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HIER(7)		     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       HIER(7)

NAME
     hier — layout of filesystems

DESCRIPTION
     An outline of the filesystem hierarchy.

     /		root directory of the system

     /COPYRIGHT
		system copyright notice

     /[a-z]	user filesystems

     /altroot/	alternate root filesystem, in case of disaster

     /amd/	home directories mount point; see amd(8)

     /bin/	utilities used in both single and multi-user environments

     /dev/	block, character and other special device files

		MAKEDEV	 script for creating device files; see makedev(8)
		console	 the computer's console device
		fd/	 file descriptor files; see fd(4)
		drum	 system swap space; see drum(4)
		klog	 kernel logging device; see syslog(3)
		kmem	 kernel virtual memory device; see mem(4)
		log	 UNIX domain datagram log socket; see syslogd(8)
		mem	 kernel physical memory device; see mem(4)
		stderr
		stdin
		stdout	 file descriptor files; see fd(4)
		null	 the null device; see null(4)
		tty	 process' controlling terminal device; see tty(4)

     /dump/	online dump(8) repository

     /etc/	system configuration files and scripts

		aliases*       name alias files for sendmail(8)
		amd*	       configuration files for amd(8)
		changelist     files backed up by the security script
		crontab	       schedule used by the cron(8) daemon
		csh.cshrc
		csh.login
		csh.logout     system-wide scripts for csh(1)
		daily	       script run each day by cron(8)
		disklabels/    backup disklabels; see disklabel(8)
		disktab	       disk description file, see disktab(5)
		dm.conf	       dungeon master configuration; see dm.conf(5)
		dumpdates      dump history; see dump(8)
		exports	       filesystem export information; see mountd(8)
		fstab	       filesystem information; see fstab(5) and
			       mount(8)
		ftpusers       users denied ftp(1) access; see ftpd(8)
		ftpwelcome     ftp(1) initial message; see ftpd(8)
		gettytab       terminal configuration database; see
			       gettytab(8)
		group	       group permissions file; see group(5)
		hosts	       host name database backup for named(8); see
			       hosts(5)
		hosts.equiv    trusted machines with equivalent user ID's
		hosts.lpd      trusted machines with printing privileges
		inetd.conf     Internet server configuration file; see
			       inetd(8)
		kerberosIV/    configuration files for the kerberos version
			       IV; see kerberos(1)
		localtime      local timezone information; see ctime(3)
		mail.rc	       system-wide initialization script for mail(1)
		man.conf       configuration file for man(1); see man.conf(5)
		master.passwd
		passwd
		pwd.db
		spwd.db	       password files and their databases; see
			       pwd_mkdb(8)
		monthly	       script run each month by cron(8)
		motd	       system message of the day
		mtree/	       mtree configuration files; see mtree(1)
		named.*
		namedb/	       named configuration files and databases; see
			       named(8)
		netgroup       network groups; see netgroup(5)
		netstart       network startup script
		networks       network name data base; see networks(5)
		phones	       remote host phone number data base; see
			       phones(5)
		printcap       system printer configuration; see printcap(5)
		protocols      protocol name database; see protocols(5)
		rc
		rc.local       system startup files; see rc(8)
		remote	       remote host description file; see remote(5)
		security       daily (in)security script run by cron(8)
		sendmail.*     sendmail(8) configuration information
		services       service name data base; see services(5)
		shells	       list of permitted shells; see shells(5)
		sliphome       slip login/logout scripts; see slattach(8)
		syslog.conf    syslogd(8) configuration file; see
			       syslog.conf(5)
		termcap	       terminal type database; see termcap(3)
		ttys	       terminal initialization information; see
			       ttys(5)
		weekly	       script run each week by cron(8)

     /home/	mount point for the automounter; see amd(8)

     /mnt/	empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
		temporary mount point

     /root/	home directory for the super-user

		.rhosts	  super-user id mapping between machines
		.cshrc	  super-user start-up file
		.login	  super-user start-up file
		.profile  super-user start-up file

     /sbin/	system programs and administration utilities used in both sin‐
		gle-user and multi-user environments

     /stand/	programs used in a standalone environment

     /sys	symbolic link to the operating system source

     /tmp/	temporary files, usually a mfs(8) memory-based filesystem (the
		contents of /tmp are usually NOT preserved across a system
		reboot)

