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IFCONFIG(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		   IFCONFIG(8)

NAME
     ifconfig — configure network interface parameters

SYNOPSIS
     ifconfig [-L] [-k] [-m] [-n] interface [create] [address_family] [address
	      [dest_address]] [parameters]
     ifconfig interface destroy
     ifconfig -a [-L] [-d] [-m] [-u] [-v] [address_family]
     ifconfig -l [-d] [-u] [address_family]
     ifconfig [-L] [-d] [-k] [-m] [-u] [-v] [-C]
     ifconfig [-g groupname]

DESCRIPTION
     The ifconfig utility is used to assign an address to a network interface
     and/or configure network interface parameters.  The ifconfig utility must
     be used at boot time to define the network address of each interface
     present on a machine; it may also be used at a later time to redefine an
     interface's address or other operating parameters.

     The following options are available:

     address
	     For the DARPA-Internet family, the address is either a host name
	     present in the host name data base, hosts(5), or a DARPA Internet
	     address expressed in the Internet standard “dot notation”.

	     It is also possible to use the CIDR notation (also known as the
	     slash notation) to include the netmask.  That is, one can specify
	     an address like 192.168.0.1/16.

	     For the “inet6” family, it is also possible to specify the prefix
	     length using the slash notation, like ::1/128.  See the prefixlen
	     parameter below for more information.

	     The link-level (“link”) address is specified as a series of
	     colon-separated hex digits.  This can be used to e.g. set a new
	     MAC address on an ethernet interface, though the mechanism used
	     is not ethernet-specific.	If the interface is already up when
	     this option is used, it will be briefly brought down and then
	     brought back up again in order to ensure that the receive filter
	     in the underlying ethernet hardware is properly reprogrammed.

     address_family
	     Specify the address family which affects interpretation of the
	     remaining parameters.  Since an interface can receive transmis‐
	     sions in differing protocols with different naming schemes, spec‐
	     ifying the address family is recommended.	The address or proto‐
	     col families currently supported are “inet”, “inet6”, “atalk”,
	     “ipx”, and “link”.	 The default is “inet”.	 “ether” and “lladdr”
	     are synonyms for “link”.

     dest_address
	     Specify the address of the correspondent on the other end of a
	     point to point link.

     interface
	     This parameter is a string of the form “name unit”, for example,
	     “ed0”.

     groupname
	     List the interfaces in the given group.

     The following parameters may be set with ifconfig:

     add     Another name for the alias parameter.  Introduced for compatibil‐
	     ity with BSD/OS.

     alias   Establish an additional network address for this interface.  This
	     is sometimes useful when changing network numbers, and one wishes
	     to accept packets addressed to the old interface.	If the address
	     is on the same subnet as the first network address for this
	     interface, a non-conflicting netmask must be given.  Usually
	     0xffffffff is most appropriate.

     -alias  Remove the network address specified.  This would be used if you
	     incorrectly specified an alias, or it was no longer needed.  If
	     you have incorrectly set an NS address having the side effect of
	     specifying the host portion, removing all NS addresses will allow
	     you to respecify the host portion.

     anycast
	     (Inet6 only.)  Specify that the address configured is an anycast
	     address.  Based on the current specification, only routers may
	     configure anycast addresses.  Anycast address will not be used as
	     source address of any of outgoing IPv6 packets.

     arp     Enable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4)) in
	     mapping between network level addresses and link level addresses
	     (default).	 This is currently implemented for mapping between
	     DARPA Internet addresses and IEEE 802 48-bit MAC addresses (Eth‐
	     ernet, FDDI, and Token Ring addresses).

     -arp    Disable the use of the Address Resolution Protocol (arp(4)).

     staticarp
	     If the Address Resolution Protocol is enabled, the host will only
	     reply to requests for its addresses, and will never send any
	     requests.

     -staticarp
	     If the Address Resolution Protocol is enabled, the host will per‐
	     form normally, sending out requests and listening for replies.

     broadcast
	     (Inet only.)  Specify the address to use to represent broadcasts
	     to the network.  The default broadcast address is the address
	     with a host part of all 1's.

     debug   Enable driver dependent debugging code; usually, this turns on
	     extra console error logging.

     -debug  Disable driver dependent debugging code.

     promisc
	     Put interface into permanently promiscuous mode.

     -promisc
	     Disable permanently promiscuous mode.

     delete  Another name for the -alias parameter.

     description value, descr value
	     Specify a description of the interface.  This can be used to
	     label interfaces in situations where they may otherwise be diffi‐
	     cult to distinguish.

     -description, -descr
	     Clear the interface description.

     down    Mark an interface “down”.	When an interface is marked “down”,
	     the system will not attempt to transmit messages through that
	     interface.	 If possible, the interface will be reset to disable
	     reception as well.	 This action does not automatically disable
	     routes using the interface.

     group group-name
	     Assign the interface to a “group”.	 Any interface can be in mul‐
	     tiple groups.

	     Cloned interfaces are members of their interface family group by
	     default.  For example, a PPP interface such as ppp0 is a member
	     of the PPP interface family group, ppp.

     -group group-name
	     Remove the interface from the given “group”.

     eui64   (Inet6 only.)  Fill interface index (lowermost 64bit of an IPv6
	     address) automatically.

     ipdst   This is used to specify an Internet host who is willing to
	     receive IP packets encapsulating IPX packets bound for a remote
	     network.  An apparent point to point link is constructed, and the
	     address specified will be taken as the IPX address and network of
	     the destination.

     maclabel label
	     If Mandatory Access Control support is enabled in the kernel, set
	     the MAC label to label.

     media type
	     If the driver supports the media selection system, set the media
	     type of the interface to type.  Some interfaces support the mutu‐
	     ally exclusive use of one of several different physical media
	     connectors.  For example, a 10Mbit/s Ethernet interface might
	     support the use of either AUI or twisted pair connectors.	Set‐
	     ting the media type to 10base5/AUI would change the currently
	     active connector to the AUI port.	Setting it to 10baseT/UTP
	     would activate twisted pair.  Refer to the interfaces' driver
	     specific documentation or man page for a complete list of the
	     available types.

     mediaopt opts
	     If the driver supports the media selection system, set the speci‐
	     fied media options on the interface.  The opts argument is a
	     comma delimited list of options to apply to the interface.	 Refer
	     to the interfaces' driver specific man page for a complete list
	     of available options.

     -mediaopt opts
	     If the driver supports the media selection system, disable the
	     specified media options on the interface.

     mode mode
	     If the driver supports the media selection system, set the speci‐
	     fied operating mode on the interface to mode.  For IEEE 802.11
	     wireless interfaces that support multiple operating modes this
	     directive is used to select between 802.11a (11a), 802.11b (11b),
	     and 802.11g (11g) operating modes.

     inst minst, instance minst
	     Set the media instance to minst.  This is useful for devices
	     which have multiple physical layer interfaces (PHYs).

     name name
	     Set the interface name to name.

     rxcsum, txcsum
	     If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
	     enable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter‐
	     face.  Some drivers may not be able to enable these flags inde‐
	     pendently of each other, so setting one may also set the other.
	     The driver will offload as much checksum work as it can reliably
	     support, the exact level of offloading varies between drivers.

     -rxcsum, -txcsum
	     If the driver supports user-configurable checksum offloading,
	     disable receive (or transmit) checksum offloading on the inter‐
	     face.  These settings may not always be independent of each
	     other.

     tso     If the driver supports tcp(4) segmentation offloading, enable TSO
	     on the interface.	Some drivers may not be able to support TSO
	     for ip(4) and ip6(4) packets, so they may enable only one of
	     them.

     -tso    If the driver supports tcp(4) segmentation offloading, disable
	     TSO on the interface.  It will always disable TSO for ip(4) and
	     ip6(4).

     lro     If the driver supports tcp(4) large receive offloading, enable
	     LRO on the interface.

     -lro    If the driver supports tcp(4) large receive offloading, disable
	     LRO on the interface.

     wol, wol_ucast, wol_mcast, wol_magic
	     Enable Wake On Lan (WOL) support, if available.  WOL is a facil‐
	     ity whereby a machine in a low power state may be woken in
	     response to a received packet.  There are three types of packets
	     that may wake a system: ucast (directed solely to the machine's
	     mac address), mcast (directed to a broadcast or multicast
	     address), or magic (unicast or multicast frames with a ``magic
	     contents'').  Not all devices support WOL, those that do indicate
	     the mechanisms they support in their capabilities.	 wol is a syn‐
	     onym for enabling all available WOL mechanisms.  To disable WOL
	     use -wol.

     vlanmtu, vlanhwtag, vlanhwfilter, vlanhwtso
	     If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, enable
	     reception of extended frames, tag processing in hardware, frame
	     filtering in hardware, or TSO on VLAN, respectively.  Note that
	     this must be issued on a physical interface associated with
	     vlan(4), not on a vlan(4) interface itself.

