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hp(4)									 hp(4)

Name
       hp - MASSBUS disk interface

Syntax
       disk hp0 at mba0 drive 0

Description
       Files  with  minor device numbers 0 through 7 refer to various portions
       of drive 0; minor devices 8 through 15 refer to drive 1, and so	forth.
       The  standard device names begin with `hp' followed by the drive number
       and then a letter a-h for partitions 0-7 respectively.  The character ?
       stands here for a drive number in the range 0-7.

       The  block  files  access  the  disk with the system's normal buffering
       mechanism and may be read and written without regard to	physical  disk
       records.	  There	 is  also a ``raw'' interface that provides for direct
       transmission between the disk and the user's read or write  buffer.   A
       single  read  or	 write	call results in exactly one I/O operation and,
       therefore, raw I/O is considerably more efficient when many  words  are
       transmitted.   The  names of the raw files conventionally begin with an
       extra `r'.

       In raw I/O, counts should be a multiple of 512 bytes (a	disk  sector).
       Similarly, calls should specify a multiple of 512 bytes.

       Standard	 DIGITAL  drive	 types are recognized according to the MASSBUS
       drive type register.  The origin and size (in sectors)  of  the	parti‐
       tions on each drive are as follows:

       RM03 partitions
	    disk      start	length	  cyls
	    hp?a      0		15884	  0-99
	    hp?b      16000	33440	  100-308
	    hp?c      0		131680	  0-822
	    hp?d      49600	15884	  309-408
	    hp?e      65440	55936	  409-758
	    hp?f      121440	10144	  759-822
	    hp?g      49600	82144	  309-822

       RM05 partitions
	    disk      start	length	  cyls
	    hp?a      0		32768	  0-53
	    hp?b      32832	66880	  54-163
	    hp?c      0		500384	  0-822
	    hp?d      341696	15884	  562-588
	    hp?e      358112	55936	  589-680
	    hp?f      414048	86240	  681-822
	    hp?g      341696	158592	  562-822
	    hp?h      99712	241984	  164-561

       RP06 partitions
	    disk      start	length	  cyls
	    hp?a      0		15884	  0-37
	    hp?b      15884	33440	  38-117
	    hp?c      0		340670	  0-814
	    hp?d      49324	15884	  118-155
	    hp?e      65208	55936	  156-289
	    hp?f      121220	219384	  290-814
	    hp?g      49324	291280	  118-814

       RM80 partitions
	    disk      start	length	  cyls
	    hp?a      0		15884	  0-36
	    hp?b      16058	33440	  37-114
	    hp?c      0		242606	  0-558
	    hp?d      49910	15884	  115-151
	    hp?e      68096	55936	  152-280
	    hp?f      125888	120559	  281-558
	    hp?g      49910	192603	  115-558

       RP05 partitions
	    disk      start	length	  cyls
	    hp?a      0		15884	  0-37
	    hp?b      15884	33440	  38-117
	    hp?c      0		171798	  0-410
	    hp?d      2242	15884	  118-155
	    hp?e      65208	55936	  156-289
	    hp?f      121220	50512	  290-410
	    hp?g      2242	122408	  118-410

       RP07 partitions
	    disk      start	length	  cyls
	    hp?a      0		15884	  0-9
	    hp?b      16000	66880	  10-51
	    hp?c      0		1008000 0-629
	    hp?d      376000	15884	  235-244
	    hp?e      392000	307200	  245-436
	    hp?f      699200	308650	  437-629
	    hp?g      376000	631850	  235-629
	    hp?h      83200	291346	  52-234

       It  is unwise for all of these files to be present in one installation,
       because there is overlap in addresses and protection becomes difficult.
       The  hp?a partition is normally used for the root file system, the hp?b
       partition as a paging area, and the  hp?c  partition  for  pack-to-pack
       copying	(it  maps  the	entire	disk).	On disks larger than about 205
       Megabytes, the hp?h partition is inserted prior to  the	hp?d  or  hp?g
       partition; the hp?g partition then maps the remainder of the pack.  All
       disk partition tables are calculated using the program.

Restrictions
       In raw I/O, and truncate file offsets to 512-byte block boundaries, and
       scribbles on the tail of incomplete blocks.  Thus, in programs that are
       likely to access raw devices, and should always deal in 512-byte multi‐
       ples.

Diagnostics
       The  following  messages	 are  printed  at the console and noted in the
       error log file:

       hp%d%c: hard error sn%d
       An unrecoverable error occurred during transfer of the specified sector
       of  the named disk partition.  Either the error was unrecoverable, or a
       large number of retry attempts (including offset positioning and	 drive
       recalibration) could not recover the error.  Additional register infor‐
       mation may be gathered from the system error log file,

       hp%d: write locked
       The write protect switch	 was  set  on  the  drive  when	 a  write  was
       attempted.  The write operation is not recoverable.

       hp%d: not ready
       The  drive  was	spun  down  or off line when it was accessed.  The I/O
       operation is not recoverable.

       During autoconfiguration, one of the following messages may  appear  on
       the  console indicating the appropriate drive type was recognized.  The
       last message indicates the drive is of an unknown type.

       The following message is written to the system error log file only:

       hp%d%c: soft ecc sn%d
       A recoverable ECC error occurred on the specified sector of  the	 named
       disk  partition.	 This happens normally a few times a week.  If it hap‐
       pens more frequently than this, the sectors where the errors are occur‐
       ring should be checked to see if certain cylinders on the pack or spots
       on the carriage of the drive or heads are indicated.

Files
See Also
       dkio(4), nbuf(4), MAKEDEV(8), uerf(8)

				      VAX				 hp(4)
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