hier man page on FreeBSD

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   9747 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
FreeBSD logo
[printable version]

HIER(7)		     BSD Miscellaneous Information Manual	       HIER(7)

     hier — layout of file systems

     A sketch of the file system hierarchy.

     /		root directory of the file system

     /bin/	user utilities fundamental to both single-user and multi-user

     /boot/	programs and configuration files used during operating system

		defaults/  default bootstrapping configuration files; see
		kernel/	   pure kernel executable (the operating system loaded
			   into memory at boot time).
		modules/   third-party loadable kernel modules; see kldstat(8)

     /cdrom/	default mount point for CD-ROM drives (created by

     /compat/	normally a link to /usr/compat.	 If not, then the /usr/compat
		comments apply (created by sysinstall(8))

     /dev/	device special files managed by devfs(5)

		fd/   file descriptor files; see fd(4)
		net/  network devices

     /dist/	mount point used by sysinstall(8)

     /etc/	system configuration files and scripts

		defaults/   default system configuration files; see rc(8)
		bluetooth/  bluetooth configuration files
		gnats/	    gnats configuration files; see send-pr(1)
		localtime   local timezone information; see ctime(3)
		mail/	    Sendmail control files
		mtree/	    mtree configuration files; see mtree(8)
		namedb/	    named configuration files; see named(8)
		pam.d/	    configuration files for the Pluggable Authentica‐
			    tion Modules (PAM) library
		periodic/   scripts that are run daily, weekly, and monthly,
			    via cron(8); see periodic(8)
		rc.d/	    System and daemon startup/control scripts; see
		security/   OpenBSM audit configuration files; see audit(8)
		ppp/	    ppp configuration files; see ppp(8)
		ssh/	    OpenSSH configuration files; see ssh(1)
		ssl/	    OpenSSL configuration files

     /lib/	critical system libraries needed for binaries in /bin and

		geom/  class-specific libraries for the geom(8) utility

     /libexec/	critical system utilities needed for binaries in /bin and

     /media/	contains subdirectories to be used as mount points for remov‐
		able media such as CDs, USB drives, and floppy disks

     /mnt/	empty directory commonly used by system administrators as a
		temporary mount point

     /proc/	process file system; see procfs(5)

     /rescue/	statically linked programs for emergency recovery; see

     /root/	root's HOME directory

     /sbin/	system programs and administration utilities fundamental to
		both single-user and multi-user environments

     /tmp/	temporary files that are not guaranteed to persist across sys‐
		tem reboots

     /usr/	contains the majority of user utilities and applications

		bin/	  common utilities, programming tools, and applica‐
		compat/	  files needed to support binary compatibility with
			  other operating systems, such as Linux (created by
		games/	  useful and semi-frivolous programs
		include/  standard C include files

			  altq/	      C include files for alternate queueing
			  arpa/	      C include files for Internet service
			  bsnmp/      C include files for the SNMP daemon
			  c++/	      C++ include files
			  cam/	      C include files for the Common Access
				      Methods Layer
				      scsi/	  The SCSI device on top of
			  dev/	      C include files for programming various
				      FreeBSD devices
				      ic/	  Various header files
						  describing driver- and bus-
						  independent hardware cir‐
				      ofw/	  Open Firmware support
				      pbio/	  8255 PPI cards; see pbio(4)
				      ppbus/	  The parallel port bus; see
				      usb/	  The USB subsystem
				      utopia/	  Physical chip driver for ATM
						  interfaces; see utopia(4)
				      wi/	  The wi(4) WaveLAN driver
				      fdescfs/	  per-process file descriptors
						  file system
				      fifofs/	  IEEE Std 1003.1 (“POSIX.1”)
						  FIFOs file system
				      msdosfs/	  MS-DOS file system
				      nfs/	  C include files for NFS
						  (Network File System) ver‐
						  sion 2, 3 and 4
				      ntfs/	  NTFS file system
				      nullfs/	  loopback file system
				      nwfs/	  NetWare file system
				      portalfs/	  portal file system
				      procfs/	  process file system
				      smbfs/	  SMB/CIFS file system
				      udf/	  UDF file system
				      unionfs	  union file system
			  geom/	      GEOM framework
				      concat/	  CONCAT GEOM class
				      gate/	  GATE GEOM class
				      mirror/	  MIRROR GEOM class
				      nop/	  NOP GEOM class
				      raid3/	  RAID3 GEOM class
				      stripe/	  STRIPE GEOM class

