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GROPS(1)							      GROPS(1)

NAME
       grops - PostScript driver for groff

SYNOPSIS
       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Idir ] [ -ppapersize ]
	     [ -Pprologue ] [ -wn ] [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its
       parameter.

DESCRIPTION
       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the	groff  command	with  a	 -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this	 is  the  default  for groff.)	If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also	 cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.	 When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.

       Note  that grops doesn't produce a valid document structure (conforming
       to the Document Structuring Convention) if called  with	multiple  file
       arguments.   To print such concatenated output it is necessary to deac‐
       tivate DSC handling in the printing program or previewer.

OPTIONS
       -bn    Provide workarounds for older  printers,	broken	spoolers,  and
	      previewers.   Normally  grops produces output at PostScript Lan‐
	      guageLevel 2 that conforms to the Document  Structuring  Conven‐
	      tions  version 3.0.  Some older printers, spoolers, and preview‐
	      ers can't handle such output.  The  value	 of  n	controls  what
	      grops  does  to  make its output acceptable to such programs.  A
	      value of 0 will cause grops not to employ any workarounds.

	      Add 1 if no %%BeginDocumentSetup and %%EndDocumentSetup comments
	      should  be generated; this is needed for early versions of Tran‐
	      Script that get confused by  anything  between  the  %%EndProlog
	      comment and the first %%Page comment.

	      Add  2  if  lines in included files beginning with %!  should be
	      stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview previewer.

	      Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments  should  be
	      stripped out of included files; this is needed for spoolers that
	      don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDocument comments.

	      Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript output should be %!PS-
	      Adobe-2.0	 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is needed when using
	      Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires page reversal.

	      Add 16 if no media size information should be  included  in  the
	      document	(this  is,  neither  use  %%DocumentMedia nor the set‐
	      pagedevice PostScript command).  This was the behaviour of groff
	      version  1.18.1  and  earlier;  it  is needed for older printers
	      which don't understand PostScript LanguageLevel 2.  It  is  also
	      necessary	 if the output is further processed to get an encapsu‐
	      lated PS (EPS) file -- see below.

	      The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path	for  prologue,
	      font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
	      device, usually ps.

       -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates	PostScript  code  that
	      guesses  the page length.	 The guess will be correct only if the
	      imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This	option
	      allows  you  to  generate	 documents that can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -Idir  This option may be used to specify a  directory  to  search  for
	      files  on the command line and files named in \X'ps: import' and
	      \X'ps: file' escapes.  The current directory is always  searched
	      first.   This option may be specified more than once; the direc‐
	      tories will be searched in the order  specified.	 No  directory
	      search is performed for files specified using an absolute path.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

       -ppaper-size
	      Set  physical  dimension	of  output medium.  This overrides the
	      papersize, paperlength, and  paperwidth  commands	 in  the  DESC
	      file;  it	 accepts  the same arguments as the papersize command.
	      See groff_font (5) for details.

       -Pprologue-file
	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file prologue.  This option
	      overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an
	      em.  If this option is not given, the line thickness defaults to
	      0.04 em.

       -v     Print the version number.

USAGE
       There are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted	at  font  positions  1
       to 4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN, N, P, and T
       having members in each of these styles:

	      AR     AvantGarde-Book
	      AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique
	      AB     AvantGarde-Demi
	      ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique
	      BMR    Bookman-Light
	      BMI    Bookman-LightItalic
	      BMB    Bookman-Demi
	      BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic
	      CR     Courier
	      CI     Courier-Oblique
	      CB     Courier-Bold
	      CBI    Courier-BoldOblique
	      HR     Helvetica
	      HI     Helvetica-Oblique
	      HB     Helvetica-Bold
	      HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique
	      HNR    Helvetica-Narrow
	      HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique
	      HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold
	      HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique
	      NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman
	      NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic
	      NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold
	      NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic
	      PR     Palatino-Roman
	      PI     Palatino-Italic
	      PB     Palatino-Bold
	      PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic
	      TR     Times-Roman
	      TI     Times-Italic
	      TB     Times-Bold
	      TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

	      ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There are also some special fonts called S for the PS Symbol font,  and
       SS,  containing	slanted	 lowercase Greek letters taken from PS Symbol.
       Zapf Dingbats is available as ZD and a reversed version of ZapfDingbats
       (with  symbols pointing in the opposite direction) is available as ZDR;
       most characters in these fonts are unnamed and must be  accessed	 using
       \N.

