intro man page on HP-UX

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intro(1)							      intro(1)

       intro - introduction to command utilities and application programs

       This section describes commands accessible by users, as opposed to sys‐
       tem calls in Section (2) or library routines in Section (3), which  are
       accessible by user programs.

   Command Syntax
       Unless  otherwise  noted,  commands  described  in  this section accept
       options and other arguments according to the following syntax:

	      name [ option ( s )] [ cmd_arg ( s )]

       where the elements are defined as follows:

	      name	Name of an executable file.

	      option	One or more options can	 appear	 on  a	command	 line.
			Each takes one of the following forms:

			     A single letter representing an option without an

			     Two or more single-letter options
				    combined into a single command-line	 argu‐

			     A	single-letter  option  followed	 by a required
			     argument where:
					      is the single letter  represent‐
					      ing  an  option that requires an
					      is   an	argument    (character
					      string) satisfying the preceding
				       <>     represents optional white space.

	      cmd_arg	Path name (or other command  argument)	not  beginning
			with  or  by itself indicating the standard input.  If
			two or more cmd_args appear, they must be separated by
			white space.

   Manual Entry Formats
       All manual entries follow an established topic format, but not all top‐
       ics are included in each entry.

       Gives the name(s) of the entry and briefly states its purpose.

       Summarizes the use of the entry or program entity being	described.   A
			   conventions are used:

			   strings  are	 literals, and are to be typed exactly
			   as they appear in the manual (except for parameters
			   in  the  SYNOPSIS  section of entries in Sections 2
			   and 3).

			   Italic  strings  represent  substitutable  argument
			   names  and  names of manual entries found elsewhere
			   in the manual.

			   Square brackets [] around an argument name indicate
			   that the argument is optional.

			   Ellipses  (...)  are used to show that the previous
			   argument can be repeated.

			   A final convention is used by  the  commands	 them‐
			   selves.   An	 argument beginning with a dash (-), a
			   plus sign (+), or an equal sign (=) is often	 taken
			   to  be  some	 sort  of  option argument, even if it
			   appears in  a  postion  where  a  file  name	 could
			   appear.   Therefore it is unwise to have file names
			   that begin with -, +, or =.

       Discusses the function and behavior of each entry.

       Information under this heading pertains to programming for various spo‐
			   languages.	Typical	 entries  indicate support for
			   single- and/or multi-byte characters, the effect of
			   language-related  environment  variables  on system
			   behavior, and other related information.

       Information under this heading is applicable only if you are using the
			   networking feature described there (such as NFS).

       Discusses various values returned upon completion of program calls.

       Discusses diagnostics indications that may be produced.	 Self-explana‐
			   messages are not listed.

       Lists error conditions and their corresponding error message or return

       Provides examples of typical usage, where appropriate.

       Points out potential pitfalls.

       Points  out  variations in HP-UX operation that are related to the user
			   specific hardware or hardware combinations.

       Indicate the origin of the software documented by the manual entry.

       Lists file names that are built into the program or command.

       Provides pointers to related topics.

       Discusses known bugs and deficiencies, occasionally suggesting fixes.

       This section	   lists the standard specifications to which the  HP-
			   UX component conforms.

       Upon  termination,  each	 command returns two bytes of status, one sup‐
       plied by the system giving the cause for termination, and (in the  case
       of  ``normal''  termination)  one supplied by the program (for descrip‐
       tions, see wait(2) and exit(2)).	 The system-supplied  byte  is	0  for
       normal  termination.  The byte provided by the program is customarily 0
       for successful execution and non-zero to	 indicate  errors  or  failure
       such  as incorrect parameters in the command line, or bad or inaccessi‐
       ble data.  Values returned are usually called variously ``exit  code'',
       ``exit	status'',  ``return  code'',  or  ``return  value'',  and  are
       described only where special conventions are involved.

       Some commands produce unexpected results when processing files contain‐
       ing  null  characters.	These commands often treat text input lines as
       strings, and therefore become confused when they encounter a null char‐
       acter (the string terminator) within a line.

       getopt(1), exit(2), wait(2), getopt(3C), hier(5), introduction(9).

       Web access to HP-UX documentation at


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