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GROPS(1)							      GROPS(1)

       grops - PostScript driver for groff

       grops [ -glmv ] [ -bn ] [ -cn ] [ -wn ] [ -Fdir ] [ -Pprologue ]
	     [ files... ]

       It is possible to have whitespace between a command line option and its

       grops translates the output of GNU troff to PostScript.	Normally grops
       should be invoked by using  the	groff  command	with  a	 -Tps  option.
       (Actually,  this	 is  the  default  for groff.)	If no files are given,
       grops will read the standard input.  A filename of -  will  also	 cause
       grops  to read the standard input.  PostScript output is written to the
       standard output.	 When grops is run by groff options can be  passed  to
       grops using the groff -P option.

       -bn    Workaround  broken spoolers and previewers.  Normally grops pro‐
	      duces output that conforms the Document Structuring  Conventions
	      version  3.0.   Unfortunately some spoolers and previewers can't
	      handle such output.  The value of n controls what grops does  to
	      its output acceptable to such programs.  A value of 0 will cause
	      grops not to employ any workarounds.  Add 1 if  no  %%BeginDocu‐
	      mentSetup	 and  %%EndDocumentSetup comments should be generated;
	      this is needed for early versions of TranScript  that  get  con‐
	      fused  by anything between the %%EndProlog comment and the first
	      %%Page comment.  Add 2 if lines in included files beginning with
	      %!   should  be  stripped out; this is needed for Sun's pageview
	      previewer.  Add 4 if %%Page, %%Trailer and %%EndProlog  comments
	      should  be  stripped  out	 of included files; this is needed for
	      spoolers that don't understand the %%BeginDocument and %%EndDoc‐
	      ument  comments.	Add 8 if the first line of the PostScript out‐
	      put should be %!PS-Adobe-2.0 rather than %!PS-Adobe-3.0; this is
	      needed  when  using Sun's Newsprint with a printer that requires
	      page reversal.  The default value can be specified by a

		     broken n

	      command in the DESC file.	 Otherwise the default value is 0.

       -cn    Print n copies of each page.

       -g     Guess the page length.   This  generates	PostScript  code  that
	      guesses  the page length.	 The guess will be correct only if the
	      imageable area is vertically centered on the page.  This	option
	      allows  you  to  generate	 documents that can be printed both on
	      letter (8.5×11) paper and on A4 paper without change.

       -l     Print the document in landscape format.

       -m     Turn manual feed on for the document.

       -Fdir  Prepend directory dir/devname to the search path	for  prologue,
	      font,  and  device  description  files;  name is the name of the
	      device, usually ps.

	      Use the file prologue-file (in the font path)  as	 the  prologue
	      instead  of  the	default	 prologue  file prologue.  This option
	      overrides the environment variable GROPS_PROLOGUE.

       -wn    Lines should be drawn using a thickness of n thousandths	of  an

       -v     Print the version number.

       There  are styles called R, I, B, and BI mounted at font positions 1 to
       4.  The fonts are grouped into families A, BM, C, H, HN,	 N,  P	and  T
       having members in each of these styles:

       AR     AvantGarde-Book

       AI     AvantGarde-BookOblique

       AB     AvantGarde-Demi

       ABI    AvantGarde-DemiOblique

       BMR    Bookman-Light

       BMI    Bookman-LightItalic

       BMB    Bookman-Demi

       BMBI   Bookman-DemiItalic

       CR     Courier

       CI     Courier-Oblique

       CB     Courier-Bold

       CBI    Courier-BoldOblique

       HR     Helvetica

       HI     Helvetica-Oblique

       HB     Helvetica-Bold

       HBI    Helvetica-BoldOblique

       HNR    Helvetica-Narrow

       HNI    Helvetica-Narrow-Oblique

       HNB    Helvetica-Narrow-Bold

       HNBI   Helvetica-Narrow-BoldOblique

       NR     NewCenturySchlbk-Roman

       NI     NewCenturySchlbk-Italic

       NB     NewCenturySchlbk-Bold

       NBI    NewCenturySchlbk-BoldItalic

       PR     Palatino-Roman

       PI     Palatino-Italic

       PB     Palatino-Bold

       PBI    Palatino-BoldItalic

       TR     Times-Roman

       TI     Times-Italic

       TB     Times-Bold

       TBI    Times-BoldItalic

       There is also the following font which is not a member of a family:

       ZCMI   ZapfChancery-MediumItalic

       There  are  also	 some special fonts called SS and S.  Zapf Dingbats is
       available as ZD and a reversed version of  ZapfDingbats	(with  symbols
       pointing	 in  the opposite direction) is available as ZDR; most charac‐
       ters in these fonts are unnamed and must be accessed using \N.

       grops understands various X  commands  produced	using  the  \X	escape
       sequence; grops will only interpret commands that begin with a ps: tag.