     /usr/	contains the majority of the system utilities and files

		X11	  X11 files

			  bin/	    X11 binaries
			  include/  X11 include files
			  lib/	    X11 libraries
		bin/	  common utilities, programming tools, and applica‐
			  tions
		contrib/  packages maintained by groups other than Berkeley

			  bin/	    contributed binaries
			  include/  contributed include files
			  libexec/  contributed daemons
			  libdata/  contributed data files
		games/	  the important stuff
		include/  standard C include files

			  X11/	       include files for X11 window system
			  arpa/	       include files for Internet service pro‐
				       tocols
			  g++/	       include files for the C++ compiler
			  kerberosIV/  include files for kerberos authentica‐
				       tion package; see kerberos(1)
			  machine/     machine specific include files
			  net/	       miscellaneous network include files
			  netccitt/    CCITT networking include files
			  netinet/     include files for Internet standard
				       protocols; see inet(4)
			  netiso/      include files for ISO standard proto‐
				       cols; see iso(4)
			  netns/       include files for XNS standard proto‐
				       cols; see ns(4)
			  nfs/	       include files for NFS (Network File
				       System)
			  pascal/      include files for pc(1)
			  protocols/   include files for Berkeley service pro‐
				       tocols
			  rpc/	       include files for Sun Microsystem's RPC
				       package
			  sys/	       kernel include files
			  ufs/	       include files for UFS
			  xnscourier/  include files for XNS package

		lib/	  system C library archives; see ar(1)

			  uucp/	 UUCP binaries and scripts (historically
				 placed; to be moved)

		libdata/  miscellaneous utility data files
		libexec/  system daemons and system utilities (executed by
			  other programs)
		local/	  local executables, libraries, etc.

			  bin/	    local binaries
			  include/  local include files
			  libexec/  local daemons
			  libdata/  local data files
		obj/	  architecture-specific target tree produced by build‐
			  ing the /usr/src tree; normally a symbolic link or
			  mounted filesystem
		old/	  programs from past lives of 4BSD which may disappear
			  in future releases

			  bin/	    old binaries
			  include/  old include files
			  libexec/  old daemons
			  libdata/  old data files
		sbin/	  system daemons and system utilities (normally exe‐
			  cuted by the super-user)
		share/	  architecture-independent text files

			  calendar/  a variety of calendar files; see
				     calendar(1)
			  dict/	     word lists; see look(1) and spell(1)

				     words     common words
				     web2      words of Webster's 2nd Interna‐
					       tional
				     papers/   reference databases; see
					       refer(1)
				     special/  custom word lists; see spell(1)

			  doc/	     miscellaneous documentation; source for
				     most of the printed 4BSD manuals (avail‐
				     able from the USENIX association)
			  games/     text files used by various games
			  man/	     formatted manual pages
			  me/	     macros for use with the me(7) macro pack‐
				     age
			  misc/	     miscellaneous system-wide text files

				     termcap  terminal characteristics data‐
					      base; see termcap(5)

			  mk/	     include files for make(1)
			  ms/	     macros for use with the ms(7) macro pack‐
				     age
			  skel/	     sample initialization files for new user
				     accounts
			  tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
				     terminals, used in the termcap file; see
				     termcap(5)
			  tmac/	     text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
				     troff(1)
			  zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
				     tzfile(5)
		usr.bin/  source for utilities/files in /usr/bin
		usr.sbin/
			  source for utilities/files in /usr/sbin

     /usr/src/	4BSD and local source files

		bin/	     source for utilities/files in /bin
		contrib/     source for utilities/files in /usr/contrib
		etc/	     source (usually example files) for files in /etc
		games/	     source for utilities/files in /usr/games
		include/     source for files in /usr/include
		kerberosIV/  source for Kerberos version IV utilities and
			     libraries
		lib/	     source for libraries in /usr/lib
		libexec/     source for utilities/files in /usr/libexec
		local/	     source for utilities/files in /usr/local
		old/	     source for utilities/files in /usr/old
		sbin/	     source for utilities/files in /sbin
		share/	     source for files in /usr/share

			     doc/

				   papers/  source for various Berkeley tech‐
					    nical papers
				   psd/	    source for Programmer's Supplemen‐
					    tary Documents
				   smm/	    source for System Manager's Manual
				   usd/	    source for User's Supplementary
					    Documents
		sys/	     kernel source files

