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join(1)								       join(1)

Name
       join - join files

Syntax
       join [ -a n] [ -e string] [ -j  n m] [ -o list] [ -t c]	file1 file2

Description
       The  command compares a field in file1 to a field in file2.  If the two
       fields match, the command combines the line in file1 that contains  the
       field  with  the	 line  in  file2 that contains the field.  The command
       writes its output to standard output.  If you specify a hyphen  (-)  in
       the file1 argument, compares standard input to the contents of file2.

       The  command  compares and combines the input files one line at a time.
       Each line in the input file contains one field that uses	 to  determine
       if two lines should be joined.  This field is called the join field. By
       default, the command uses the first field in  each  line	 as  the  join
       field.	The command compares the join field in the first line of file1
       to the join field in the first line of file2.  If the two fields match,
       the command joins the lines.  The command then compares the join fields
       in the second line of both files, and so on.

       In the input files, fields are separated by tab	or  space  characters.
       The  command  reads data from the first field until it encounters a tab
       or space character, which terminates the first field.   By default, the
       command ignores tab and space characters, so the next character that is
       not a tab or space begins the second field.  The second field is termi‐
       nated  by  the tab or space that follows it, and the third field begins
       with the next character that is not a tab or space.  The command	 reads
       fields  in this way until it encounters a new line character.  Any num‐
       ber of tabs or spaces can separate two fields, and any number  of  new‐
       line characters can separate two lines.

       Both  file1  and file2 must be ordered in the collating sequence of the
       command on the fields that the two files are to be joined. By  default,
       uses the first field in each line and collates the same as

       To  create  output,  the command writes the join field, followed by the
       remaining fields in the line from  file1,  followed  by	the  remaining
       fields in the line from file2 to the output file.  The following demon‐
       strates how lines in the	 output appear by default:
       join_field file1.field2 file1.field3 file1.field4 file2.field2 file2.field3

       By default, the command ignores lines that  do  not  contain  identical
       join fields.  The command writes no output for these lines.

       You  can change how creates output using command options.  For example,
       you can cause the command to write output for lines that do not contain
       identical  join	fields.	 You can also specify a list using the option.
       In list, you supply a list of specifiers in the form file.field,	 where
       file  is either 1 or 2 and field is the number of the field.  For exam‐
       ple, 1.2 specifies the second field in the first file and 2.4 specifies
       the  fourth  field  in  the second file. The following demonstrates how
       lines in the output appear if you use these two specifiers:
       file1.field2 field2.field4

   International Environment
       LC_COLLATE     If this environment variable is set and valid, uses  the
		      international  language database named in the definition
		      to determine collation rules.

       LC_CTYPE	      If this environment variable is set and valid, uses  the
		      international  language database named in the definition
		      to determine character classification rules.

       LANG	      If this environment variable is set and valid  uses  the
		      international  language database named in the definition
		      to  determine  collation	and  character	classification
		      rules.  If LC_COLLATE or LC_CTYPE is defined their defi‐
		      nition supercedes the definition of LANG.

Options
       -a[n]	   Write lines that contain unmatched join fields to the  out‐
		   put	file.	You  can  cause the command to write unmatched
		   lines from only one file using n.  If you specify 1	in  n,
		   writes unmatched lines only from file 1.  If you specify 2,
		   writes unmatched lines only from file 2.

		   If you omit the option,  writes  no	output	for  unmatched
		   lines.

       -e s	   Writes  the	string	you  specify in s to the output if you
		   specify a nonexistent field in the  list  for  the  option.
		   For	example, if lines in file 2 contain only three fields,
		   and you specify 2.4 in list,	 writes	 s  in	place  of  the
		   nonexistent field.

       -jn m	   Defines field m in file n to be the join field. The command
		   compares the field you specify in the option to the default
		   join	 field	in the other file.  If you omit n, the command
		   uses the mth field in both files.

       -1 m	   Use the m th field in the first file	 as  the  join	field.
		   This option is equivalent to using m.

       -2 m	   Use the m field in the second file as the join field.  This
		   option is equivalent to using m.

       -o list	   Output the joined data according to list.   The  specifiers
		   in  list have the format file.field, where file is either 1
		   or 2 and field is the number of the field.

       -tc	   Recognize the tab character c.  The presence of c in a line
		   is significant, both for comparing join fields and creating
		   output.

Restrictions
       If you specify the option, the command collates the  same  as  with  no
       options.

Examples
       Suppose	that  by issuing the following commands, you display the files
       shown in the example:
       % cat file_1
       apr     15
       aug     20
       dec     18
       feb     05
       % cat file_2
       apr     06
       aug     14
       date
       feb     15
       Both files are sorted in ascending order.

       If you issue the command without options, the output  appears  as  fol‐
       lows:
       % join file_1 file_2
       apr 15 06
       aug 20 14
       feb 05 15
       The  third  line in each input file is not joined in the output because
       the join fields (date and dec) do not match.

       To join the lines in these files and format the output so that the sec‐
       ond  field  from	 each  file  appears  first and the first (join) field
       appears second, issue the following command:
       % join -o 1.2 1.1 2.2 2.1 file_1 file_2
       15 apr 06 apr
       20 aug 14 aug
       05 feb 15 feb
       To write lines that are unmatched to the output,	 issue	the  following
       command:
       % join -a file_1 file_2
       apr 15 06
       aug 20 14
       date
       dec 18
       feb 05 15

See Also
       awk(1), comm(1), sort(1), sort5(1), environ(5int)

								       join(1)
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