     -vlanmtu, -vlanhwtag, -vlanhwfilter, -vlanhwtso
	     If the driver offers user-configurable VLAN support, disable
	     reception of extended frames, tag processing in hardware, frame
	     filtering in hardware, or TSO on VLAN, respectively.

     vnet jail
	     Move the interface to the jail(8), specified by name or JID.  If
	     the jail has a virtual network stack, the interface will disap‐
	     pear from the current environment and become visible to the jail.

     -vnet jail
	     Reclaim the interface from the jail(8), specified by name or JID.
	     If the jail has a virtual network stack, the interface will dis‐
	     appear from the jail, and become visible to the current network
	     environment.

     polling
	     Turn on polling(4) feature and disable interrupts on the inter‐
	     face, if driver supports this mode.

     -polling
	     Turn off polling(4) feature and enable interrupt mode on the
	     interface.

     create  Create the specified network pseudo-device.  If the interface is
	     given without a unit number, try to create a new device with an
	     arbitrary unit number.  If creation of an arbitrary device is
	     successful, the new device name is printed to standard output
	     unless the interface is renamed or destroyed in the same ifconfig
	     invocation.

     destroy
	     Destroy the specified network pseudo-device.

     plumb   Another name for the create parameter.  Included for Solaris com‐
	     patibility.

     unplumb
	     Another name for the destroy parameter.  Included for Solaris
	     compatibility.

     metric n
	     Set the routing metric of the interface to n, default 0.  The
	     routing metric is used by the routing protocol (routed(8)).
	     Higher metrics have the effect of making a route less favorable;
	     metrics are counted as additional hops to the destination network
	     or host.

     mtu n   Set the maximum transmission unit of the interface to n, default
	     is interface specific.  The MTU is used to limit the size of
	     packets that are transmitted on an interface.  Not all interfaces
	     support setting the MTU, and some interfaces have range restric‐
	     tions.

     netmask mask
	     (Inet only.)  Specify how much of the address to reserve for sub‐
	     dividing networks into sub-networks.  The mask includes the net‐
	     work part of the local address and the subnet part, which is
	     taken from the host field of the address.	The mask can be speci‐
	     fied as a single hexadecimal number with a leading ‘0x’, with a
	     dot-notation Internet address, or with a pseudo-network name
	     listed in the network table networks(5).  The mask contains 1's
	     for the bit positions in the 32-bit address which are to be used
	     for the network and subnet parts, and 0's for the host part.  The
	     mask should contain at least the standard network portion, and
	     the subnet field should be contiguous with the network portion.

	     The netmask can also be specified in CIDR notation after the
	     address.  See the address option above for more information.

     prefixlen len
	     (Inet6 only.)  Specify that len bits are reserved for subdividing
	     networks into sub-networks.  The len must be integer, and for
	     syntactical reason it must be between 0 to 128.  It is almost
	     always 64 under the current IPv6 assignment rule.	If the parame‐
	     ter is omitted, 64 is used.

	     The prefix can also be specified using the slash notation after
	     the address.  See the address option above for more information.

     range netrange
	     Under appletalk, set the interface to respond to a netrange of
	     the form startnet-endnet.	Appletalk uses this scheme instead of
	     netmasks though FreeBSD implements it internally as a set of net‐
	     masks.

     remove  Another name for the -alias parameter.  Introduced for compati‐
	     bility with BSD/OS.

     phase   The argument following this specifies the version (phase) of the
	     Appletalk network attached to the interface.  Values of 1 or 2
	     are permitted.

     link[0-2]
	     Enable special processing of the link level of the interface.
	     These three options are interface specific in actual effect, how‐
	     ever, they are in general used to select special modes of opera‐
	     tion.  An example of this is to enable SLIP compression, or to
	     select the connector type for some Ethernet cards.	 Refer to the
	     man page for the specific driver for more information.

     -link[0-2]
	     Disable special processing at the link level with the specified
	     interface.

     monitor
	     Put the interface in monitor mode.	 No packets are transmitted,
	     and received packets are discarded after bpf(4) processing.

     -monitor
	     Take the interface out of monitor mode.

     up	     Mark an interface “up”.  This may be used to enable an interface
	     after an “ifconfig down”.	It happens automatically when setting
	     the first address on an interface.	 If the interface was reset
	     when previously marked down, the hardware will be re-initialized.

     The following parameters are for ICMPv6 Neightbor Discovery Protocol:

     accept_rtadv
	     Set a flag to enable accepting ICMPv6 Router Advertisement mes‐
	     sages.

     -accept_rtadv
	     Clear a flag accept_rtadv.

     defaultif
	     Set the specified interface as the default route when there is no
	     default router.

     -defaultif
	     Clear a flag defaultif.

     ifdisabled
	     Set a flag to disable all of IPv6 network communications on the
	     specified interface.

     -ifdisabled
	     Clear a flag ifdisabled.

     nud     Set a flag to enable Neighbor Unreachability Detection.

     -nud    Clear a flag nud.

     prefer_source
	     Set a flag to prefer addesses on the interface as candidates of
	     the source address for outgoing packets.

     -prefer_source
	     Clear a flag prefer_source.

     The following parameters are specific to cloning IEEE 802.11 wireless
     interfaces with the create request:

     wlandev device
	     Use device as the parent for the cloned device.

     wlanmode mode
	     Specify the operating mode for this cloned device.	 mode is one
	     of sta, ahdemo (or adhoc-demo ), ibss, (or adhoc ), ap, (or
	     hostap ), wds, tdma, mesh, and monitor.  The operating mode of a
	     cloned interface cannot be changed.  The tdma mode is actually
	     implemented as an adhoc-demo interface with special properties.

     wlanbssid bssid
	     The 802.11 mac address to use for the bssid.  This must be speci‐
	     fied at create time for a legacy wds device.

     wlanaddr address
	     The local mac address.  If this is not specified then a mac
	     address will automatically be assigned to the cloned device.
	     Typically this address is the same as the address of the parent
	     device but if the bssid parameter is specified then the driver
	     will craft a unique address for the device (if supported).

     wdslegacy
	     Mark a wds device as operating in ``legacy mode''.	 Legacy wds
	     devices have a fixed peer relationship and do not, for example,
	     roam if their peer stops communicating.  For completeness a
	     Dynamic WDS (DWDS) interface may marked as -wdslegacy.

     bssid   Request a unique local mac address for the cloned device.	This
	     is only possible if the device supports multiple mac addresses.
	     To force use of the parent's mac address use -bssid.

     beacons
	     Mark the cloned interface as depending on hardware support to
	     track received beacons.  To have beacons tracked in software use
	     -beacons.	For hostap mode -beacons can also be used to indicate
	     no beacons should be transmitted; this can be useful when creat‐
	     ing a WDS configuration but wds interfaces can only be created as
	     companions to an access point.

     The following parameters are specific to IEEE 802.11 wireless interfaces
     cloned with a create operation:

     ampdu   Enable sending and receiving AMPDU frames when using 802.11n
	     (default).	 The 802.11n specification states a compliant station
	     must be capable of receiving AMPDU frames but transmision is
	     optional.	Use -ampdu to disable all use of AMPDU with 802.11n.
	     For testing and/or to work around interoperability problems one
	     can use ampdutx and ampdurx to control use of AMPDU in one direc‐
	     tion.

     ampdudensity density
	     Set the AMPDU density parameter used when operating with 802.11n.
	     This parameter controls the inter-packet gap for AMPDU frames.
	     The sending device normally controls this setting but a receiving
	     station may request wider gaps.  Legal values for density are 0,
	     .25, .5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 (microseconds).  A value of - is
	     treated the same as 0.

     ampdulimit limit
	     Set the limit on packet size for receiving AMPDU frames when
	     operating with 802.11n.  Legal values for limit are 8192, 16384,
	     32768, and 65536 but one can also specify just the unique prefix:
	     8, 16, 32, 64.  Note the sender may limit the size of AMPDU
	     frames to be less than the maximum specified by the receiving
	     station.

     amsdu   Enable sending and receiving AMSDU frames when using 802.11n.  By
	     default AMSDU is received but not transmitted.  Use -amsdu to
	     disable all use of AMSDU with 802.11n.  For testing and/or to
	     work around interoperability problems one can use amsdutx and
	     amsdurx to control use of AMSDU in one direction.

     amsdulimit limit
	     Set the limit on packet size for sending and receiving AMSDU
	     frames when operating with 802.11n.  Legal values for limit are
	     7935 and 3839 (bytes).  Note the sender may limit the size of
	     AMSDU frames to be less than the maximum specified by the receiv‐
	     ing station.  Note also that devices are not required to support
	     the 7935 limit, only 3839 is required by the specification and
	     the larger value may require more memory to be dedicated to sup‐
	     port functionality that is rarely used.

