keytool man page on ElementaryOS

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   4994 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
ElementaryOS logo
[printable version]

keytool(1)							    keytool(1)

NAME
       keytool - Key and Certificate Management Tool

	  Manages  a keystore (database) of cryptographic keys, X.509 certifi‐
	  cate chains, and trusted certificates.

SYNOPSIS
       keytool [ commands ]

       The keytool command interface has changed in Java SE 6. See the Changes
       Section	for  a detailed description. Note that previously defined com‐
       mands are still supported.

DESCRIPTION
       keytool is a key and certificate management utility. It allows users to
       administer  their  own public/private key pairs and associated certifi‐
       cates for use in self-authentication (where the user authenticates him‐
       self/herself to other users/services) or data integrity and authentica‐
       tion services, using digital signatures. It also allows users to	 cache
       the  public  keys  (in the form of certificates) of their communicating
       peers.

       A certificate is a digitally signed statement from one entity  (person,
       company, etc.), saying that the public key (and some other information)
       of some other entity has a particular value. (See  Certificates.)  When
       data  is	 digitally  signed, the signature can be verified to check the
       data integrity and authenticity. Integrity means that the data has  not
       been  modified or tampered with, and authenticity means the data indeed
       comes from whoever claims to have created and signed it.

       keytool also enables users to administer secret keys used in  symmetric
       encryption/decryption (e.g. DES).

       keytool stores the keys and certificates in a keystore.

COMMAND AND OPTION NOTES
       The various commands and their options are listed and described below .
       Note:

	  o All command and option names are preceded by a minus sign (-).

	  o The options for each command may be provided in any order.

	  o All items not italicized or	 in  braces  or	 square	 brackets  are
	    required to appear as is.

	  o Braces  surrounding	 an  option  generally	signify that a default
	    value will be used if the option is not specified on  the  command
	    line.  Braces  are	also used around the -v, -rfc, and -J options,
	    which only have meaning if they appear on the command  line	 (that
	    is, they don't have any "default" values other than not existing).

	  o Brackets  surrounding  an option signify that the user is prompted
	    for the value(s) if the option is not  specified  on  the  command
	    line.  (For a -keypass option, if you do not specify the option on
	    the command line, keytool will first attempt to use	 the  keystore
	    password  to  recover  the	private/secret key, and if this fails,
	    will then prompt you for the private/secret key password.)

	  o Items in italics (option values) represent the actual values  that
	    must  be  supplied. For example, here is the format of the -print‐
	    cert command:
	      keytool -printcert {-file cert_file} {-v}

	  When specifying a -printcert command,	 replace  cert_file  with  the
	  actual file name, as in:
	    keytool -printcert -file VScert.cer

	  o Option values must be quoted if they contain a blank (space).

	  o The -help command is the default. Thus, the command line
	      keytool
	    is equivalent to
	      keytool -help

   Option Defaults
	  Below are the defaults for various option values.
	  -alias "mykey"

	  -keyalg
	      "DSA" (when using -genkeypair)
	      "DES" (when using -genseckey)

	  -keysize
	      1024 (when using -genkeypair)
	      56 (when using -genseckey and -keyalg is "DES")
	      168 (when using -genseckey and -keyalg is "DESede")

	  -validity 90

	  -keystore the file named .keystore in the user's home directory

	  -storetype the value of the "keystore.type" property in the security properties file,
		     which is returned by the static getDefaultType method in java.security.KeyStore

	  -file stdin if reading, stdout if writing

	  -protected false

	  In  generating  a  public/private  key pair, the signature algorithm
	  (-sigalg option) is derived from the	algorithm  of  the  underlying
	  private  key:	 If  the  underlying private key is of type "DSA", the
	  -sigalg option defaults to "SHA1withDSA", and if the underlying pri‐
	  vate	key is of type "RSA", -sigalg defaults to "MD5withRSA". Please
	  consult the Java Cryptography Architecture API Specification & Ref‐
	  erence @
	  http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/technotes/guides/secu‐
	  rity/crypto/CryptoSpec.html#AppA for a full list of -keyalg and
	  -sigalg you can choose from.

   Common Options
	  The -v option can appear for all commands except -help. If it
	  appears, it signifies "verbose" mode; more information will be out‐
	  put.

	  There is also a -Jjavaoption option that may appear for any command.
	  If it appears, the specified javaoption string is passed through
	  directly to the Java interpreter. This option should not contain any
	  spaces. It is useful for adjusting the execution environment or mem‐
	  ory usage. For a list of possible interpreter options, type java -h
	  or java -X at the command line.

	  These options may appear for all commands operating on a keystore:

	     -storetype storetype
		This qualifier specifies the type of keystore to be instanti‐
		ated.

