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intro(3xti)							   intro(3xti)

Name
       intro - introduction to the X/Open Transport Interface (XTI)

Description
       The  X/Open  Transport  Interface defines a transport service interface
       that is independent of any specific transport provider.	The  interface
       is  provided by way of a set of library functions for the C programming
       language.

Transport Providers
       The transport layer can comprise one or more transport providers at the
       same  time.  The	 transport provider identifier parameter passed to the
       function determines the required transport provider.

Transport Endpoints
       A transport endpoint specifies a communication path between a transport
       user  and a specific transport provider, which is identified by a local
       file descriptor (fd).  When a user opens a transport  provider  identi‐
       fier, a local file descriptor fd is returned that identifies the trans‐
       port endpoint.

Synchronizing Endpoints
       One process can simultaneously open several fds. In  synchronous	 mode,
       however the process must manage the different actions of the associated
       transport connections sequentially. Conversely, several	processes  can
       share the same fd (by or operations) but they have to synchronize them‐
       selves so as not to issue a function that is unsuitable to the  current
       state of the transport endpoint.

Modes Of Service
       The  transport service interface supports two modes of service: connec‐
       tion mode and connectionless mode. A single transport  endpoint	cannot
       support both modes of service simultaneously.

       The  connection-mode  transport service is circuit-oriented and enables
       data to be transferred over an established connection  in  a  reliable,
       sequential  manner. In contrast, the connectionless-mode transport ser‐
       vice is message-oriented and supports data transfer  in	self-contained
       units with no logical relationship required among multiple units.

Error Handling
       Two levels of error are defined for the transport interface.  The first
       is the library error level. Each library function has one or more error
       returns.	  A  return  of	 -1  indicates a failure. An external integer,
       t_errno, which is defined in the header file <xti.h>,  holds  the  spe‐
       cific  error  number when such a failure occurs. This value is set when
       errors occur but is not cleared on  successful  library	calls,	so  it
       should  be  tested  only	 after	an error has been indicated. If imple‐
       mented, a diagnostic function, t_error, prints out information  on  the
       current transport error. The state of the transport provider may change
       if a transport error occurs.

       The second level of error  is  the  operating  system  service  routine
       level.  A  special  library  level error number has been defined called
       [TSYSERR], which is generated by each library function when the operat‐
       ing  system  service routine fails or some general error occurs. When a
       function sets t_errno to [TSYSERR], the specific system	error  can  be
       accessed through the external variable errno.

Key For Parameter Arrays
       Each  XTI  function  description, includes an array that summarizes the
       content of the input and output parameter. The key is as follows:

       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       Key   Description
       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       x     The parameter value  is  meaningful  (input  parameter
	     must  be set before the call and output parameter must
	     be read after the call).
       (x)   The content of the object pointed by the x pointer	 is
	     meaningful.
       ?     The  parameter  value is meaningful, but the parameter
	     is optional.
       (?)   The content of the object pointed by the ? pointer	 is
	     optional.
       /     The parameter value is meaningless.
       =     After  the call, the parameter keeps the same value as
	     before the call.
       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

								   intro(3xti)
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