     apbridge
	     When operating as an access point, pass packets between wireless
	     clients directly (default).  To instead let them pass up through
	     the system and be forwarded using some other mechanism, use
	     -apbridge.	 Disabling the internal bridging is useful when traf‐
	     fic is to be processed with packet filtering.

     authmode mode
	     Set the desired authentication mode in infrastructure mode.  Not
	     all adapters support all modes.  The set of valid modes is none,
	     open, shared (shared key), 8021x (IEEE 802.1x), and wpa (IEEE
	     WPA/WPA2/802.11i).	 The 8021x and wpa modes are only useful when
	     using an authentication service (a supplicant for client opera‐
	     tion or an authenticator when operating as an access point).
	     Modes are case insensitive.

     bgscan  Enable background scanning when operating as a station.  Back‐
	     ground scanning is a technique whereby a station associated to an
	     access point will temporarily leave the channel to scan for
	     neighboring stations.  This allows a station to maintain a cache
	     of nearby access points so that roaming between access points can
	     be done without a lengthy scan operation.	Background scanning is
	     done only when a station is not busy and any outbound traffic
	     will cancel a scan operation.  Background scanning should never
	     cause packets to be lost though there may be some small latency
	     if outbound traffic interrupts a scan operation.  By default
	     background scanning is enabled if the device is capable.  To dis‐
	     able background scanning, use -bgscan.  Background scanning is
	     controlled by the bgscanidle and bgscanintvl parameters.  Back‐
	     ground scanning must be enabled for roaming; this is an artifact
	     of the current implementation and may not be required in the
	     future.

     bgscanidle idletime
	     Set the minimum time a station must be idle (not transmitting or
	     receiving frames) before a background scan is initiated.  The
	     idletime parameter is specified in milliseconds.  By default a
	     station must be idle at least 250 milliseconds before a back‐
	     ground scan is initiated.	The idle time may not be set to less
	     than 100 milliseconds.

     bgscanintvl interval
	     Set the interval at which background scanning is attempted.  The
	     interval parameter is specified in seconds.  By default a back‐
	     ground scan is considered every 300 seconds (5 minutes).  The
	     interval may not be set to less than 15 seconds.

     bintval interval
	     Set the interval at which beacon frames are sent when operating
	     in ad-hoc or ap mode.  The interval parameter is specified in
	     TU's (1024 usecs).	 By default beacon frames are transmitted
	     every 100 TU's.

     bmissthreshold count
	     Set the number of consecutive missed beacons at which the station
	     will attempt to roam (i.e., search for a new access point).  The
	     count parameter must be in the range 1 to 255; though the upper
	     bound may be reduced according to device capabilities.  The
	     default threshold is 7 consecutive missed beacons; but this may
	     be overridden by the device driver.  Another name for the
	     bmissthreshold parameter is bmiss.

     bssid address
	     Specify the MAC address of the access point to use when operating
	     as a station in a BSS network.  This overrides any automatic
	     selection done by the system.  To disable a previously selected
	     access point, supply any, none, or - for the address.  This
	     option is useful when more than one access point uses the same
	     SSID.  Another name for the bssid parameter is ap.

     burst   Enable packet bursting.  Packet bursting is a transmission tech‐
	     nique whereby the wireless medium is acquired once to send multi‐
	     ple frames and the interframe spacing is reduced.	This technique
	     can significantly increase throughput by reducing transmission
	     overhead.	Packet bursting is supported by the 802.11e QoS speci‐
	     fication and some devices that do not support QoS may still be
	     capable.  By default packet bursting is enabled if a device is
	     capable of doing it.  To disable packet bursting, use -burst.

     chanlist channels
	     Set the desired channels to use when scanning for access points,
	     neighbors in an IBSS network, or looking for unoccupied channels
	     when operating as an access point.	 The set of channels is speci‐
	     fied as a comma-separated list with each element in the list rep‐
	     resenting either a single channel number or a range of the form
	     “a-b”.  Channel numbers must be in the range 1 to 255 and be per‐
	     missible according to the operating characteristics of the
	     device.

     channel number
	     Set a single desired channel.  Channels range from 1 to 255, but
	     the exact selection available depends on the region your adaptor
	     was manufactured for.  Setting the channel to any, or - will
	     clear any desired channel and, if the device is marked up, force
	     a scan for a channel to operate on.  Alternatively the frequency,
	     in megahertz, may be specified instead of the channel number.

	     When there are several ways to use a channel the channel num‐
	     ber/frequency may be appended with attributes to clarify.	For
	     example, if a device is capable of operating on channel 6 with
	     802.11n and 802.11g then one can specify that g-only use should
	     be used by specifying ``6:g''.  Similarly the channel width can
	     be specified by appending it with ``/''; e.g. ``6/40'' specifies
	     a 40MHz wide channel, These attributes can be combined as in:
	     ``6:ht/40''.  The full set of flags specified following a `:''
	     are: a (802.11a), b (802.11b), d (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode), g
	     (802.11g), h or n (802.11n aka HT), s (Atheros Static Turbo
	     mode), and t (Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode, or appended to ``st''
	     and ``dt'').  The full set of channel widths following a '/' are:
	     5 (5MHz aka quarter-rate channel), 10 (10MHz aka half-rate chan‐
	     nel), 20 (20MHz mostly for use in specifying ht20), and 40 (40MHz
	     mostly for use in specifying ht40), In addition, a 40MHz HT chan‐
	     nel specification may include the location of the extension chan‐
	     nel by appending ``+'' or ``-'' for above and below, respec‐
	     tively; e.g. ``2437:ht/40+'' specifies 40MHz wide HT operation
	     with the center channel at frequency 2437 and the extension chan‐
	     nel above.

     country name
	     Set the country code to use in calculating the regulatory con‐
	     straints for operation.  In particular the set of available chan‐
	     nels, how the wireless device will operation on the channels, and
	     the maximum transmit power that can be used on a channel are
	     defined by this setting.  Country/Region codes are specified as a
	     2-character abbreviation defined by ISO 3166 or using a longer,
	     but possibly ambiguous, spelling; e.g. "ES" and "Spain".  The set
	     of country codes are taken from /etc/regdomain.xml and can also
	     be viewed with the ``list countries'' request.  Note that not all
	     devices support changing the country code from a default setting;
	     typically stored in EEPROM.  See also regdomain, indoor, outdoor,
	     and anywhere.

     dfs     Enable Dynamic Frequency Selection (DFS) as specified in 802.11h.
	     DFS embodies several facilities including detection of overlap‐
	     ping radar signals, dynamic transmit power control, and channel
	     selection according to a least-congested criteria.	 DFS support
	     is mandatory for some 5Ghz frequencies in certain locales (e.g.
	     ETSI).  By default DFS is enabled according to the regulatory
	     definitions specified in /etc/regdomain.xml and the curent coun‐
	     try code, regdomain, and channel.	Note the underlying device
	     (and driver) must support radar detection for full DFS support to
	     work.  To be fully compliant with the local regulatory agency
	     frequencies that require DFS should not be used unless it is
	     fully supported.  Use -dfs to disable this functionality for
	     testing.

     dotd    Enable support for the 802.11d specification (default).  When
	     this support is enabled in station mode, beacon frames that
	     advertise a country code different than the currently configured
	     country code will cause an event to be dispatched to user appli‐
	     cations.  This event can be used by the station to adopt that
	     country code and operate according to the associated regulatory
	     constraints.  When operating as an access point with 802.11d
	     enabled the beacon and probe response frames transmitted will
	     advertise the current regulatory domain settings.	To disable
	     802.11d use -dotd.

     doth    Enable 802.11h support including spectrum management.  When
	     802.11h is enabled beacon and probe response frames will have the
	     SpectrumMgt bit set in the capabilities field and country and
	     power constraint information elements will be present.  802.11h
	     support also includes handling Channel Switch Announcements (CSA)
	     which are a mechanism to coordinate channel changes by an access
	     point.  By default 802.11h is enabled if the device is capable.
	     To disable 802.11h use -doth.

     deftxkey index
	     Set the default key to use for transmission.  Typically this is
	     only set when using WEP encryption.  Note that you must set a
	     default transmit key for the system to know which key to use in
	     encrypting outbound traffic.  The weptxkey is an alias for this
	     request; it is provided for backwards compatibility.

     dtimperiod period
	     Set the DTIM period for transmitting buffered multicast data
	     frames when operating in ap mode.	The period specifies the num‐
	     ber of beacon intervals between DTIM and must be in the range 1
	     to 15.  By default DTIM is 1 (i.e., DTIM occurs at each beacon).

     dturbo  Enable the use of Atheros Dynamic Turbo mode when communicating
	     with another Dynamic Turbo-capable station.  Dynamic Turbo mode
	     is an Atheros-specific mechanism by which stations switch between
	     normal 802.11 operation and a ``boosted'' mode in which a 40MHz
	     wide channel is used for communication.  Stations using Dynamic
	     Turbo mode operate boosted only when the channel is free of non-
	     dturbo stations; when a non-dturbo station is identified on the
	     channel all stations will automatically drop back to normal oper‐
	     ation.  By default, Dynamic Turbo mode is not enabled, even if
	     the device is capable.  Note that turbo mode (dynamic or static)
	     is only allowed on some channels depending on the regulatory con‐
	     straints; use the list chan command to identify the channels
	     where turbo mode may be used.  To disable Dynamic Turbo mode use
	     -dturbo.

     dwds    Enable Dynamic WDS (DWDS) support.	 DWDS is a facility by which
	     4-address traffic can be carried between stations operating in
	     infrastructure mode.  A station first associates to an access
	     point and authenticates using normal procedures (e.g. WPA).  Then
	     4-address frames are passed to carry traffic for stations operat‐
	     ing on either side of the wireless link.  DWDS extends the normal
	     WDS mechanism by leveraging existing security protocols and elim‐
	     inating static binding.