			     compile/	  kernel compilation directory
			     conf/	  architecture independent configura‐
					  tion directory
			     deprecated/  deprecated kernel functionality
			     dev/	  architecture independent device sup‐
					  port
			     hp/	  general support for Hewlett-Packard
					  architectures
			     hp300/	  support for the Hewlett-Packard
					  9000/300 68000-based workstations
			     i386/	  support for the Intel 386/486 work‐
					  stations
			     isofs/	  support for ISO filesystems

					  cd9660/  support for the ISO-9660
						   filesystem

			     kern/	  support for the high kernel (system
					  calls)
			     libkern/	  C library routines used in the ker‐
					  nel
			     luna68k/	  Omron Luna 68000-based workstations
			     mips/	  general support for MIPS architec‐
					  tures
			     miscfs/	  miscellaneous file systems
			     net/	  miscellaneous networking support
			     netccitt/	  CCITT networking support
			     netinet/	  TCP/IP networking support
			     netiso/	  ISO networking support
			     netns/	  XNS networking support
			     news3400/	  Sony News MIPS-based workstations
			     nfs/	  NFS support
			     pmax/	  DECstation 3100 and 5000 MIPS-based
					  workstations
			     scripts/	  kernel debugging scripts
			     sparc/	  Sparcstation I & II SPARC-based
					  workstations
			     stand/	  kernel standalone support
			     sys/	  kernel (and system) include files
			     tahoe/	  Computer Consoles Inc. Tahoe archi‐
					  tecture (obsolete)
			     tests/	  kernel testing
			     ufs/	  local filesystem support

					  ffs/	the Berkeley Fast File System
					  lfs/	the log-structured file system
					  mfs/	the in-memory file system
					  ufs/	shared UNIX file system sup‐
						port
			     vax/	  Digital Equipment Corp. VAX archi‐
					  tecture (obsolete)
			     vm/	  virtual memory support

     /var/	multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

		account/   system accounting files

			   acct	 execution accounting file; see acct(5)

		at/	   timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
		backups/   miscellaneous backup files, largely of files found
			   in /etc
		crash/	   system crash dumps; see savecore(8)
		db/	   miscellaneous automatically generated system-spe‐
			   cific database files
		games/	   miscellaneous game status and log files
		log/	   miscellaneous system log files

			   amd.*	amd(8) logs
			   daily.out	output of the last run of the
					/etc/daily script
			   ftp.*	ftp(1) logs
			   kerberos.*	kerberos(1) logs
			   lastlog	system last time logged in log; see
					utmp(5)
			   lpd-errs.*	printer daemon error logs; see lpd(8)
			   maillog.*	sendmail(8) log files
			   messages.*	general system information log
			   monthly.out	output of the last run of the
					/etc/monthly script
			   secure	sensitive security information log
			   sendmail.st	sendmail(8) statistics
			   timed.*	timed(8) logs
			   weekly.out	output of the last run of the
					/etc/weekly script
			   wtmp		login/logout log; see utmp(5)

		mail/	   user system mailboxes
		msgs/	   system messages; see msgs(1)
		preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an acciden‐
			   tal death of ex(1) or vi(1)
		quotas/	   filesystem quota information
		run/	   system information files, rebuilt after each reboot

			   utmp	 database of current users; see utmp(5)

		rwho/	   rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
			   ruptime(1)
		spool/	   miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling
			   directories

			   ftp/		commonly “~ftp”, the anonymous ftp
					root directory; see ftpd(8)
			   mqueue/	undelivered mail queue; see
					sendmail(8)
			   news/	Network news archival and spooling
					directories
			   output/	printer spooling directories
			   secretmail/	secretmail spool directory; see
					xget(1)
			   uucp/	uucp spool directory
			   uucppublic/	commonly “~uucp”, the uucp public tem‐
					porary directory; see uucp(1)

		tmp/	   temporary files that are not discarded between sys‐
			   tem reboots

			   vi.recover/	recovery directory for nvi(1)

     /vmunix	the executable for the operating system

SEE ALSO
     apropos(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1), which(1),

HISTORY
     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD				 June 1, 1994				   BSD
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