	     -keystore keystore
		The keystore location.

	     If the JKS storetype is used and a keystore file does not yet
	     exist, then certain keytool commands may result in a new keystore
	     file being created. For example, if keytool -genkeypair is
	     invoked and the -keystore option is not specified, the default
	     keystore file named .keystore in the user's home directory will
	     be created if it does not already exist. Similarly, if the -key‐
	     store ks_file option is specified but ks_file does not exist,
	     then it will be created

	     Note that the input stream from the -keystore option is passed to
	     the KeyStore.load method. If NONE is specified as the URL, then a
	     null stream is passed to the KeyStore.load method. NONE should be
	     specified if the KeyStore is not file-based (for example, if it
	     resides on a hardware token device).

	     -storepass storepass
		The password which is used to protect the integrity of the
		keystore.

	     storepass must be at least 6 characters long. It must be provided
	     to all commands that access the keystore contents. For such com‐
	     mands, if a -storepass option is not provided at the command
	     line, the user is prompted for it.

	     When retrieving information from the keystore, the password is
	     optional; if no password is given, the integrity of the retrieved
	     information cannot be checked and a warning is displayed.

	     -providerName provider_name
		Used to identify a cryptographic service provider's name when
		listed in the security properties file.

	     -providerClass provider_class_name
		Used to specify the name of cryptographic service provider's
		master class file when the service provider is not listed in
		the security properties file.

	     -providerArg provider_arg
		Used in conjunction with -providerClass. Represents an
		optional string input argument for the constructor of
		provider_class_name.

	     -protected
		Either true or false. This value should be specified as true
		if a password must be given via a protected authentication
		path such as a dedicated PIN reader.

COMMANDS
   Creating or Adding Data to the Keystore
	     -genkeypair {-alias alias} {-keyalg keyalg} {-keysize keysize}
	     {-sigalg sigalg} [-dname dname] [-keypass keypass] {-validity
	     valDays} {-storetype storetype} {-keystore keystore} [-storepass
	     storepass] {-providerClass provider_class_name {-providerArg
	     provider_arg}} {-v} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Generates a key pair (a public key and associated private key).
	     Wraps the public key into an X.509 v3 self-signed certificate,
	     which is stored as a single-element certificate chain. This cer‐
	     tificate chain and the private key are stored in a new keystore
	     entry identified by alias.

	     keyalg specifies the algorithm to be used to generate the key
	     pair, and keysize specifies the size of each key to be generated.
	     sigalg specifies the algorithm that should be used to sign the
	     self-signed certificate; this algorithm must be compatible with
	     keyalg.

	     dname specifies the X.500 Distinguished Name to be associated
	     with alias, and is used as the issuer and subject fields in the
	     self-signed certificate. If no distinguished name is provided at
	     the command line, the user will be prompted for one.

	     keypass is a password used to protect the private key of the gen‐
	     erated key pair. If no password is provided, the user is prompted
	     for it. If you press RETURN at the prompt, the key password is
	     set to the same password as that used for the keystore. keypass
	     must be at least 6 characters long.

	     valDays tells the number of days for which the certificate should
	     be considered valid.

	     This command was named -genkey in previous releases. This old
	     name is still supported in this release and will be supported in
	     future releases, but for clarify the new name, -genkeypair, is
	     preferred going forward.

	     -genseckey {-alias alias} {-keyalg keyalg} {-keysize keysize}
	     [-keypass keypass] {-storetype storetype} {-keystore keystore}
	     [-storepass storepass] {-providerClass provider_class_name
	     {-providerArg provider_arg}} {-v} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Generates a secret key and stores it in a new Key‐
	     Store.SecretKeyEntry identified by alias.

	     keyalg specifies the algorithm to be used to generate the secret
	     key, and keysize specifies the size of the key to be generated.
	     keypass is a password used to protect the secret key. If no pass‐
	     word is provided, the user is prompted for it. If you press
	     RETURN at the prompt, the key password is set to the same pass‐
	     word as that used for the keystore. keypass must be at least 6
	     characters long.

	     -importcert {-alias alias} {-file cert_file} [-keypass keypass]
	     {-noprompt} {-trustcacerts} {-storetype storetype} {-keystore
	     keystore} [-storepass storepass] {-providerName provider_name}
	     {-providerClass provider_class_name {-providerArg provider_arg}}
	     {-v} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Reads the certificate or certificate chain (where the latter is
	     supplied in a PKCS#7 formatted reply) from the file cert_file,
	     and stores it in the keystore entry identified by alias. If no
	     file is given, the certificate or PKCS#7 reply is read from
	     stdin.

	     keytool can import X.509 v1, v2, and v3 certificates, and PKCS#7
	     formatted certificate chains consisting of certificates of that
	     type. The data to be imported must be provided either in binary
	     encoding format, or in printable encoding format (also known as
	     Base64 encoding) as defined by the Internet RFC 1421 standard. In
	     the latter case, the encoding must be bounded at the beginning by
	     a string that starts with "-----BEGIN", and bounded at the end by
	     a string that starts with "-----END".