	     When DWDS is enabled on an access point 4-address frames received
	     from an authorized station will generate a ``DWDS discovery''
	     event to user applications.  This event should be used to create
	     a WDS interface that is bound to the remote station (and usually
	     plumbed into a bridge).  Once the WDS interface is up and running
	     4-address traffic then logically flows through that interface.

	     When DWDS is enabled on a station, traffic with a destination
	     address different from the peer station are encapsulated in a
	     4-address frame and transmitted to the peer.  All 4-address traf‐
	     fic uses the security information of the stations (e.g. crypto‐
	     graphic keys).  A station is associated using 802.11n facilities
	     may transport 4-address traffic using these same mechanisms; this
	     depends on available resources and capabilities of the device.
	     The DWDS implementation guards against layer 2 routing loops of
	     multicast traffic.

     ff	     Enable the use of Atheros Fast Frames when communicating with
	     another Fast Frames-capable station.  Fast Frames are an encapsu‐
	     lation technique by which two 802.3 frames are transmitted in a
	     single 802.11 frame.  This can noticeably improve throughput but
	     requires that the receiving station understand how to decapsulate
	     the frame.	 Fast frame use is negotiated using the Atheros 802.11
	     vendor-specific protocol extension so enabling use is safe when
	     communicating with non-Atheros devices.  By default, use of fast
	     frames is enabled if the device is capable.  To explicitly dis‐
	     able fast frames, use -ff.

     fragthreshold length
	     Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are broken into
	     fragments.	 The length argument is the frame size in bytes and
	     must be in the range 256 to 2346.	Setting length to 2346, any,
	     or - disables transmit fragmentation.  Not all adapters honor the
	     fragmentation threshold.

     hidessid
	     When operating as an access point, do not broadcast the SSID in
	     beacon frames or respond to probe request frames unless they are
	     directed to the ap (i.e., they include the ap's SSID).  By
	     default, the SSID is included in beacon frames and undirected
	     probe request frames are answered.	 To re-enable the broadcast of
	     the SSID etc., use -hidessid.

     ht	     Enable use of High Throughput (HT) when using 802.11n (default).
	     The 802.11n specification includes mechanisms for operation on
	     20MHz and 40MHz wide channels using different signalling mecha‐
	     nisms than specified in 802.11b, 802.11g, and 802.11a.  Stations
	     negotiate use of these facilities, termed HT20 and HT40, when
	     they associate.  To disable all use of 802.11n use -ht.  To dis‐
	     able use of HT20 (e.g. to force only HT40 use) use -ht20.	To
	     disable use of HT40 use -ht40.

	     HT configuration is used to ``auto promote'' operation when sev‐
	     eral choices are available.  For example, if a station associates
	     to an 11n-capable access point it controls whether the station
	     uses legacy operation, HT20, or HT40.  When an 11n-capable device
	     is setup as an access point and Auto Channel Selection is used to
	     locate a channel to operate on, HT configuration controls whether
	     legacy, HT20, or HT40 operation is setup on the selected channel.
	     If a fixed channel is specified for a station then HT configura‐
	     tion can be given as part of the channel specification; e.g.
	     6:ht/20 to setup HT20 operation on channel 6.

     htcompat
	     Enable use of compatibility support for pre-802.11n devices
	     (default).	 The 802.11n protocol specification went through sev‐
	     eral incompatible iterations.  Some vendors implemented 11n sup‐
	     port to older specifications that will not interoperate with a
	     purely 11n-compliant station.  In particular the information ele‐
	     ments included in management frames for old devices are differ‐
	     ent.  When compatibility support is enabled both standard and
	     compatible data will be provided.	Stations that associate using
	     the compatiblity mechanisms are flagged in ``list sta''.  To dis‐
	     able compatiblity support use -htcompat.

     htprotmode technique
	     For interfaces operating in 802.11n, use the specified technique
	     for protecting HT frames in a mixed legacy/HT network.  The set
	     of valid techniques is off, and rts (RTS/CTS, default).  Tech‐
	     nique names are case insensitive.

     inact   Enable inactivity processing for stations associated to an access
	     point (default).  When operating as an access point the 802.11
	     layer monitors the activity of each associated station.  When a
	     station is inactive for 5 minutes it will send several ``probe
	     frames'' to see if the station is still present.  If no response
	     is received then the station is deauthenticated.  Applications
	     that prefer to handle this work can disable this facility by
	     using -inact.

     indoor  Set the location to use in calculating regulatory constraints.
	     The location is also advertised in beacon and probe response
	     frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd.	See also outdoor,
	     anywhere, country, and regdomain.

     list active
	     Display the list of channels available for use taking into
	     account any restrictions set with the chanlist directive.	See
	     the description of list chan for more information.

     list caps
	     Display the adaptor's capabilities, including the operating modes
	     supported.

     list chan
	     Display the list of channels available for use.  Channels are
	     shown with their IEEE channel number, equivalent frequency, and
	     usage modes.  Channels identified as ‘11g’ are also usable in
	     ‘11b’ mode.  Channels identified as ‘11a Turbo’ may be used only
	     for Atheros' Static Turbo mode (specified with mediaopt turbo).
	     Channels marked with a ‘*’ have a regulatory constraint that they
	     be passively scanned.  This means a station is not permitted to
	     transmit on the channel until it identifies the channel is being
	     used for 802.11 communication; typically by hearing a beacon
	     frame from an access point operating on the channel.  list freq
	     is another way of requesting this information.  By default a com‐
	     pacted list of channels is displayed; if the -v option is speci‐
	     fied then all channels are shown.

     list countries
	     Display the set of country codes and regulatory domains that can
	     be used in regulatory configuration.

     list mac
	     Display the current MAC Access Control List state.	 Each address
	     is prefixed with a character that indicates the current policy
	     applied to it: ‘+’ indicates the address is allowed access, ‘-’
	     indicates the address is denied access, ‘*’ indicates the address
	     is present but the current policy open (so the ACL is not con‐
	     sulted).

     list mesh
	     Displays the mesh routing table, used for forwarding packets on a
	     mesh network.

     list regdomain
	     Display the current regulatory settings including the available
	     channels and transmit power caps.

     list roam
	     Display the parameters that govern roaming operation.

     list txparam
	     Display the parameters that govern transmit operation.

     list txpower
	     Display the transmit power caps for each channel.

     list scan
	     Display the access points and/or ad-hoc neighbors located in the
	     vicinity.	This information may be updated automatically by the
	     adapter with a scan request or through background scanning.
	     Depending on the capabilities of the stations the following flags
	     can be included in the output:

	     A	  Authorized.  Indicates that the station is permitted to
		  send/receive data frames.

	     E	  Extended Rate Phy (ERP).  Indicates that the station is
		  operating in an 802.11g network using extended transmit
		  rates.

	     H	  High Throughput (HT).	 Indicates that the station is using
		  HT transmit rates.  If a `+' follows immediately after then
		  the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported
		  only when htcompat is enabled.

	     P	  Power Save.  Indicates that the station is operating in
		  power save mode.

	     Q	  Quality of Service (QoS).  Indicates that the station is
		  using QoS encapsulation for data frame.  QoS encapsulation
		  is enabled only when WME mode is enabled.

	     S	  Short Preamble.  Indicates that the station is doing short
		  preamble to optionally improve throughput performance with
		  802.11g and 802.11b.

	     T	  Transitional Security Network (TSN).	Indicates that the
		  station associated using TSN; see also tsn below.

	     W	  Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS).	Indicates that the station
		  associated using WPS.