       \X'ps: exec code'
	      This  executes  the  arbitrary PostScript commands in code.  The
	      PostScript currentpoint will be set to the position  of  the  \X
	      command  before  executing  code.	 The origin will be at the top
	      left corner of the page, and y coordinates  will	increase  down
	      the  page.   A  procedure	 u will be defined that converts groff
	      units to the coordinate system in effect.	 For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     \X'ps: exec \nx u 0 rlineto stroke'

	      will draw a horizontal  line  one	 inch  long.   code  may  make
	      changes to the graphics state, but any changes will persist only
	      to the end of the page.  A dictionary containing the definitions
	      specified	 by  the def and mdef will be on top of the dictionary
	      stack.  If your code adds definitions to	this  dictionary,  you
	      should allocate space for them using \X'ps mdef n'.  Any defini‐
	      tions will persist only until the end of the page.  If  you  use
	      the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a macro, code
	      can extend over multiple lines.  For example,

		     .nr x 1i
		     .de y
		     ps: exec
		     \nx u 0 rlineto

	      is another way to draw a horizontal line one inch long.

       \X'ps: file name'
	      This is the same as the exec command except that the  PostScript
	      code is read from file name.

       \X'ps: def code'
	      Place a PostScript definition contained in code in the prologue.
	      There should be at most one definition  per  \X  command.	  Long
	      definitions  can be split over several \X commands; all the code
	      arguments are simply joined together separated by newlines.  The
	      definitions  are	placed	in a dictionary which is automatically
	      pushed on the dictionary stack when an exec command is executed.
	      If  you use the \Y escape sequence with an argument that names a
	      macro, code can extend over multiple lines.

       \X'ps: mdef n code'
	      Like def, except that code may  contain  up  to  n  definitions.
	      grops  needs  to know how many definitions code contains so that
	      it can create an appropriately sized  PostScript	dictionary  to
	      contain them.

       \X'ps: import file llx lly urx ury width [ height ]'
	      Import  a PostScript graphic from file.  The arguments llx, lly,
	      urx, and ury give the bounding box of the graphic in the default
	      PostScript  coordinate  system; they should all be integers; llx
	      and lly are the x and y coordinates of the lower left corner  of
	      the  graphic;  urx  and  ury  are the x and y coordinates of the
	      upper right corner of the graphic; width and height are integers
	      that  give  the  desired	width and height in groff units of the
	      graphic.	The graphic will be scaled so that it has  this	 width
	      and  height  and translated so that the lower left corner of the
	      graphic is located at the position associated with  \X  command.
	      If the height argument is omitted it will be scaled uniformly in
	      the x and y directions so that it has the specified width.  Note
	      that  the	 contents  of  the  \X	command are not interpreted by
	      troff; so vertical space for the graphic	is  not	 automatically
	      added,  and  the	width  and height arguments are not allowed to
	      have attached scaling indicators.	 If the PostScript  file  com‐
	      plies  with  the Adobe Document Structuring Conventions and con‐
	      tains a %%BoundingBox comment, then  the	bounding  box  can  be
	      automatically  extracted	from  within  groff  by using the psbb

	      The -mps macros (which are automatically loaded  when  grops  is
	      run  by  the groff command) include a PSPIC macro which allows a
	      picture to be easily imported.  This has the format

		     .PSPIC [ -L | -R | -I n ]	file [ width [ height ]]

	      file is the name of the file containing the illustration;	 width
	      and  height  give	 the  desired width and height of the graphic.
	      The width and  height  arguments	may  have  scaling  indicators
	      attached;	 the  default scaling indicator is i.  This macro will
	      scale the graphic uniformly in the x and y directions so that it
	      is  no  more  than  width wide and height high.  By default, the
	      graphic will be horizontally centered.  The -L and -R cause  the
	      graphic  to be left-aligned and right-aligned respectively.  The
	      -I option causes the graphic to be indented by n.

       \X'ps: invis'
       \X'ps: endinvis'
	      No output will be generated for text and drawing	commands  that
	      are  bracketed  with  these  \X  commands.   These  commands are
	      intended for use when output from troff will be previewed before
	      being  processed	with grops; if the previewer is unable to dis‐
	      play certain characters or other constructs, then other  substi‐
	      tute  characters	or  constructs	can  be used for previewing by
	      bracketing them with these \X commands.

	      For example, gxditview is not able  to  display  a  proper  \(em
	      character because the standard X11 fonts do not provide it; this
	      problem can be overcome by executing the following request

		     .char \(em \X'ps: invis'\
		     \Z'\v'-.25m'\h'.05m'\D'l .9m 0'\h'.05m''\
		     \X'ps: endinvis'\(em

	      In this case, gxditview will be unable to display the \(em char‐
	      acter  and will draw the line, whereas grops will print the \(em
	      character and ignore the line.