	     You import a certificate for two reasons:

		1. to add it to the list of trusted certificates, or

		2. to import a certificate reply received from a CA as the
		   result of submitting a Certificate Signing Request (see the
		   -certreq command) to that CA.

	     Which type of import is intended is indicated by the value of the
	     -alias option:

		1. If the alias does not point to a key entry, then keytool
		   assumes you are adding a trusted certificate entry. In this
		   case, the alias should not already exist in the keystore.
		   If the alias does already exist, then keytool outputs an
		   error, since there is already a trusted certificate for
		   that alias, and does not import the certificate.

		2. If the alias points to a key entry, then keytool assumes
		   you are importing a certificate reply.
	     Importing a New Trusted Certificate

		Before adding the certificate to the keystore, keytool tries
		to verify it by attempting to construct a chain of trust from
		that certificate to a self-signed certificate (belonging to a
		root CA), using trusted certificates that are already avail‐
		able in the keystore.

		If the -trustcacerts option has been specified, additional
		certificates are considered for the chain of trust, namely the
		certificates in a file named "cacerts".

		If keytool fails to establish a trust path from the certifi‐
		cate to be imported up to a self-signed certificate (either
		from the keystore or the "cacerts" file), the certificate
		information is printed out, and the user is prompted to verify
		it, e.g., by comparing the displayed certificate fingerprints
		with the fingerprints obtained from some other (trusted)
		source of information, which might be the certificate owner
		himself/herself. Be very careful to ensure the certificate is
		valid prior to importing it as a "trusted" certificate! -- see
		WARNING Regarding Importing Trusted Certificates. The user
		then has the option of aborting the import operation. If the
		-noprompt option is given, however, there will be no interac‐
		tion with the user.

	     Importing a Certificate Reply

		When importing a certificate reply, the certificate reply is
		validated using trusted certificates from the keystore, and
		optionally using the certificates configured in the "cacerts"
		keystore file (if the -trustcacerts option was specified).

		The methods of determining whether the certificate reply is
		trusted are described in the following:

		   o If the reply is a single X.509 certificate, keytool
		     attempts to establish a trust chain, starting at the cer‐
		     tificate reply and ending at a self-signed certificate
		     (belonging to a root CA). The certificate reply and the
		     hierarchy of certificates used to authenticate the cer‐
		     tificate reply form the new certificate chain of alias.
		     If a trust chain cannot be established, the certificate
		     reply is not imported. In this case, keytool does not
		     print out the certificate and prompt the user to verify
		     it, because it is very hard (if not impossible) for a
		     user to determine the authenticity of the certificate
		     reply.

		   o If the reply is a PKCS#7 formatted certificate chain, the
		     chain is first ordered (with the user certificate first
		     and the self-signed root CA certificate last), before
		     keytool attempts to match the root CA certificate pro‐
		     vided in the reply with any of the trusted certificates
		     in the keystore or the "cacerts" keystore file (if the
		     -trustcacerts option was specified). If no match can be
		     found, the information of the root CA certificate is
		     printed out, and the user is prompted to verify it, e.g.,
		     by comparing the displayed certificate fingerprints with
		     the fingerprints obtained from some other (trusted)
		     source of information, which might be the root CA itself.
		     The user then has the option of aborting the import oper‐
		     ation. If the -noprompt option is given, however, there
		     will be no interaction with the user.

		If the public key in the certificate reply matches the user's
		public key already stored with under alias, the old certifi‐
		cate chain is replaced with the new certificate chain in the
		reply. The old chain can only be replaced if a valid keypass,
		the password used to protect the private key of the entry, is
		supplied. If no password is provided, and the private key
		password is different from the keystore password, the user is
		prompted for it.

	     This command was named -import in previous releases. This old
	     name is still supported in this release and will be supported in
	     future releases, but for clarify the new name, -importcert, is
	     preferred going forward.

	     -importkeystore -srckeystore srckeystore -destkeystore destkey‐
	     store {-srcstoretype srcstoretype} {-deststoretype deststoretype}
	     [-srcstorepass srcstorepass] [-deststorepass deststorepass]
	     {-srcprotected} {-destprotected} {-srcalias srcalias {-destalias
	     destalias} [-srckeypass srckeypass] [-destkeypass destkeypass] }
	     {-noprompt} {-srcProviderName src_provider_name} {-destProvider‐
	     Name dest_provider_name} {-providerClass provider_class_name
	     {-providerArg provider_arg}} {-v} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Imports a single entry or all entries from a source keystore to a
	     destination keystore.

