ifconfig man page on 4.4BSD

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IFCONFIG(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		   IFCONFIG(8)

NAME
     ifconfig — configure network interface parameters

SYNOPSIS
     ifconfig interface address_family [address [dest_address]] [parameters]
     ifconfig interface [protocol_family]

DESCRIPTION
     Ifconfig is used to assign an address to a network interface and/or con‐
     figure network interface parameters.  Ifconfig must be used at boot time
     to define the network address of each interface present on a machine; it
     may also be used at a later time to redefine an interface's address or
     other operating parameters.

     Available operands for ifconfig:

     Address
	     For the DARPA-Internet family, the address is either a host name
	     present in the host name data base, hosts(5), or a DARPA Internet
	     address expressed in the Internet standard “dot notation”.	 For
	     the Xerox Network Systems(tm) family, addresses are
	     net:a.b.c.d.e.f, where net is the assigned network number (in
	     decimal), and each of the six bytes of the host number, a through
	     f, are specified in hexadecimal.  The host number may be omitted
	     on 10Mb/s Ethernet interfaces, which use the hardware physical
	     address, and on interfaces other than the first.  For the ISO
	     family, addresses are specified as a long hexadecimal string, as
	     in the Xerox family.  However, two consecutive dots imply a zero
	     byte, and the dots are optional, if the user wishes to (care‐
	     fully) count out long strings of digits in network byte order.

     address_family
	     Specifies the address family which affects interpretation of the
	     remaining parameters.  Since an interface can receive transmis‐
	     sions in differing protocols with different naming schemes, spec‐
	     ifying the address family is recommeded.  The address or protocol
	     families currently supported are “inet”, “iso”, and “ns”.

     Interface
	     The interface parameter is a string of the form “name unit”, for
	     example, “en0”

     The following parameters may be set with ifconfig:

     alias	     Establish an additional network address for this inter‐
		     face.  This is sometimes useful when changing network
		     numbers, and one wishes to accept packets addressed to
		     the old interface.

     arp	     Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol in map‐
		     ping between network level addresses and link level
		     addresses (default).  This is currently implemented for
		     mapping between DARPA Internet addresses and 10Mb/s Eth‐
		     ernet addresses.

     -arp	     Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol.

     broadcast	     (Inet only) Specify the address to use to represent
		     broadcasts to the network.	 The default broadcast address
		     is the address with a host part of all 1's.

     debug	     Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this
		     turns on extra console error logging.

     -debug	     Disable driver dependent debugging code.

     delete	     Remove the network address specified.  This would be used
		     if you incorrectly specified an alias, or it was no
		     longer needed.  If you have incorrectly set an NS address
		     having the side effect of specifying the host portion,
		     removing all NS addresses will allow you to respecify the
		     host portion.

     dest_address    Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end
		     of a point to point link.

     down	     Mark an interface ``down''.  When an interface is marked
		     ``down'', the system will not attempt to transmit mes‐
		     sages through that interface.  If possible, the interface
		     will be reset to disable reception as well.  This action
		     does not automatically disable routes using the inter‐
		     face.

     ipdst	     This is used to specify an Internet host who is willing
		     to receive ip packets encapsulating NS packets bound for
		     a remote network.	An apparent point to point link is
		     constructed, and the address specified will be taken as
		     the NS address and network of the destination.  IP encap‐
		     sulation of CLNP packets is done differently.

     metric n	     Set the routing metric of the interface to n, default 0.
		     The routing metric is used by the routing protocol
		     (routed(8)).  Higher metrics have the effect of making a
		     route less favorable; metrics are counted as addition
		     hops to the destination network or host.

     netmask mask    (Inet and ISO) Specify how much of the address to reserve
		     for subdividing networks into sub-networks.  The mask
		     includes the network part of the local address and the
		     subnet part, which is taken from the host field of the
		     address.  The mask can be specified as a single hexadeci‐
		     mal number with a leading 0x, with a dot-notation Inter‐
		     net address, or with a pseudo-network name listed in the
		     network table networks(5).	 The mask contains 1's for the
		     bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to be used
		     for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host
		     part.  The mask should contain at least the standard net‐
		     work portion, and the subnet field should be contiguous
		     with the network portion.

     nsellength n    (ISO only) This specifies a trailing number of bytes for
		     a received NSAP used for local identification, the
		     remaining leading part of which is taken to be the NET
		     (Network Entity Title).  The default value is 1, which is
		     conformant to US GOSIP.  When an ISO address is set in an
		     ifconfig command, it is really the NSAP which is being
		     specified.	 For example, in US GOSIP, 20 hex digits
		     should be specified in the ISO NSAP to be assigned to the
		     interface.	 There is some evidence that a number differ‐
		     ent from 1 may be useful for AFI 37 type addresses.

     trailers	     Request the use of a ``trailer'' link level encapsulation
		     when sending (default).  If a network interface supports
		     trailers, the system will, when possible, encapsulate
		     outgoing messages in a manner which minimizes the number
		     of memory to memory copy operations performed by the
		     receiver.	On networks that support the Address Resolu‐
		     tion Protocol (see arp(4); currently, only 10 Mb/s Ether‐
		     net), this flag indicates that the system should request
		     that other systems use trailers when sending to this
		     host.  Similarly, trailer encapsulations will be sent to
		     other hosts that have made such requests.	Currently used
		     by Internet protocols only.

     -trailers	     Disable the use of a ``trailer'' link level encapsula‐
		     tion.

     link[0-2]	     Enable special processing of the link level of the inter‐
		     face.  These three options are interface specific in
		     actual effect, however, they are in general used to
		     select special modes of operation. An example of this is
		     to enable SLIP compression. Currently, only used by SLIP.

     -link[0-2]	     Disable special processing at the link level with the
		     specified interface.

     up		     Mark an interface ``up''.	This may be used to enable an
		     interface after an ``ifconfig down.''  It happens auto‐
		     matically when setting the first address on an interface.
		     If the interface was reset when previously marked down,
		     the hardware will be re-initialized.

     Ifconfig displays the current configuration for a network interface when
     no optional parameters are supplied.  If a protocol family is specified,
     Ifconfig will report only the details specific to that protocol family.

     Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.

DIAGNOSTICS
     Messages indicating the specified interface does not exit, the requested
     address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and tried to alter an
     interface's configuration.

SEE ALSO
     netstat(1), netintro(4), rc(8), routed(8),

HISTORY
     The ifconfig command appeared in 4.2BSD.

4.2 Berkeley Distribution	 June 1, 1994	     4.2 Berkeley Distribution
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