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JOIN(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       JOIN(1)

NAME
     join — relational database operator

SYNOPSIS
     join [-a file_number | -v file_number] [-e string] [-o list] [-t char]
	  [-1 field] [-2 field] file1 file2

DESCRIPTION
     The join utility performs an “equality join” on the specified files and
     writes the result to the standard output.	The “join field” is the field
     in each file by which the files are compared.  The first field in each
     line is used by default.  There is one line in the output for each pair
     of lines in file1 and file2 which have identical join fields.  Each out‐
     put line consists of the join field, the remaining fields from file1 and
     then the remaining fields from file2.

     The default field separators are tab and space characters.	 In this case,
     multiple tabs and spaces count as a single field separator, and leading
     tabs and spaces are ignored.  The default output field separator is a
     single space character.

     Many of the options use file and field numbers.  Both file numbers and
     field numbers are 1 based, i.e., the first file on the command line is
     file number 1 and the first field is field number 1.  The following
     options are available:

     -a file_number
	     In addition to the default output, produce a line for each
	     unpairable line in file file_number.

     -e string
	     Replace empty output fields with string.

     -o list
	     The -o option specifies the fields that will be output from each
	     file for each line with matching join fields.  Each element of
	     list has either the form file_number.field, where file_number is
	     a file number and field is a field number, or the form ‘0’
	     (zero), representing the join field.  The elements of list must
	     be either comma (‘,’) or whitespace separated.  (The latter
	     requires quoting to protect it from the shell, or, a simpler
	     approach is to use multiple -o options.)

     -t char
	     Use character char as a field delimiter for both input and out‐
	     put.  Every occurrence of char in a line is significant.

     -v file_number
	     Do not display the default output, but display a line for each
	     unpairable line in file file_number.  The options -v 1 and -v 2
	     may be specified at the same time.

     -1 field
	     Join on the field'th field of file1.

     -2 field
	     Join on the field'th field of file2.

     When the default field delimiter characters are used, the files to be
     joined should be ordered in the collating sequence of sort(1), using the
     -b option, on the fields on which they are to be joined, otherwise join
     may not report all field matches.	When the field delimiter characters
     are specified by the -t option, the collating sequence should be the same
     as sort(1) without the -b option.

     If one of the arguments file1 or file2 is ‘-’, the standard input is
     used.

EXIT STATUS
     The join utility exits 0 on success, and >0 if an error occurs.

COMPATIBILITY
     For compatibility with historic versions of join, the following options
     are available:

     -a	     In addition to the default output, produce a line for each
	     unpairable line in both file1 and file2.

     -j1 field
	     Join on the field'th field of file1.

     -j2 field
	     Join on the field'th field of file2.

     -j field
	     Join on the field'th field of both file1 and file2.

     -o list ...
	     Historical implementations of join permitted multiple arguments
	     to the -o option.	These arguments were of the form
	     file_number.field_number as described for the current -o option.
	     This has obvious difficulties in the presence of files named 1.2.

     These options are available only so historic shell scripts do not require
     modification and should not be used.

SEE ALSO
     awk(1), comm(1), paste(1), sort(1), uniq(1)

STANDARDS
     The join command conforms to IEEE Std 1003.1-2001 (“POSIX.1”).

BSD				 July 5, 2004				   BSD
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