hier(7)hier(7)Namehier - file system hierarchy
The following is a brief description of the root file system. The
major directory hierarchy and representative files are listed.
Symbolic links can be included in the files to provide backward compat‐
ibility. To display the links, type:
% ls -l
See the Guide to Disk Maintenance for more detailed information.
/ Directory for root file system. This file system is separated
into nonsharable data (root (/)) and sharable data (/usr).
These two file systems are each divided into the following
types: static data, variable data, and executable data.
/bin Directory for the single user executable data files.
Parent of all processes,
/dev Directory for devices.
MAKEDEV Shell script to create special files
Site-specific part of MAKEDEV
console Main console,
rhp* Raw disks,
ra* UNIBUS disks,
/etc Directory for the machine-specific static data files and shell
scripts for booting.
crontab System clock daemon table,
disktab Disk characteristics and partition tables,
fstab File system configuration table,
group Group file,
hosts Host name-to-network address mapping file,
motd Message-of-the-day file,
networks Network name-to-network number mapping file,
passwd Password file,
protocols Name-to-number mapping file,
rc Shell script to bring the system to multiuser mode
rc.local Site-dependent portion of rc
remote Names and description of remote hosts for and
services Network services definition file,
termcap Description of terminal capabilities,
ttys Properties of terminals,
/lib Symbolic link to
Directory for connecting detached files for
/sys Symbolic link, normally to
/tmp Directory for temporary files (see also
e* Used by
ctm* Used by
/usr General purpose directory, on which the file system is normally
mounted (see description that follows).
/var Directory for variable length files, such as spool, administra‐
tive, and temporary files. These files can also be located in
See the Guide to Disk Maintenance.
/vmunix Kernel image
The directory contains the sharable data. The following is a brief
description of the file system. The major directory hierarchy and rep‐
resentative files are listed.
/usr Root directory for file system.
/usr/adm Directory for administrative information, which is now a sym‐
bolic link to
crash Directory for crash dumps
vmcore.?,vmunix.? Crash dump files
lpacct Line printer accounting,
tracct Phototypesetter accounting,
Varian and Versatec accounting for
wtmp Login history,
/usr/bin Directory for the shared executable data files, including
utility programs and Shell scripts.
cc C compiler executive (see also and
csh C shell
/usr/dict Directory for word lists.
spellhist History file,
words Word list,
/usr/doc Directories containing files for the Vol.2 documentation.
as Assembler manual
c C manual
/usr/etc Directory for utility programs and shell scripts.
A directory where components of the base system and Digital's
separately licensed products can locate code examples,
scripts, and demos for customers to use. A typical use is to
complement printed documentation.
Directory for games.
hangman Hangman game
lib Library directory for games
Part of login,
Directory for standard #include files.
a.out.h Object file layout,
stdio.h Standard I/O,
sys Symbolic link to (system generation #include
/usr/lib Directory for the shared static data files, such as object
atrun System scheduler,
ccom C compiler proper
cpp C preprocessor
c2 C code improver
libc.a System calls and standard I/O (2,3,3S)
font Directory for fonts
lint Directory for utility files for
tmac Directory for and macros
units Data file of conversion tables for
uucp Directory for programs and data
/usr/man Directory for unformatted and preformatted reference (manual)
cat1 Section 1 (preformatted)
cat2 Section 2 (preformatted)
cat3 Section 3 (preformatted)
man1 Section 1 (unformatted)
man2 Section 2 (unformatted)
man3 Section 3 (unformatted)
/usr/mdec Directory for ULTRIX boot files.
/usr/msgs Directory for messages,
/usr/new Directory for binaries of new versions of programs.
Directory for editor files preserved after crashes or
/usr/skel Directory for sample user startup files
.cshrc Startup file for
.login Login startup file for
.mailrc Startup file for
.profile Startup file for
.project Lists information used by
Directory for delayed execution files, which is now a sym‐
bolic link to
at Directory used by
lpd Directory used by
lock Present when line printer is active
cf* Copy of file to be printed, if necessary
df* Daemon control file,
tf* Transient control file (exists while is work‐
mail Mailboxes for
name Mail file for user name
name.lock Lock file (exists while name is
uucp Work files and staging area for
LOGFILE Summary log
/usr/src Generic sources.
usr.bin User sources
troff and sources
term Directory of description files for new
/usr/sys Directory for system files.
BINARY System object files,
cassette Files for boot cassette
conf Configuration files,
data Drive partition tables
floppy Files for floppy disk
mdec Headers for 11/750 boot blocks
net General network files
netimp IMP network files
netinet DARPA internet network files
netpup PUP network files
stand Standalone boot binaries
sys Machine-dependent system files
vax VAX-specific system files
vaxif Network interface drivers for the VAX
vaxmba Drivers for devices on the MASSBUS
vaxuba Drivers for devices on the UNIBUS
/usr/tmp Symbolic link to
See Alsoapropos(1), find(1), finger(1), grep(1), ls(1), whatis(1), whereis(1),
which(1), crontab(5), ncheck(8)
Guide to Disk Maintenance