	     By default interesting information elements captured from the
	     neighboring stations are displayed at the end of each row.	 Pos‐
	     sible elements include: WME (station supports WME), WPA (station
	     supports WPA), WPS (station supports WPS), RSN (station supports
	     802.11i/RSN), HTCAP (station supports 802.11n/HT communication),
	     ATH (station supports Atheros protocol extensions), VEN (station
	     supports unknown vendor-specific extensions).  If the -v flag is
	     used all the information elements and their contents will be
	     shown.  Specifying the -v flag also enables display of long
	     SSIDs.  The list ap command is another way of requesting this
	     information.

     list sta
	     When operating as an access point display the stations that are
	     currently associated.  When operating in ad-hoc mode display sta‐
	     tions identified as neighbors in the IBSS.	 When operating in
	     mesh mode display stations identified as neighbors in the MBSS.
	     When operating in station mode display the access point.  Capa‐
	     bilities advertised by the stations are described under the scan
	     request.  Depending on the capabilities of the stations the fol‐
	     lowing flags can be included in the output:

	     A	  Authorized.  Indicates that the station is permitted to
		  send/receive data frames.

	     E	  Extended Rate Phy (ERP).  Indicates that the station is
		  operating in an 802.11g network using extended transmit
		  rates.

	     H	  High Throughput (HT).	 Indicates that the station is using
		  HT transmit rates.  If a `+' follows immediately after then
		  the station associated using deprecated mechanisms supported
		  only when htcompat is enabled.

	     P	  Power Save.  Indicates that the station is operating in
		  power save mode.

	     Q	  Quality of Service (QoS).  Indicates that the station is
		  using QoS encapsulation for data frame.  QoS encapsulation
		  is enabled only when WME mode is enabled.

	     S	  Short Preamble.  Indicates that the station is doing short
		  preamble to optionally improve throughput performance with
		  802.11g and 802.11b.

	     T	  Transitional Security Network (TSN).	Indicates that the
		  station associated using TSN; see also tsn below.

	     W	  Wi-Fi Protected Setup (WPS).	Indicates that the station
		  associated using WPS.

	     By default information elements received from associated stations
	     are displayed in a short form; the -v flag causes this informa‐
	     tion to be displayed symbolically.

     list wme
	     Display the current channel parameters to use when operating in
	     WME mode.	If the -v option is specified then both channel and
	     BSS parameters are displayed for each AC (first channel, then
	     BSS).  When WME mode is enabled for an adaptor this information
	     will be displayed with the regular status; this command is mostly
	     useful for examining parameters when WME mode is disabled.	 See
	     the description of the wme directive for information on the vari‐
	     ous parameters.

     maxretry count
	     Set the maximum number of tries to use in sending unicast frames.
	     The default setting is 6 but drivers may override this with a
	     value they choose.

     mcastrate rate
	     Set the rate for transmitting multicast/broadcast frames.	Rates
	     are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5
	     Mb/s.  This rate should be valid for the current operating condi‐
	     tions; if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose
	     an appropriate rate.

     mgtrate rate
	     Set the rate for transmitting management and/or control frames.
	     Rates are specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for
	     5.5 Mb/s.

     outdoor
	     Set the location to use in calculating regulatory constraints.
	     The location is also advertised in beacon and probe response
	     frames when 802.11d is enabled with dotd.	See also anywhere,
	     country, indoor, and regdomain.

     powersave
	     Enable powersave operation.  When operating as a client, the sta‐
	     tion will conserve power by periodically turning off the radio
	     and listening for messages from the access point telling it there
	     are packets waiting.  The station must then retrieve the packets.
	     Not all devices support power save operation as a client.	The
	     802.11 specification requires that all access points support
	     power save but some drivers do not.  Use -powersave to disable
	     powersave operation when operating as a client.

     powersavesleep sleep
	     Set the desired max powersave sleep time in TU's (1024 usecs).
	     By default the max powersave sleep time is 100 TU's.

     protmode technique
	     For interfaces operating in 802.11g, use the specified technique
	     for protecting OFDM frames in a mixed 11b/11g network.  The set
	     of valid techniques is off, cts (CTS to self), and rtscts
	     (RTS/CTS).	 Technique names are case insensitive.	Not all
	     devices support cts as a protection technique.

     pureg   When operating as an access point in 802.11g mode allow only 11g-
	     capable stations to associate (11b-only stations are not permit‐
	     ted to associate).	 To allow both 11g and 11b-only stations to
	     associate, use -pureg.

     puren   When operating as an access point in 802.11n mode allow only HT-
	     capable stations to associate (legacy stations are not permitted
	     to associate).  To allow both HT and legacy stations to asso‐
	     ciate, use -puren.

     regdomain sku
	     Set the regulatory domain to use in calculating the regulatory
	     constraints for operation.	 In particular the set of available
	     channels, how the wireless device will operation on the channels,
	     and the maximum transmit power that can be used on a channel are
	     defined by this setting.  Regdomain codes (SKU's) are taken from
	     /etc/regdomain.xml and can also be viewed with the ``list coun‐
	     tries'' request.  Note that not all devices support changing the
	     regdomain from a default setting; typically stored in EEPROM.
	     See also country, indoor, outdoor, and anywhere.

     rifs    Enable use of Reduced InterFrame Spacing (RIFS) when operating in
	     802.11n on an HT channel.	Note that RIFS must be supported by
	     both the station and access point for it to be used.  To disable
	     RIFS use -rifs.

     roam:rate rate
	     Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a
	     BSS.  The rate parameter specifies the transmit rate in megabits
	     at which roaming should be considered.  If the current transmit
	     rate drops below this setting and background scanning is enabled,
	     then the system will check if a more desirable access point is
	     available and switch over to it.  The current scan cache contents
	     are used if they are considered valid according to the scanvalid
	     parameter; otherwise a background scan operation is triggered
	     before any selection occurs.  Each channel type has a separate
	     rate threshold; the default values are: 12 Mb/s (11a), 2 Mb/s
	     (11b), 2 Mb/s (11g), MCS 1 (11na, 11ng).

     roam:rssi rssi
	     Set the threshold for controlling roaming when operating in a
	     BSS.  The rssi parameter specifies the receive signal strength in
	     dBm units at which roaming should be considered.  If the current
	     rssi drops below this setting and background scanning is enabled,
	     then the system will check if a more desirable access point is
	     available and switch over to it.  The current scan cache contents
	     are used if they are considered valid according to the scanvalid
	     parameter; otherwise a background scan operation is triggered
	     before any selection occurs.  Each channel type has a separate
	     rssi threshold; the default values are all 7 dBm.

     roaming mode
	     When operating as a station, control how the system will behave
	     when communication with the current access point is broken.  The
	     mode argument may be one of device (leave it to the hardware
	     device to decide), auto (handle either in the device or the oper‐
	     ating system—as appropriate), manual (do nothing until explicitly
	     instructed).  By default, the device is left to handle this if it
	     is capable; otherwise, the operating system will automatically
	     attempt to reestablish communication.  Manual mode is used by
	     applications such as wpa_supplicant(8) that want to control the
	     selection of an access point.

     rtsthreshold length
	     Set the threshold for which transmitted frames are preceded by
	     transmission of an RTS control frame.  The length argument is the
	     frame size in bytes and must be in the range 1 to 2346.  Setting
	     length to 2346, any, or - disables transmission of RTS frames.
	     Not all adapters support setting the RTS threshold.

     scan    Initiate a scan of neighboring stations, wait for it to complete,
	     and display all stations found.  Only the super-user can initiate
	     a scan.  See list scan for information on the display.  By
	     default a background scan is done; otherwise a foreground scan is
	     done and the station may roam to a different access point.	 The
	     list scan request can be used to show recent scan results without
	     initiating a new scan.

     scanvalid threshold
	     Set the maximum time the scan cache contents are considered
	     valid; i.e. will be used without first triggering a scan opera‐
	     tion to refresh the data.	The threshold parameter is specified
	     in seconds and defaults to 60 seconds.  The minimum setting for
	     threshold is 10 seconds.  One should take care setting this
	     threshold; if it is set too low then attempts to roam to another
	     access point may trigger unnecessary background scan operations.

     shortgi
	     Enable use of Short Guard Interval when operating in 802.11n on
	     an HT channel.  NB: this currently enables Short GI on both HT40
	     and HT20 channels.	 To disable Short GI use -shortgi.

     smps    Enable use of Static Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when
	     operating in 802.11n.  A station operating with Static SMPS main‐
	     tains only a single receive chain active (this can significantly
	     reduce power consumption).	 To disable SMPS use -smps.