       The  default  color  for	 \m and \M is black; for colors defined in the
       `rgb' color space, setrgbcolor is used, for `cmy' and  `cmyk'  setcmyk‐
       color,  and for `gray' setgray.	Note that setcmykcolor is a PostScript
       LanguageLevel 2 command and thus not available on some older printers.

       grops understands various X  commands  produced	using  the  \X	escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
	      PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
	      command  before  executing  code.	 The origin will be at the top
	      left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will	increase  down
	      the  page.   A  procedure	 u will be defined that converts groff
	      units to the coordinate system in effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will draw a horizontal  line  one	 inch  long.   code  may  make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified	 by  the def and mdef will be on top of the dictionary
	      stack.  If your code adds definitions to	this  dictionary,  you
	      should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini‐
	      tions will persist only until the end of the page.  If  you  use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto
		     stroke
		     ..
		     \Yy

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
	      code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.	  Long
	      definitions  can be split over several \X commands; all the code
	      arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
	      definitions  are	placed	in a dictionary which is automatically
	      pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
	      grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
	      it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript	dictionary  to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
	      urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
	      PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
	      and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
	      the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
	      upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
	      that  give  the  desired	width and height in groff units of the
	      graphic.	The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this	 width
	      and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner of the
	      graphic is located at the position associated with  \X  command.
	      If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
	      that  the	 contents  of  the  \X	command are not interpreted by
	      troff; so vertical space for the graphic	is  not	 automatically
	      added,  and  the	width  and height arguments are not allowed to
	      have attached scaling indicators.	 If the PostScript  file  com‐
	      plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con‐
	      tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then  the	bounding  box  can  be
	      automatically  extracted	from  within  groff  by using the psbb
	      request.

	      See groff_tmac(5) for a description of  the  PSPIC  macro	 which
	      provides	a  convenient  high-level  interface  for inclusion of
	      PostScript graphics.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output will be generated for text and drawing	commands  that
	      are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
	      intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
	      being  processed	with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis‐
	      play certain characters or other constructs, then other  substi‐
	      tute  characters	or  constructs	can  be used for previewing by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
	      character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char‐
	      acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the \(em
	      character and ignore the line (this  code	 is  already  in  file
	      Xps.tmac	which  will be loaded if a document intended for grops
	      is previewed with gxditview).

       The input to grops must be in the format output by troff(1).   This  is
       described in groff_out(5).

       In  addition, the device and font description files for the device used
       must meet certain requirements.	The device and font description	 files
       supplied for ps device meet all these requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be
       used to create font files from AFM files.  The resolution  must	be  an
       integer multiple of 72 times the sizescale.  The ps device uses a reso‐
       lution of 72000 and a sizescale of 1000.

       The device description file  must  contain  a  valid  paper  size;  see
       groff_font(5) for more information.

       Each font description file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript  font  should  be	 reencoded  using  the
       encoding	 described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position	 in  the encoding expressed as a decimal integer; valid values
       are in the range 0 to 255.  Lines starting with # and blank  lines  are
       ignored.	  The code for each character given in the font file must cor‐
       respond to the code for the character in encoding file, or to the  code
       in  the	default encoding for the font if the PostScript font is not to
       be reencoded.  This code can be used with the  \N  escape  sequence  in
       troff  to  select  the character, even if the character does not have a
       groff name.  Every character in the font file must exist in  the	 Post‐
       Script  font,  and  the	widths	given  in the font file must match the
       widths used in the PostScript font.  grops will assume that a character
       with  a	groff  name of space is blank (makes no marks on the page); it
       can make use of such a character to generate more efficient and compact
       PostScript output.

