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intro(3n)							     intro(3n)

Name
       intro - introduction to network library functions

Description
       This  section  describes	 functions that are available for interprocess
       communication (IPC).  IPC takes place using sockets.  The  system  call
       creates a communications channel based on domain, type, and protocol.

       Sockets	are created without names.  The system call is used to connect
       a name to a socket.

       A connection with another process must  be  made	 before	 data  can  be
       transferred  on	a bound socket.	 The system call is used to rendezvous
       with another process.  This process must be listening on a bound socket
       using  the system call.	This listening process can accept a connection
       request using the system call.

       Once two processes have connected and accepted  an  IPC,	 data  can  be
       transferred with the following system calls: and

       Connectionless  sockets	are  also possible (a socket is bound and data
       can be transferred).  They use the following system calls  to  transfer
       data: and

       IPC operates in three domains:

       UNIX		Local node

       INTERNET		Local area network (LAN)

       DECNET		DECnet network

       These types of sockets are available for IPC:

       stream		Sequenced, reliable, unduplicated data
			CONNECTED socket
			record boundaries not preserved
			all domains

       datagram		Not guaranteed to be sequenced, reliable, or
			unduplicated
			user protocol needed to give guarantees
			UNCONNECTED socket
			record boundaries preserved
			UNIX and INTERNET domains

       sequenced packet Like stream socket, except record boundaries preserved
			DECNET domain only

       raw		Access to communications protocols

Internet Addresses Routines
       The inet routines manipulate Internet addresses.

Network Data Base File Routines
       Standard	 mapping routines are used to retrieve entries in network data
       base files.  Several routines operating on  each	 data  base  file  are
       identified by a group name:

       Retrieves entries from

       Retrieves entries from

       Retrieves entries from

       Retrieves entries from

       Specific routines perform particular operations on each data base file:

       Reads the next line of the file; opens
			the file, if necessary.

       Opens and rewinds the file.

       Closes the file.

       Searches the file sequentially from the beginning
			until a matching name is found, or EOF is encountered.

       Searches the file sequentially from the beginning
			until  a  matching address is found, or EOF is encoun‐
			tered.

       Searches the file sequentially from the beginning
			until a matching port  number  is  found,  or  EOF  is
			encountered.

       Searches the file sequentially from the beginning
			until  a  matching protocol number is found, or EOF is
			encountered.

       Each network library routine returns a pointer to a structure  reflect‐
       ing  individual fields of a line in one of the network data base files.
       The structure for each data base file contains some of  the  fields  in
       the following list, with the prefix x replaced by a different letter in
       each file:

       pointer to a network address,
			returned in network-byte order

       address family of the address being returned

       alternate names

       length of an address, in bytes

       official name

       network number, returned in machine-byte order

       resident port

       protocol number

								     intro(3n)
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