     smpsdyn
	     Enable use of Dynamic Spatial Multiplexing Power Save (SMPS) when
	     operating in 802.11n.  A station operating with Dynamic SMPS
	     maintains only a single receive chain active but switches to mul‐
	     tiple receive chains when it receives an RTS frame (this can sig‐
	     nificantly reduce power consumption).  Note that stations cannot
	     distinguish between RTS/CTS intended to enable multiple receive
	     chains and those used for other purposes.	To disable SMPS use
	     -smps.

     ssid ssid
	     Set the desired Service Set Identifier (aka network name).	 The
	     SSID is a string up to 32 characters in length and may be speci‐
	     fied as either a normal string or in hexadecimal when preceded by
	     ‘0x’.  Additionally, the SSID may be cleared by setting it to
	     ‘-’.

     tdmaslot slot
	     When operating with TDMA, use the specified slot configuration.
	     The slot is a number between 0 and the maximum number of slots in
	     the BSS.  Note that a station configured as slot 0 is a master
	     and will broadcast beacon frames advertising the BSS; stations
	     configured to use other slots will always scan to locate a master
	     before they ever transmit.	 By default tdmaslot is set to 1.

     tdmaslotcnt cnt
	     When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS with cnt slots.  The slot
	     count may be at most 8.  The current implementation is only
	     tested with two stations (i.e. point to point applications).
	     This setting is only meaningful when a station is configured as
	     slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from the BSS they join.
	     By default tdmaslotcnt is set to 2.

     tdmaslotlen len
	     When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such that each station has
	     a slot len microseconds long.  The slot length must be at least
	     150 microseconds (1/8 TU) and no more than 65 milliseconds.  Note
	     that setting too small a slot length may result in poor channel
	     bandwidth utilization due to factors such as timer granularity
	     and guard time.  This setting is only meaningful when a station
	     is configured as slot 0; other stations adopt this setting from
	     the BSS they join.	 By default tdmaslotlen is set to 10 millisec‐
	     onds.

     tdmabintval intval
	     When operating with TDMA, setup a BSS such that beacons are
	     transmitted every intval superframes to synchronize the TDMA slot
	     timing.  A superframe is defined as the number of slots times the
	     slot length; e.g.	a BSS with two slots of 10 milliseconds has a
	     20 millisecond superframe.	 The beacon interval may not be zero.
	     A lower setting of tdmabintval causes the timers to be resynchro‐
	     nized more often; this can be help if significant timer drift is
	     observed.	By default tdmabintval is set to 5.

     tsn     When operating as an access point with WPA/802.11i allow legacy
	     stations to associate using static key WEP and open authentica‐
	     tion.  To disallow legacy station use of WEP, use -tsn.

     txpower power
	     Set the power used to transmit frames.  The power argument is
	     specified in .5 dBm units.	 Out of range values are truncated.
	     Typically only a few discreet power settings are available and
	     the driver will use the setting closest to the specified value.
	     Not all adapters support changing the transmit power.

     ucastrate rate
	     Set a fixed rate for transmitting unicast frames.	Rates are
	     specified as megabits/second in decimal; e.g. 5.5 for 5.5 Mb/s.
	     This rate should be valid for the current operating conditions;
	     if an invalid rate is specified drivers are free to chose an
	     appropriate rate.

     wepmode mode
	     Set the desired WEP mode.	Not all adapters support all modes.
	     The set of valid modes is off, on, and mixed.  The mixed mode
	     explicitly tells the adaptor to allow association with access
	     points which allow both encrypted and unencrypted traffic.	 On
	     these adapters, on means that the access point must only allow
	     encrypted connections.  On other adapters, on is generally
	     another name for mixed.  Modes are case insensitive.

     weptxkey index
	     Set the WEP key to be used for transmission.  This is the same as
	     setting the default transmission key with deftxkey.

     wepkey key|index:key
	     Set the selected WEP key.	If an index is not given, key 1 is
	     set.  A WEP key will be either 5 or 13 characters (40 or 104
	     bits) depending of the local network and the capabilities of the
	     adaptor.  It may be specified either as a plain string or as a
	     string of hexadecimal digits preceded by ‘0x’.  For maximum
	     portability, hex keys are recommended; the mapping of text keys
	     to WEP encryption is usually driver-specific.  In particular, the
	     Windows drivers do this mapping differently to FreeBSD.  A key
	     may be cleared by setting it to ‘-’.  If WEP is supported then
	     there are at least four keys.  Some adapters support more than
	     four keys.	 If that is the case, then the first four keys (1-4)
	     will be the standard temporary keys and any others will be adap‐
	     tor specific keys such as permanent keys stored in NVRAM.

	     Note that you must set a default transmit key with deftxkey for
	     the system to know which key to use in encrypting outbound traf‐
	     fic.

     wme     Enable Wireless Multimedia Extensions (WME) support, if avail‐
	     able, for the specified interface.	 WME is a subset of the IEEE
	     802.11e standard to support the efficient communication of real‐
	     time and multimedia data.	To disable WME support, use -wme.
	     Another name for this parameter is wmm.

	     The following parameters are meaningful only when WME support is
	     in use.  Parameters are specified per-AC (Access Category) and
	     split into those that are used by a station when acting as an
	     access point and those for client stations in the BSS.  The lat‐
	     ter are received from the access point and may not be changed (at
	     the station).  The following Access Categories are recognized:

	     AC_BE  (or BE) best effort delivery,
	     AC_BK  (or BK) background traffic,
	     AC_VI  (or VI) video traffic,
	     AC_VO  (or VO) voice traffic.

	     AC parameters are case-insensitive.  Traffic classification is
	     done in the operating system using the vlan priority associated
	     with data frames or the ToS (Type of Service) indication in IP-
	     encapsulated frames.  If neither information is present, traffic
	     is assigned to the Best Effort (BE) category.

	     ack ac  Set the ACK policy for QoS transmissions by the local
		     station; this controls whether or not data frames trans‐
		     mitted by a station require an ACK response from the
		     receiving station.	 To disable waiting for an ACK use
		     -ack.  This parameter is applied only to the local sta‐
		     tion.

	     acm ac  Enable the Admission Control Mandatory (ACM) mechanism
		     for transmissions by the local station.  To disable the
		     ACM use -acm.  On stations in a BSS this parameter is
		     read-only and indicates the setting received from the
		     access point.  NB: ACM is not supported right now.

	     aifs ac count
		     Set the Arbitration Inter Frame Spacing (AIFS) channel
		     access parameter to use for transmissions by the local
		     station.  On stations in a BSS this parameter is read-
		     only and indicates the setting received from the access
		     point.

	     cwmin ac count
		     Set the CWmin channel access parameter to use for trans‐
		     missions by the local station.  On stations in a BSS this
		     parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received
		     from the access point.

	     cwmax ac count
		     Set the CWmax channel access parameter to use for trans‐
		     missions by the local station.  On stations in a BSS this
		     parameter is read-only and indicates the setting received
		     from the access point.

	     txoplimit ac limit
		     Set the Transmission Opportunity Limit channel access
		     parameter to use for transmissions by the local station.
		     This parameter defines an interval of time when a WME
		     station has the right to initiate transmissions onto the
		     wireless medium.  On stations in a BSS this parameter is
		     read-only and indicates the setting received from the
		     access point.

	     bss:aifs ac count
		     Set the AIFS channel access parameter to send to stations
		     in a BSS.	This parameter is meaningful only when operat‐
		     ing in ap mode.

	     bss:cwmin ac count
		     Set the CWmin channel access parameter to send to sta‐
		     tions in a BSS.  This parameter is meaningful only when
		     operating in ap mode.

	     bss:cwmax ac count
		     Set the CWmax channel access parameter to send to sta‐
		     tions in a BSS.  This parameter is meaningful only when
		     operating in ap mode.

	     bss:txoplimit ac limit
		     Set the TxOpLimit channel access parameter to send to
		     stations in a BSS.	 This parameter is meaningful only
		     when operating in ap mode.

     wps     Enable Wireless Privacy Subscriber support.  Note that WPS sup‐
	     port requires a WPS-capable supplicant.  To disable this function
	     use -wps.

     The following parameters support an optional access control list feature
     available with some adapters when operating in ap mode; see wlan_acl(4).
     This facility allows an access point to accept/deny association requests
     based on the MAC address of the station.  Note that this feature does not
     significantly enhance security as MAC address spoofing is easy to do.

     mac:add address
	     Add the specified MAC address to the database.  Depending on the
	     policy setting association requests from the specified station
	     will be allowed or denied.

     mac:allow
	     Set the ACL policy to permit association only by stations regis‐
	     tered in the database.

     mac:del address
	     Delete the specified MAC address from the database.

     mac:deny
	     Set the ACL policy to deny association only by stations regis‐
	     tered in the database.

     mac:kick address
	     Force the specified station to be deauthenticated.	 This typi‐
	     cally is done to block a station after updating the address data‐
	     base.

     mac:open
	     Set the ACL policy to allow all stations to associate.

     mac:flush
	     Delete all entries in the database.

     mac:radius
	     Set the ACL policy to permit association only by stations
	     approved by a RADIUS server.  Note that this feature requires the
	     hostapd(8) program be configured to do the right thing as it han‐
	     dles the RADIUS processing (and marks stations as authorized).

