(1),  tbl(1),  pic(1), eqn(1), refer(1), Groff: The GNU
       Implementation of troff by Trent Fisher and Werner Lemberg.

       Original manual page by James Clark et al; rewritten  by	 Larry	Kollar

Groff Version 1.22.2		7 February 2013			   GROFF_MS(7)

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