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GSSAPI(3)		 BSD Library Functions Manual		     GSSAPI(3)

NAME
     gssapi — Generic Security Services API

LIBRARY
     GSS-API Library (libgssapi, -lgssapi)

SYNOPSIS
     #include <gssapi/gssapi.h>

DESCRIPTION
     The Generic Security Service Application Programming Interface provides
     security services to its callers, and is intended for implementation atop
     a variety of underlying cryptographic mechanisms.	Typically, GSS-API
     callers will be application protocols into which security enhancements
     are integrated through invocation of services provided by the GSS-API.
     The GSS-API allows a caller application to authenticate a principal iden‐
     tity associated with a peer application, to delegate rights to a peer,
     and to apply security services such as confidentiality and integrity on a
     per-message basis.

     There are four stages to using the GSS-API:

     a)	 The application acquires a set of credentials with which it may prove
	 its identity to other processes.  The application's credentials vouch
	 for its global identity, which may or may not be related to any local
	 username under which it may be running.

     b)	 A pair of communicating applications establish a joint security con‐
	 text using their credentials.	The security context is a pair of GSS-
	 API data structures that contain shared state information, which is
	 required in order that per-message security services may be provided.
	 Examples of state that might be shared between applications as part
	 of a security context are cryptographic keys, and message sequence
	 numbers.  As part of the establishment of a security context, the
	 context initiator is authenticated to the responder, and may require
	 that the responder is authenticated in turn.  The initiator may
	 optionally give the responder the right to initiate further security
	 contexts, acting as an agent or delegate of the initiator.  This
	 transfer of rights is termed delegation, and is achieved by creating
	 a set of credentials, similar to those used by the initiating appli‐
	 cation, but which may be used by the responder.

	 To establish and maintain the shared information that makes up the
	 security context, certain GSS-API calls will return a token data
	 structure, which is an opaque data type that may contain cryptograph‐
	 ically protected data.	 The caller of such a GSS-API routine is
	 responsible for transferring the token to the peer application,
	 encapsulated if necessary in an application protocol.	On receipt of
	 such a token, the peer application should pass it to a corresponding
	 GSS-API routine which will decode the token and extract the informa‐
	 tion, updating the security context state information accordingly.

     c)	 Per-message services are invoked to apply either:

	 integrity and data origin authentication, or confidentiality,
	 integrity and data origin authentication to application data, which
	 are treated by GSS-API as arbitrary octet-strings.  An application
	 transmitting a message that it wishes to protect will call the appro‐
	 priate GSS-API routine (gss_get_mic or gss_wrap) to apply protection,
	 specifying the appropriate security context, and send the resulting
	 token to the receiving application.  The receiver will pass the
	 received token (and, in the case of data protected by gss_get_mic,
	 the accompanying message-data) to the corresponding decoding routine
	 (gss_verify_mic or gss_unwrap) to remove the protection and validate
	 the data.

     d)	 At the completion of a communications session (which may extend
	 across several transport connections), each application calls a GSS-
	 API routine to delete the security context.  Multiple contexts may
	 also be used (either successively or simultaneously) within a single
	 communications association, at the option of the applications.

GSS-API ROUTINES
     This section lists the routines that make up the GSS-API, and offers a
     brief description of the purpose of each routine.

     GSS-API Credential-management Routines:

     gss_acquire_cred	       Assume a global identity; Obtain a GSS-API cre‐
			       dential handle for pre-existing credentials.

     gss_add_cred	       Construct credentials incrementally

     gss_inquire_cred	       Obtain information about a credential

     gss_inquire_cred_by_mech  Obtain per-mechanism information about a cre‐
			       dential.

     gss_release_cred	       Discard a credential handle.

     GSS-API Context-Level Routines:

     gss_init_sec_context      Initiate a security context with a peer appli‐
			       cation

     gss_accept_sec_context	Accept a security context initiated by a peer
			       application

     gss_delete_sec_context    Discard a security context

     gss_process_context_token
			       Process a token on a security context from a
			       peer application

     gss_context_time	       Determine for how long a context will remain
			       valid

     gss_inquire_context       Obtain information about a security context

     gss_wrap_size_limit       Determine token-size limit for gss_wrap(3) on a
			       context

     gss_export_sec_context    Transfer a security context to another process

     gss_import_sec_context    Import a transferred context

     GSS-API Per-message Routines:

     gss_get_mic	       Calculate a cryptographic message integrity
			       code (MIC) for a message; integrity service

     gss_verify_mic	       Check a MIC against a message; verify integrity
			       of a received message

     gss_wrap		       Attach a MIC to a message, and optionally
			       encrypt the message content; confidentiality
			       service

     gss_unwrap		       Verify a message with attached MIC, and decrypt
			       message content if necessary.

     GSS-API Name manipulation Routines:

     gss_import_name	       Convert a contiguous string name to internal-
			       form

     gss_display_name	       Convert internal-form name to text

     gss_compare_name	       Compare two internal-form names

     gss_release_name	       Discard an internal-form name

     gss_inquire_names_for_mech
			       List the name-types supported by the specified
			       mechanism

     gss_inquire_mechs_for_name
			       List mechanisms that support the specified
			       name-type

     gss_canonicalize_name     Convert an internal name to an MN

     gss_export_name	       Convert an MN to export form

     gss_duplicate_name	       Create a copy of an internal name

     GSS-API Miscellaneous Routines

     gss_add_oid_set_member    Add an object identifier to a set

     gss_display_status	       Convert a GSS-API status code to text

     gss_indicate_mechs	       Determine available underlying authentication
			       mechanisms

     gss_release_buffer	       Discard a buffer

     gss_release_oid_set       Discard a set of object identifiers

     gss_create_empty_oid_set  Create a set containing no object identifiers

     gss_test_oid_set_member   Determines whether an object identifier is a
			       member of a set.

     Individual GSS-API implementations may augment these routines by provid‐
     ing additional mechanism-specific routines if required functionality is
     not available from the generic forms.  Applications are encouraged to use
     the generic routines wherever possible on portability grounds.

STANDARDS
     RFC 2743	   Generic Security Service Application Program Interface Ver‐
		   sion 2, Update 1

     RFC 2744	   Generic Security Service API Version 2 : C-bindings

HISTORY
     The gssapi library first appeared in FreeBSD 7.0.

AUTHORS
     John Wray, Iris Associates

COPYRIGHT
     Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2000).	 All Rights Reserved.

     This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to oth‐
     ers, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or
     assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published and dis‐
     tributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided
     that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all
     such copies and derivative works.	However, this document itself may not
     be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright notice or ref‐
     erences to the Internet Society or other Internet organizations, except
     as needed for the purpose of developing Internet standards in which case
     the procedures for copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process
     must be followed, or as required to translate it into languages other
     than English.

     The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
     revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

     This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS
     IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK
     FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT
     LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT
     INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FIT‐
     NESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

BSD			       January 26, 2010				   BSD
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