       The input to grops must be in the format output by gtroff(1).  This  is
       described in groff_out(5).  In addition the device and font description
       files for the device used must meet certain requirements.   The	device
       and  font  description  files  supplied	for  ps	 device meet all these
       requirements.  afmtodit(1) can be used to create font  files  from  AFM
       files.	The  resolution	 must  be  an integer multiple of 72 times the
       sizescale.  The ps device uses a resolution of 72000 and a sizescale of
       1000.  The device description file should contain a command

	      paperlength n

       which says that output should be generated which is suitable for print‐
       ing on a page whose length is n machine units.  Each  font  description
       file must contain a command

	      internalname psname

       which says that the PostScript name of the font is psname.  It may also
       contain a command

	      encoding enc_file

       which says that the PostScript  font  should  be	 reencoded  using  the
       encoding	 described in enc_file; this file should consist of a sequence
       of lines of the form:

	      pschar code

       where pschar is the PostScript name of the character, and code  is  its
       position	 in the encoding expressed as a decimal integer.  The code for
       each character given in the font file must correspond to the  code  for
       the  character in encoding file, or to the code in the default encoding
       for the font if the PostScript font is not to be reencoded.  This  code
       can  be used with the \N escape sequence in troff to select the charac‐
       ter, even if the character does not have a groff name.  Every character
       in  the	font  file  must  exist in the PostScript font, and the widths
       given in the font file must match the widths  used  in  the  PostScript
       font.  grops will assume that a character with a groff name of space is
       blank (makes no marks on the page); it can make use of such a character
       to generate more efficient and compact PostScript output.

       grops  can  automatically  include  the downloadable fonts necessary to
       print  the  document.   Any  downloadable  fonts	 which	should,	  when
       required,  be  included	by  grops  must	 be  listed in the file /free‐
       ware/gnu-tools/share/groff/1.17.2/font/devps/download; this should con‐
       sist of lines of the form

	      font  filename

       where font is the PostScript name of the font, and filename is the name
       of the file containing the font; lines beginning with # and blank lines
       are  ignored;  fields may be separated by tabs or spaces; filename will
       be searched for using the same mechanism that is used  for  groff  font
       metric files.  The download file itself will also be searched for using
       this mechanism.

       If the file containing a downloadable font or  imported	document  con‐
       forms  to  the  Adobe Document Structuring Conventions, then grops will
       interpret any comments in the files sufficiently to ensure that its own
       output  is  conforming.	 It will also supply any needed font resources
       that are listed in the  download	 file  as  well	 as  any  needed  file
       resources.  It is also able to handle inter-resource dependencies.  For
       example, suppose that you have a downloadable font called Garamond, and
       also a downloadable font called Garamond-Outline which depends on Gara‐
       mond (typically it would be defined to copy Garamond's font dictionary,
       and  change  the	 PaintType),  then  it is necessary for Garamond to be
       appear before Garamond-Outline in the PostScript document.  grops  will
       handle  this automatically provided that the downloadable font file for
       Garamond-Outline indicates its dependence on Garamond by means  of  the
       Document	 Structuring  Conventions,  for	 example by beginning with the
       following lines

	      %!PS-Adobe-3.0 Resource-Font
	      %%DocumentNeededResources: font Garamond
	      %%IncludeResource: font Garamond

       In this case both Garamond and Garamond-Outline would need to be listed
       in  the	download file.	A downloadable font should not include its own
       name in a %%DocumentSuppliedResources comment.

       grops will not interpret %%DocumentFonts comments.  The %%DocumentNeed‐
       edResources, %%DocumentSuppliedResources, %%IncludeResource, %%BeginRe‐
       source and %%EndResource comments (or possibly the old  %%DocumentNeed‐
       edFonts, %%DocumentSuppliedFonts, %%IncludeFont, %%BeginFont and %%End‐
       Font comments) should be used.

	      If this is set to foo, then grops will use the file foo (in  the
	      font  path)  instead of the default prologue file prologue.  The
	      option -P overrides this environment variable.

	      Device description file.

	      Font description file for font F.

	      List of downloadable fonts.

	      Encoding used for text fonts.

	      Macros for use with grops; automatically loaded by troffrc

	      Definition of PSPIC macro, automatically loaded by ps.tmac.

	      Macros to disable use of characters not present in  older	 Post‐
	      Script printers (e.g. `eth' or `thorn').

	      Temporary file.

       afmtodit(1), groff(1), gtroff(1), psbb(1), groff_out(5), groff_font(5),

Groff Version 1.17.2		 27 June 2001			      GROPS(1)

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