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intro(3)							      intro(3)

Name
       intro - introduction to library functions

Description
       This   section  describes  functions  that  may	be  found  in  various
       libraries.  The library functions are those other  than	the  functions
       that  directly invoke ULTRIX system primitives, described in section 2.
       Section 3 has the libraries physically grouped together.	 The functions
       described in this section are grouped into various libraries:

Sections 3 and 3s
       The  (3) functions are the standard C library functions.	 The C library
       also includes all the functions described in Section 2.	These routines
       are  included  for  compatibility with other systems.  In particular, a
       number of system call interfaces provided in 4.2BSD have been  included
       for  source  code compatibility.	 The (3s) functions comprise the stan‐
       dard I/O library.  Together with the (3n), (3xti), (3yp) and  (3)  rou‐
       tines,  these functions constitute library libc, which is automatically
       loaded by the C compiler (cc), the Pascal compiler (pc), and  the  FOR‐
       TRAN  compiler  (f77).  (FORTRAN and Pascal are optional and may not be
       installed on your system.)  Declarations for  these  functions  may  be
       obtained	 from  the  include file, <stdio.h>.  The link editor searches
       this library under the -lc option.   Declarations  for  some  of	 these
       functions may be obtained from include files indicated on the appropri‐
       ate pages.  On VAX machines, the GFLOAT version of libc	is  used  when
       you  use	 the  command with the -Mg option, or you use the command with
       the -lcg option.	 The GFLOAT version of libc must be used with  modules
       compiled with using the -Mg option.

       Note  that  neither  the	 compiler nor the linker can detect when mixed
       double floating point types are used,  and  your	 program  may  produce
       erroneous results if this occurs on a VAX machine.

Section 3cur
       The  (3cur)  library routines make up the X/Open curses library.	 These
       routines are different from the 4.2BSD  curses  routines	 contained  in
       Section 3x.

Section 3f
       The  (3f)  functions  are  all  functions callable from FORTRAN.	 These
       functions perform the same jobs as do the  (3)  functions.   An	unsup‐
       ported FORTRAN compiler, f77, is included in the VAX distribution. FOR‐
       TRAN is available as a layered product on both VAX and RISC machines.

Section 3int
       The (3int) functions assist  programs  in  supporting  native  language
       interfaces.  They are found in the internationalization library libi.

Section 3krb
       The  library of routines for the Kerberos authentication service. These
       routines support the authentication of commonly networked  applications
       across machine boundaries in a distributed network.

Section 3m
       The  (3m)  functions constitute the math library, libm.	They are auto‐
       matically loaded as needed by the Pascal compiler (pc) and the  FORTRAN
       compiler	 (f77).	  The  link editor searches this library under the -lm
       option.	Declarations for these functions  may  be  obtained  from  the
       include	file, < math.h >.  On VAX machines, the GFLOAT version of libm
       is used when you use the command with the -lcg option.  Note  that  you
       must  use  the  GFLOAT  version of libm with modules compiled using the
       command with the -Mg option.

       Note that neither the compiler nor the linker  can  detect  when	 mixed
       double floating point types are used, and the program may produce erro‐
       neous results if this occurs on a VAX machine.

Section 3ncs
       This section describes the NCS (Network Computing System) library  rou‐
       tines.	The  Title,  Name,  and See Also sections of the NCS reference
       pages do not contain the dollar ($)  sign  in  the  command  names  and
       library routines.  The actual NCS commands and library routines do con‐
       tain the dollar ($) sign.

Section 3n
       These functions constitute the internet network library,

Section 3x
       Various specialized libraries have not been given distinctive captions.
       Files in which such libraries are found are named on appropriate pages.

Section 3xti
       The  X/Open  Transport  Interface defines a transport service interface
       that is independent of any specific transport provider.	The  interface
       is  provided by way of a set of library functions for the C programming
       language.

Section 3yp
       These functions are specific to the Yellow Pages (YP) service.

Environmental Compatibility
       The libraries in Sections 3, 3m, and 3s contain System V and POSIX com‐
       patibility  features  that  are	available  to general ULTRIX programs.
       This compatibility sometimes conflicts with features already present in
       ULTRIX.	 That  is, the function performed may be slightly different in
       the System V or POSIX environment.  These  features  are	 provided  for
       applications that are being ported from System V or written for a POSIX
       environment.

       The descriptions in these sections include an  ENVIRONMENT  section  to
       describe	 any differences in function between System V or POSIX and the
       standard C runtime library.

       The System V compatibility features are not contained in the standard C
       runtime	library.   To get System V-specific behavior, you must specify
       that the System V environment is to be used in  compiling  and  linking
       programs.  You can do this in one of two ways:

       1.   Using the -YSYSTEM_FIVE option for the command.

       2.   Globally setting the environment variable PROG_ENV to SYSTEM_FIVE.
	    If you are using the C shell,  you	would  execute	the  following
	    line, or include it in your .login file:
	    setenv PROG_ENV SYSTEM_FIVE
	    If you are using the Bourne shell, you would execute the following
	    line, or include it in your .profile file:
	    PROG_ENV=SYSTEM_FIVE ; export PROG_ENV

       In both cases, the command defines the preprocessor symbol SYSTEM_FIVE,
       so that the C preprocessor, will select the System V version of various
       data structures and symbol definitions.

       In addition, if invokes the library libcV.a (the System	V  version  of
       the Standard C library) is searched before libc.a to resolve references
       to the System-V-specific routines.  Also, if -lm is specified on either
       the  or the command line, then the System V version of the math library
       will be used instead of the regular ULTRIX math library.

       The POSIX compatibility features are included in the  library  libcP.a,
       so  the only special action needed is to specify -YPOSIX on the command
       line or set the environment variable PROG_ENV to POSIX.	Either	action
       will  cause  the	 command  to  define the preprocessor symbol POSIX and
       search the POSIX library.

Files
       /usr/lib/libc.a

       /usr/lib/lib_cg.a	     (VAX only)

       /usr/lib/libm.a

       /usr/lib/libc_p.a	     (VAX only)

       /usr/lib/m_g.a		     (VAX only)

       /usr/lib/libm_p.a	     (VAX only)

Diagnostics
       Functions in the math library (3m) may return conventional values  when
       the  function is undefined for the given arguments or when the value is
       not representable.  In these cases the external variable errno  is  set
       to  the value EDOM (domain error) or ERANGE (range error).  For further
       information, see The values of EDOM  and	 ERANGE	 are  defined  in  the
       include file <math.h>.

See Also
       cc(1),	ld(1),	nm(1),	intro(2)  intro(3m),  intro(3n),  intro(3ncs),
       intro(3s), intro(3xti)

								      intro(3)
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