			  isc/	      ISC utility library libisc include files
				      cd9660/	  iso9660 file system
			  libmilter/  C include files for libmilter, the
				      sendmail(8) mail filter API
			  machine/    machine-specific C include files
			  net/	      miscellaneous network C include files
			  netatalk/   Appletalk protocol
			  netinet/    C include files for Internet standard
				      protocols; see inet(4)
			  netinet6/   C include files for Internet protocol
				      version 6; see inet6(4)
			  netipsec/   kernel key-management service; see
			  netipx/     IPX/SPX protocol stacks
			  netnatm/    NATM include files; see natm(4)
				      api/	  include files for the sig‐
						  nalling API
				      msg/	  include files that describe
						  signalling messages and
						  declare associated functions
				      saal/	  include files for the sig‐
						  nalling AAL layer
				      sig/	  include files for the UNI
						  signalling protocol
			  netsmb/     SMB/CIFS requester
			  nfs/	      C include files for NFS (Network File
				      System) version 2 and 3 (legacy)
			  objc/	      Objective C include files
			  openssl/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit) head‐
			  pccard/     PC-CARD controllers
			  protocols/  C include files for Berkeley service
			  readline/   get a line from a user, with editing;
				      see readline(3)
			  rpc/	      remote procedure calls; see rpc(3)
			  rpcsvc/     definition of RPC service structures;
				      see rpc(3)
			  security/   PAM; see pam(8)
			  sys/	      system C include files (kernel data
			  ufs/	      C include files for UFS (The U-word File
				      ffs/	  Fast file system
				      ufs/	  UFS file system
			  vm/	      virtual memory; see vmstat(8)

		lib/	  shared and archive ar(1)-type libraries
			  aout/	      a.out archive libraries
			  compat/     shared libraries for compatibility
				      aout/	  a.out backward compatibility
			  dtrace/     DTrace library scripts
			  engines/    OpenSSL (Cryptography/SSL toolkit)
				      dynamically loadable engines

		libdata/  miscellaneous utility data files
			  gcc/	      gcc(1) configuration data
			  ldscripts/  linker scripts; see ld(1)
			  lint/	      various prebuilt lint libraries; see

		libexec/  system daemons & system utilities (executed by other
			  aout/	      utilities to manipulate a.out executa‐
			  elf/	      utilities to manipulate ELF executables
			  lpr/	      utilities and filters for LP print sys‐
				      tem; see lpr(1)
			  sendmail/   the sendmail(8) binary; see
			  sm.bin/     restricted shell for sendmail(8); see

		local/	  local executables, libraries, etc.  Also used as the
			  default destination for the FreeBSD ports framework.
			  Within local/, the general layout sketched out by
			  hier for /usr should be used.	 Exceptions are the
			  man directory (directly under local/ rather than
			  under local/share/), ports documentation (in
			  share/doc/<port>/), and /usr/local/etc (mimics
		obj/	  architecture-specific target tree produced by build‐
			  ing the /usr/src tree
		ports/	  The FreeBSD ports collection (optional).
		sbin/	  system daemons & system utilities (executed by
		share/	  architecture-independent files

			  calendar/  a variety of pre-fab calendar files; see
			  dict/	     word lists; see look(1)

				     freebsd	 FreeBSD-specific terms,
						 proper names, and jargon
				     words	 common words
				     web2	 words from Webster's 2nd
				     papers/	 reference databases; see

			  doc/	     miscellaneous documentation; source for
				     most of the printed BSD manuals (avail‐
				     able from the USENIX association)
				     FAQ/	 Frequently Asked Questions
				     IPv6/	 implementation notes for IPv6
				     bind/	 documents pertaining to BIND
						 (the Berkeley Internet Name
				     es/	 Spanish translations of docu‐
						 ments in /usr/share/doc
				     handbook/	 FreeBSD Handbook
				     ja/	 Japanese translations of doc‐
						 uments in /usr/share/doc
				     legal/	 License files for vendor sup‐
						 plied firmwares
				     ncurses/	 HTML documents pertaining to
						 ncurses; see ncurses(3)
				     ntp/	 HTML documents pertaining to
						 the Network Time Protocol
				     papers/	 UNIX Papers
				     psd/	 UNIX Programmer's Supplemen‐
						 tary Documents
				     ru/	 Russian translations of docu‐
						 ments in /usr/share/doc
				     smm/	 UNIX System Manager's Manual
				     tutorials/	 FreeBSD tutorials
				     usd/	 UNIX User's Supplementary
				     zh/	 Chinese translations of docu‐
						 ments in /usr/share/doc