     The following parameters are related to a wireless interface operating in
     mesh mode:

     meshid meshid
	     Set the desired Mesh Identifier.  The Mesh ID is a string up to
	     32 characters in length.  A mesh interface must have a Mesh Iden‐
	     tifier specified to reach an operational state.

     meshttl ttl
	     Set the desired ``time to live'' for mesh forwarded packets; this
	     is the number of hops a packet may be forwarded before it is dis‐
	     carded.  The default setting for meshttl is 31.

     meshpeering
	     Enable or disable peering with neighbor mesh stations.  Stations
	     must peer before any data packets can be exchanged.  By default
	     meshpeering is enabled.

     meshforward
	     Enable or disable forwarding packets by a mesh interface.	By
	     default meshforward is enabled.

     meshmetric protocol
	     Set the specified protocol as the link metric protocol used on a
	     mesh network.  The default protocol is called AIRTIME.  The mesh
	     interface will restart after changing this setting.

     meshpath protocol
	     Set the specified protocol as the path selection protocol used on
	     a mesh network.  The only available protocol at the moment is
	     called HWMP (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol).  The mesh interface
	     will restart after changing this setting.

     hwmprootmode mode
	     Stations on a mesh network can operate as ``root nodes.''	Root
	     nodes try to find paths to all mesh nodes and advertise them‐
	     selves regularly.	When there is a root mesh node on a network,
	     other mesh nodes can setup paths between themselves faster
	     because they can use the root node to find the destination.  This
	     path may not be the best, but on-demand routing will eventually
	     find the best path.  The following modes are recognized:

	     DISABLED	Disable root mode.
	     NORMAL	Send broadcast path requests every two seconds.	 Nodes
			on the mesh without a path to this root mesh station
			with try to discover a path to us.
	     PROACTIVE	Send broadcast path requests every two seconds and
			every node must reply with with a path reply even if
			it already has a path to this root mesh station,
	     RANN	Send broadcast root annoucement (RANN) frames.	Nodes
			on the mesh without a path to this root mesh station
			with try to discover a path to us.
	     By default hwmprootmode is set to DISABLED.

     hwmpmaxhops cnt
	     Set the maximum number of hops allowed in an HMWP path to cnt.
	     The default setting for hwmpmaxhops is 31.

     The following parameters are for compatibility with other systems:

     nwid ssid
	     Another name for the ssid parameter.  Included for NetBSD compat‐
	     ibility.

     stationname name
	     Set the name of this station.  The station name is not part of
	     the IEEE 802.11 protocol though some interfaces support it.  As
	     such it only seems to be meaningful to identical or virtually
	     identical equipment.  Setting the station name is identical in
	     syntax to setting the SSID.  One can also use station for BSD/OS
	     compatibility.

     wep     Another way of saying wepmode on.	Included for BSD/OS compati‐
	     bility.

     -wep    Another way of saying wepmode off.	 Included for BSD/OS compati‐
	     bility.

     nwkey key
	     Another way of saying: “wepmode on weptxkey 1 wepkey 1:key wepkey
	     2:- wepkey 3:- wepkey 4:-”.  Included for NetBSD compatibility.

     nwkey n:k1,k2,k3,k4
	     Another way of saying “wepmode on weptxkey n wepkey 1:k1 wepkey
	     2:k2 wepkey 3:k3 wepkey 4:k4”.  Included for NetBSD compatibil‐
	     ity.

     -nwkey  Another way of saying wepmode off.	 Included for NetBSD compati‐
	     bility.

     The following parameters are specific to bridge interfaces:

     addm interface
	     Add the interface named by interface as a member of the bridge.
	     The interface is put into promiscuous mode so that it can receive
	     every packet sent on the network.

     deletem interface
	     Remove the interface named by interface from the bridge.  Promis‐
	     cuous mode is disabled on the interface when it is removed from
	     the bridge.

     maxaddr size
	     Set the size of the bridge address cache to size.	The default is
	     100 entries.

     timeout seconds
	     Set the timeout of address cache entries to seconds seconds.  If
	     seconds is zero, then address cache entries will not be expired.
	     The default is 240 seconds.

     addr    Display the addresses that have been learned by the bridge.

     static interface-name address
	     Add a static entry into the address cache pointing to
	     interface-name.  Static entries are never aged out of the cache
	     or re-placed, even if the address is seen on a different inter‐
	     face.

     deladdr address
	     Delete address from the address cache.

     flush   Delete all dynamically-learned addresses from the address cache.

     flushall
	     Delete all addresses, including static addresses, from the
	     address cache.

     discover interface
	     Mark an interface as a “discovering” interface.  When the bridge
	     has no address cache entry (either dynamic or static) for the
	     destination address of a packet, the bridge will forward the
	     packet to all member interfaces marked as “discovering”.  This is
	     the default for all interfaces added to a bridge.

     -discover interface
	     Clear the “discovering” attribute on a member interface.  For
	     packets without the “discovering” attribute, the only packets
	     forwarded on the interface are broadcast or multicast packets and
	     packets for which the destination address is known to be on the
	     interface's segment.

     learn interface
	     Mark an interface as a “learning” interface.  When a packet
	     arrives on such an interface, the source address of the packet is
	     entered into the address cache as being a destination address on
	     the interface's segment.  This is the default for all interfaces
	     added to a bridge.

     -learn interface
	     Clear the “learning” attribute on a member interface.

     sticky interface
	     Mark an interface as a “sticky” interface.	 Dynamically learned
	     address entries are treated at static once entered into the
	     cache.  Sticky entries are never aged out of the cache or
	     replaced, even if the address is seen on a different interface.

     -sticky interface
	     Clear the “sticky” attribute on a member interface.

     private interface
	     Mark an interface as a “private” interface.  A private interface
	     does not forward any traffic to any other port that is also a
	     private interface.

     -private interface
	     Clear the “private” attribute on a member interface.

     span interface
	     Add the interface named by interface as a span port on the
	     bridge.  Span ports transmit a copy of every frame received by
	     the bridge.  This is most useful for snooping a bridged network
	     passively on another host connected to one of the span ports of
	     the bridge.

     -span interface
	     Delete the interface named by interface from the list of span
	     ports of the bridge.

     stp interface
	     Enable Spanning Tree protocol on interface.  The if_bridge(4)
	     driver has support for the IEEE 802.1D Spanning Tree protocol
	     (STP).  Spanning Tree is used to detect and remove loops in a
	     network topology.

     -stp interface
	     Disable Spanning Tree protocol on interface.  This is the default
	     for all interfaces added to a bridge.

     edge interface
	     Set interface as an edge port.  An edge port connects directly to
	     end stations cannot create bridging loops in the network, this
	     allows it to transition straight to forwarding.

     -edge interface
	     Disable edge status on interface.

     autoedge interface
	     Allow interface to automatically detect edge status.  This is the
	     default for all interfaces added to a bridge.

     -autoedge interface
	     Disable automatic edge status on interface.

     ptp interface
	     Set the interface as a point to point link.  This is required for
	     straight transitions to forwarding and should be enabled on a
	     direct link to another RSTP capable switch.

     -ptp interface
	     Disable point to point link status on interface.  This should be
	     disabled for a half duplex link and for an interface connected to
	     a shared network segment, like a hub or a wireless network.

     autoptp interface
	     Automatically detect the point to point status on interface by
	     checking the full duplex link status.  This is the default for
	     interfaces added to the bridge.

     -autoptp interface
	     Disable automatic point to point link detection on interface.

     maxage seconds
	     Set the time that a Spanning Tree protocol configuration is
	     valid.  The default is 20 seconds.	 The minimum is 6 seconds and
	     the maximum is 40 seconds.

     fwddelay seconds
	     Set the time that must pass before an interface begins forwarding
	     packets when Spanning Tree is enabled.  The default is 15 sec‐
	     onds.  The minimum is 4 seconds and the maximum is 30 seconds.

     hellotime seconds
	     Set the time between broadcasting of Spanning Tree protocol con‐
	     figuration messages.  The hello time may only be changed when
	     operating in legacy stp mode.  The default is 2 seconds.  The
	     minimum is 1 second and the maximum is 2 seconds.

     priority value
	     Set the bridge priority for Spanning Tree.	 The default is 32768.
	     The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 61440.

     proto value
	     Set the Spanning Tree protocol.  The default is rstp.  The avail‐
	     able options are stp and rstp.

     holdcnt value
	     Set the transmit hold count for Spanning Tree.  This is the num‐
	     ber of packets transmitted before being rate limited.  The
	     default is 6.  The minimum is 1 and the maximum is 10.

     ifpriority interface value
	     Set the Spanning Tree priority of interface to value.  The
	     default is 128.  The minimum is 0 and the maximum is 240.

     ifpathcost interface value
	     Set the Spanning Tree path cost of interface to value.  The
	     default is calculated from the link speed.	 To change a previ‐
	     ously selected path cost back to automatic, set the cost to 0.
	     The minimum is 1 and the maximum is 200000000.

     ifmaxaddr interface size
	     Set the maximum number of hosts allowed from an interface, pack‐
	     ets with unknown source addresses are dropped until an existing
	     host cache entry expires or is removed.  Set to 0 to disable.

