invert man page on 4.4BSD

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INVERT(1)							     INVERT(1)

NAME
       invert, lookup - create and access an inverted index

SYNOPSIS
       invert [option ... ] file ...

       lookup [option ... ]

DESCRIPTION
       Invert  creates	an  inverted  index  to	 one  or  more	files.	Lookup
       retrieves records from files for which an inverted index	 exists.   The
       inverted indices are intended for use with bib(1).

       Invert creates one inverted index to all of its input files.  The index
       must be stored in the current directory and may not  be	moved.	 Input
       files  may  be  absolute	 path  names  or paths relative to the current
       directory.  Each input file is viewed as a set of records; each	record
       consists of non-blank lines; records are separated by blank lines.

       Lookup  retrieves  records  based  on  its input (stdin).  Each line of
       input is a retrieval request.  All records that contain all of the key‐
       words  in  the  retrieval  request are sent to stdout.  If there are no
       matching references,  ``No  references  found.''	 is  sent  to  stdout.
	Lookup	first searches in the user's private index (default INDEX) and
       then,   if   no	 references   are   found,   in	  the	system	 index
       (/usr/dict/papers/INDEX).   The	system index was produced using invert
       with the default options; in general, the user is advised  to  use  the
       defaults.

       Keywords are a sequence of non-white space characters with non-alphanu‐
       meric characters removed.  Keywords must be at least two characters and
       are  truncated  (default	 length is 6).	Some common words are ignored.
       Some lines of input are ignored for the purpose of collecting keywords.

       The following options are available for invert:

       -c file

       -cfile  File contains common words, one per line.  Common words are not
	       used as keys.  (Default /usr/new/lib/bmac/common.)

       -k i

       -ki     Maximum number of keys kept per record. (Default 100)

       -l i

       -li     Maximum length of keys. (Default 6)

       -p file

       -pfile  File  is the name of the private index file (output of invert).
	       (Default is INDEX.)  The index must be stored  in  the  current
	       directory.  (Be careful of the second form.  The shell will not
	       know to expand the file name.  E.g. -p~/index won't  work;  use
	       -p ~/index.)

       -s      Silent.	Suppress statistics.

       -%str   Ignore lines that begin with %x where x is in str.  (Default is
	       CNOPVX. See bib(1) for explanation of field names.)

       Lookup has only the options c, l, and p with the same meanings as  bib.
       In  particular,	the  p option can be followed by a list of comma sepa‐
       rated index files.  These are searched in  order	 from  left  to	 right
       until at least one reference is found.

FILES
       INDEX			inverted index
       /usr/tmp/invertxxxxxx	scratch file for invert
       /usr/new/lib/bmac/common	    default list of common words
       /usr/dict/papers/INDEX	default system index

SEE ALSO
       A  UNIX	Bibliographic  Database	 Facility, Timothy A. Budd and Gary M.
       Levin, University of Arizona Technical Report 82-1, 1982.
       bib(1)

DIAGNOSTICS
       Messages indicating trouble accessing files are sent on stderr.	 There
       is  an  explicit	 message  on  stdout  from lookup if no references are
       found.

       Invert produces a one line message of the form, %D documents   %D  dis‐
       tinct keys  %D key occurrences.	 This  can  be	suppressed with the -s
       option.

       The message locate: first key (%s) matched too many refs indicates that
       the  first  key matched more references than could be stored in memory.
       The simple solution is to use a less frequently occurring  key  as  the
       first key in the citation.

BUGS
       No  attempt is made to check the compatibility between an index and the
       files indexed.  The user must create a new  index  whenever  the	 files
       that are indexed are modified.

       Attempting to invert a file containing unprintable characters can cause
       chaos.

4th Berkeley Distribution      2 September 1983			     INVERT(1)
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