			  examples/  various examples for users and program‐
			  games/     ASCII text files used by various games
				     device description file for device name
			  info/	     GNU Info hypertext system
			  locale/    localization files; see setlocale(3)
			  man/	     manual pages
			  me/	     macros for use with the me macro package;
				     see me(7)
			  misc/	     miscellaneous system-wide ASCII text
				     fonts/	 ???
				     termcap	 terminal characteristics
						 database; see termcap(5)
			  mk/	     templates for make; see make(1)
			  nls/	     national language support files; see
			  security/  data files for security policies such as
			  sendmail/  sendmail(8) configuration files
			  skel/	     example . (dot) files for new accounts
			  snmp/	     MIBs, example files and tree definitions
				     for the SNMP daemon.
				     defs/	 Tree definition files for use
						 with gensnmptree(1)
				     mibs/	 MIB files
			  syscons/   files used by syscons; see syscons(4)
				     fonts/	console fonts; see
						vidcontrol(1) and vidfont(1)
				     keymaps/	console keyboard maps; see
						kbdcontrol(1) and kbdmap(1)
				     scrnmaps/	console screen maps
			  tabset/    tab description files for a variety of
				     terminals; used in the termcap file; see
			  tmac/	     text processing macros; see nroff(1) and
			  vi/	     localization support and utilities for
			  zoneinfo/  timezone configuration information; see
		src/	  BSD, third-party, and/or local source files

			  bin/	      source code for files in /bin
			  contrib/    source code for contributed software
			  crypto/     source code for contributed cryptography
			  etc/	      source code for files in /etc
			  games/      source code for files in /usr/games
			  gnu/	      Utilities covered by the GNU General
				      Public License
			  include/    source code for files in /usr/include
			  kerberos5/  build infrastructure for kerberos ver‐
				      sion 5
			  lib/	      source code for files in /usr/lib
			  libexec/    source code for files in /usr/libexec
			  release/    files required to produce a FreeBSD
			  sbin/	      source code for files in /sbin
			  secure/     build directory for files in
			  share/      source for files in /usr/share
			  sys/	      kernel source code
			  tools/      tools used for maintenance and testing
				      of FreeBSD
			  usr.bin/    source code for files in /usr/bin
			  usr.sbin/   source code for files in /usr/sbin

     /var/	multi-purpose log, temporary, transient, and spool files

		account/   system accounting files

			   acct	       execution accounting file; see acct(5)

		at/	   timed command scheduling files; see at(1)
			   jobs/      directory containing job files
			   spool/     directory containing output spool files

		backups/   miscellaneous backup files
		crash/	   default directory to store kernel crash dumps; see
			   crash(8) and savecore(8)
		cron/	   files used by cron; see cron(8)
			   tabs/      crontab files; see crontab(5)

		db/	   miscellaneous automatically generated system-spe‐
			   cific database files
		empty/	   empty directory for use by programs that need a
			   specifically empty directory.  Used for instance by
			   sshd(8) for privilege separation.
		games/	   miscellaneous game status and score files
		heimdal/   kerberos server databases; see kdc(8)
		log/	   miscellaneous system log files

			   wtmp	       login/logout log; see wtmp(5)

		mail/	   user mailbox files
		msgs/	   system messages database; see msgs(1)
		preserve/  temporary home of files preserved after an acciden‐
			   tal death of an editor; see ex(1)
		quotas/	   file system quota information files
		run/	   system information files describing various info
			   about system since it was booted

			   named/      writable by the “bind” user; see
			   ppp/	       writable by the “network” group for
				       command connection sockets; see ppp(8)
			   utmp	       database of current users; see utmp(5)

		rwho/	   rwho data files; see rwhod(8), rwho(1), and
		spool/	   miscellaneous printer and mail system spooling

				       undelivered submission mail queue; see
			   ftp/	       commonly ~ftp; the anonymous ftp root
			   mqueue/     undelivered mail queue; see sendmail(8)
			   output/     line printer spooling directories

		tmp/	   temporary files that are kept between system
				       the directory where recovery files are
		yp/	   the NIS maps

     This manual page documents the default FreeBSD file system layout, but
     the actual hierarchy on a given system is defined at the system adminis‐
     trator's discretion.  A well-maintained installation will include a cus‐
     tomized version of this document.

     apropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
     which(1), fd(4), devfs(5), fsck(8)

     A hier manual page appeared in Version 7 AT&T UNIX.

BSD				 May 25, 2008				   BSD

List of man pages available for FreeBSD

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net