     The following parameters are specific to lagg interfaces:

     laggport interface
	     Add the interface named by interface as a port of the aggregation
	     interface.

     -laggport interface
	     Remove the interface named by interface from the aggregation
	     interface.

     laggproto proto
	     Set the aggregation protocol.  The default is failover.  The
	     available options are failover, fec, lacp, loadbalance,
	     roundrobin and none.

     The following parameters are specific to IP tunnel interfaces, gif(4):

     tunnel src_addr dest_addr
	     Configure the physical source and destination address for IP tun‐
	     nel interfaces.  The arguments src_addr and dest_addr are inter‐
	     preted as the outer source/destination for the encapsulating
	     IPv4/IPv6 header.

     -tunnel
	     Unconfigure the physical source and destination address for IP
	     tunnel interfaces previously configured with tunnel.

     deletetunnel
	     Another name for the -tunnel parameter.

     accept_rev_ethip_ver
	     Set a flag to acccept both correct EtherIP packets and ones with
	     reversed version field.  Enabled by default.  This is for back‐
	     ward compatibility with FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 7.1.

     -accept_rev_ethip_ver
	     Clear a flag accept_rev_ethip_ver.

     send_rev_ethip_ver
	     Set a flag to send EtherIP packets with reversed version field
	     intentionally.  Disabled by default.  This is for backward com‐
	     patibility with FreeBSD 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 7.0, and 7.1.

     -send_rev_ethip_ver
	     Clear a flag send_rev_ethip_ver.

     The following parameters are specific to GRE tunnel interfaces, gre(4):

     grekey key
	     Configure the GRE key to be used for outgoing packets.  Note that
	     gre(4) will always accept GRE packets with invalid or absent
	     keys. This command will result in a four byte MTU reduction on
	     the interface.

     The following parameters are specific to pfsync(4) interfaces:

     maxupd n
	     Set the maximum number of updates for a single state which can be
	     collapsed into one.  This is an 8-bit number; the default value
	     is 128.

     The following parameters are specific to vlan(4) interfaces:

     vlan vlan_tag
	     Set the VLAN tag value to vlan_tag.  This value is a 16-bit num‐
	     ber which is used to create an 802.1Q VLAN header for packets
	     sent from the vlan(4) interface.  Note that vlan and vlandev must
	     both be set at the same time.

     vlandev iface
	     Associate the physical interface iface with a vlan(4) interface.
	     Packets transmitted through the vlan(4) interface will be
	     diverted to the specified physical interface iface with 802.1Q
	     VLAN encapsulation.  Packets with 802.1Q encapsulation received
	     by the parent interface with the correct VLAN tag will be
	     diverted to the associated vlan(4) pseudo-interface.  The vlan(4)
	     interface is assigned a copy of the parent interface's flags and
	     the parent's ethernet address.  The vlandev and vlan must both be
	     set at the same time.  If the vlan(4) interface already has a
	     physical interface associated with it, this command will fail.
	     To change the association to another physical interface, the
	     existing association must be cleared first.

	     Note: if the hardware tagging capability is set on the parent
	     interface, the vlan(4) pseudo interface's behavior changes: the
	     vlan(4) interface recognizes that the parent interface supports
	     insertion and extraction of VLAN tags on its own (usually in
	     firmware) and that it should pass packets to and from the parent
	     unaltered.

     -vlandev [iface]
	     If the driver is a vlan(4) pseudo device, disassociate the parent
	     interface from it.	 This breaks the link between the vlan(4)
	     interface and its parent, clears its VLAN tag, flags and its link
	     address and shuts the interface down.  The iface argument is use‐
	     less and hence deprecated.

     The following parameters are specific to carp(4) interfaces:

     advbase seconds
	     Specifies the base of the advertisement interval in seconds.  The
	     acceptable values are 1 to 255.  The default value is 1.

     advskew interval
	     Specifies the skew to add to the base advertisement interval to
	     make one host advertise slower than another host.	It is speci‐
	     fied in 1/256 of seconds.	The acceptable values are 1 to 254.
	     The default value is 0.

     pass phrase
	     Set the authentication key to phrase.

     vhid n  Set the virtual host ID.  This is a required setting.  Acceptable
	     values are 1 to 255.

     The ifconfig utility displays the current configuration for a network
     interface when no optional parameters are supplied.  If a protocol family
     is specified, ifconfig will report only the details specific to that pro‐
     tocol family.

     If the -m flag is passed before an interface name, ifconfig will display
     the capability list and all of the supported media for the specified
     interface.	 If -L flag is supplied, address lifetime is displayed for
     IPv6 addresses, as time offset string.

     Optionally, the -a flag may be used instead of an interface name.	This
     flag instructs ifconfig to display information about all interfaces in
     the system.  The -d flag limits this to interfaces that are down, and -u
     limits this to interfaces that are up.  When no arguments are given, -a
     is implied.

     The -l flag may be used to list all available interfaces on the system,
     with no other additional information.  Use of this flag is mutually
     exclusive with all other flags and commands, except for -d (only list
     interfaces that are down) and -u (only list interfaces that are up).

     The -v flag may be used to get more verbose status for an interface.

     The -C flag may be used to list all of the interface cloners available on
     the system, with no additional information.  Use of this flag is mutually
     exclusive with all other flags and commands.

     The -k flag causes keying information for the interface, if available, to
     be printed.  For example, the values of 802.11 WEP keys will be printed,
     if accessible to the current user.	 This information is not printed by
     default, as it may be considered sensitive.

     If the network interface driver is not present in the kernel then
     ifconfig will attempt to load it.	The -n flag disables this behavior.

     Only the super-user may modify the configuration of a network interface.

NOTES
     The media selection system is relatively new and only some drivers sup‐
     port it (or have need for it).

EXAMPLES
     Assign the IPv4 address 192.0.2.10, with a network mask of 255.255.255.0,
     to the interface fxp0:
	   # ifconfig fxp0 inet 192.0.2.10 netmask 255.255.255.0

     Add the IPv4 address 192.0.2.45, with the CIDR network prefix /28, to the
     interface ed0, using add as a synonym for the canonical form of the
     option alias:
	   # ifconfig ed0 inet 192.0.2.45/28 add

     Remove the IPv4 address 192.0.2.45 from the interface ed0:
	   # ifconfig ed0 inet 192.0.2.45 -alias

     Add the IPv6 address 2001:DB8:DBDB::123/48 to the interface em0:
	   # ifconfig em0 inet6 2001:db8:bdbd::123 prefixlen 48 alias
     Note that lower case hexadecimal IPv6 addresses are acceptable.

     Remove the IPv6 address added in the above example, using the / character
     as shorthand for the network prefix, and using delete as a synonym for
     the canonical form of the option -alias:
	   # ifconfig em0 inet6 2001:db8:bdbd::123/48 delete

     Configure the interface xl0, to use 100baseTX, full duplex Ethernet media
     options:
	   # ifconfig xl0 media 100baseTX mediaopt full-duplex

     Label the em0 interface as an uplink:

	   # ifconfig em0 description "Uplink to Gigabit Switch 2"

     Create the software network interface gif1:
	   # ifconfig gif1 create

     Destroy the software network interface gif1:
	   # ifconfig gif1 destroy

DIAGNOSTICS
     Messages indicating the specified interface does not exist, the requested
     address is unknown, or the user is not privileged and tried to alter an
     interface's configuration.

SEE ALSO
     netstat(1), carp(4), gif(4), netintro(4), pfsync(4), polling(4), vlan(4),
     rc(8), routed(8), jail(8), sysctl(8)

HISTORY
     The ifconfig utility appeared in 4.2BSD.

BUGS
     Basic IPv6 node operation requires a link-local address on each interface
     configured for IPv6.  Normally, such an address is automatically config‐
     ured by the kernel on each interface added to the system; this behaviour
     may be disabled by setting the sysctl MIB variable
     net.inet6.ip6.auto_linklocal to 0.

     If you delete such an address using ifconfig, the kernel may act very
     odd.  Do this at your own risk.

BSD				 May 14, 2010				   BSD
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