       Note that grops is able to display all glyphs in a PostScript font, not
       only 256.  enc_file (or the default encoding if no encoding file speci‐
       fied)  just  defines  the order of glyphs for the first 256 characters;
       all other glyphs are accessed with additional  encoding	vectors	 which
       grops produces on the fly.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print the document.  Such fonts must be in PFA format.  Use  pfbtops(1)
       to  convert  a Type 1 font in PFB format.  Any downloadable fonts which
       should, when required, be included by grops must be listed in the  file
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download;  this  should consist of lines of
       the form

	      font filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are ignored; fields may be separated by tabs or spaces;	filename  will
       be  searched  for  using the same mechanism that is used for groff font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this  mechanism;	 currently, only the first found file in the font path
       is used.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported	document  con‐
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.	 It will also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the  download	 file  as  well	 as  any  needed  file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara‐
       mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and  change the PaintType), then it is necessary for Garamond to appear
       before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops will	handle
       this  automatically  provided that the downloadable font file for Gara‐
       mond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means of the Docu‐
       ment Structuring Conventions, for example by beginning with the follow‐
       ing lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%EndComments
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in  the	download file.	A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret	 %%DocumentFonts  comments.   The  %%Document‐
       NeededResources,	    %%DocumentSuppliedResources,    %%IncludeResource,
       %%BeginResource,	 and  %%EndResource  comments  (or  possibly  the  old
       %%DocumentNeededFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%Begin‐
       Font, and %%EndFont comments) should be used.

   Encapsulated PostScript
       grops itself doesn't emit bounding box information.  With the  help  of
       GhostScript the following commands will produce an encapsulated PS file
       foo.eps from input file foo:

	      groff -P-b16 foo > foo.ps
	      gs -dNOPAUSE -sDEVICE=bbox -- foo.ps 2> foo.bbox
	      cat foo.ps | sed -e '/%%Orientation/rfoo.bbx' > foo.eps
	      rm foo.bbx

   TrueType fonts
       TrueType fonts can be used with grops if converted  first  to  Type  42
       format,	an  especial  PostScript  wrapper equivalent to the PFA format
       mentioned in pfbtops(1).	 There are several different methods to gener‐
       ate  a  type42 wrapper and most of them involve the use of a PostScript
       interpreter such as Ghostscript — see gs(1).  Yet, the  easiest	method
       involves	 the  use  of  the  application	 ttftot42.   This program uses
       freetype(3) (version 1.3.1) to generate type42 font wrappers and	 well-
       formed  AFM  files  that can be fed to the afmtodit(1) script to create
       appropriate metric files.  The resulting font wrappers should be	 added
       to the download file.  ttftot42 source code can be downloaded from
       ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/ttftot42/ ⟨ftp://www.giga.or.at/pub/nih/
       ttftot42/⟩.

ENVIRONMENT
       GROPS_PROLOGUE
	      If  this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in the
	      font path) instead of the default prologue file  prologue.   The
	      option -P overrides this environment variable.

FILES
       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/DESC
	      Device description file.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/F
	      Font description file for font F.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/download
	      List of downloadable fonts.

       /usr/share/groff_font/devps/text.enc
	      Encoding used for text fonts.

       /usr/share/tmac/ps.tmac
	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

       /usr/share/tmac/pspic.tmac
	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

       /usr/share/tmac/psold.tmac
	      Macros  to  disable use of characters not present in older Post‐
	      Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

       /tmp/gropsXXXXXX
	      Temporary file.

SEE ALSO
       afmtodit(1),    groff(1),    troff(1),	 pfbtops(1),	 groff_out(5),
       groff_font(5), groff_char(7), groff_tmac(5)

       PostScript Language Document Structuring Conventions Specification
       ⟨http://partners.adobe.com/public/developer/en/ps/5001.DSC_Spec.pdf⟩

Groff Version 1.19.2		20 October 2005			      GROPS(1)
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