	     When the srcalias option is provided, the command imports the
	     single entry identified by the alias to the destination keystore.
	     If a destination alias is not provided with destalias, then
	     srcalias is used as the destination alias. If the source entry is
	     protected by a password, srckeypass will be used to recover the
	     entry. If srckeypass is not provided, then keytool will attempt
	     to use srcstorepass to recover the entry. If srcstorepass is
	     either not provided or is incorrect, the user will be prompted
	     for a password. The destination entry will be protected using
	     destkeypass. If destkeypass is not provided, the destination
	     entry will be protected with the source entry password.

	     If the srcalias option is not provided, then all entries in the
	     source keystore are imported into the destination keystore. Each
	     destination entry will be stored under the alias from the source
	     entry. If the source entry is protected by a password, src‐
	     storepass will be used to recover the entry. If srcstorepass is
	     either not provided or is incorrect, the user will be prompted
	     for a password. If a source keystore entry type is not supported
	     in the destination keystore, or if an error occurs while storing
	     an entry into the destination keystore, the user will be prompted
	     whether to skip the entry and continue, or to quit. The destina‐
	     tion entry will be protected with the source entry password.

	     If the destination alias already exists in the destination key‐
	     store, the user is prompted to either overwrite the entry, or to
	     create a new entry under a different alias name.

	     Note that if -noprompt is provided, the user will not be prompted
	     for a new destination alias. Existing entries will automatically
	     be overwritten with the destination alias name. Finally, entries
	     that can not be imported are automatically skipped and a warning
	     is output.

   Exporting Data
	     -certreq {-alias alias} {-sigalg sigalg} {-file certreq_file}
	     [-keypass keypass] {-storetype storetype} {-keystore keystore}
	     [-storepass storepass] {-providerName provider_name} {-provider‐
	     Class provider_class_name {-providerArg provider_arg}} {-v}
	     {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Generates a Certificate Signing Request (CSR), using the PKCS#10
	     format.

	     A CSR is intended to be sent to a certificate authority (CA). The
	     CA will authenticate the certificate requestor (usually off-line)
	     and will return a certificate or certificate chain, used to
	     replace the existing certificate chain (which initially consists
	     of a self-signed certificate) in the keystore.

	     The private key and X.500 Distinguished Name associated with
	     alias are used to create the PKCS#10 certificate request. In
	     order to access the private key, the appropriate password must be
	     provided, since private keys are protected in the keystore with a
	     password. If keypass is not provided at the command line, and is
	     different from the password used to protect the integrity of the
	     keystore, the user is prompted for it.

	     sigalg specifies the algorithm that should be used to sign the
	     CSR.

	     The CSR is stored in the file certreq_file. If no file is given,
	     the CSR is output to stdout.

	     Use the importcert command to import the response from the CA.

	     -exportcert {-alias alias} {-file cert_file} {-storetype store‐
	     type} {-keystore keystore} [-storepass storepass] {-providerName
	     provider_name} {-providerClass provider_class_name {-providerArg
	     provider_arg}} {-rfc} {-v} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Reads (from the keystore) the certificate associated with alias,
	     and stores it in the file cert_file.

	     If no file is given, the certificate is output to stdout.

	     The certificate is by default output in binary encoding, but will
	     instead be output in the printable encoding format, as defined by
	     the Internet RFC 1421 standard, if the -rfc option is specified.

	     If alias refers to a trusted certificate, that certificate is
	     output. Otherwise, alias refers to a key entry with an associated
	     certificate chain. In that case, the first certificate in the
	     chain is returned. This certificate authenticates the public key
	     of the entity addressed by alias.

	     This command was named -export in previous releases. This old
	     name is still supported in this release and will be supported in
	     future releases, but for clarify the new name, -exportcert, is
	     preferred going forward.

   Displaying Data
	     -list {-alias alias} {-storetype storetype} {-keystore keystore}
	     [-storepass storepass] {-providerName provider_name} {-provider‐
	     Class provider_class_name {-providerArg provider_arg}} {-v |
	     -rfc} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Prints (to stdout) the contents of the keystore entry identified
	     by alias. If no alias is specified, the contents of the entire
	     keystore are printed.

	     This command by default prints the MD5 fingerprint of a certifi‐
	     cate. If the -v option is specified, the certificate is printed
	     in human-readable format, with additional information such as the
	     owner, issuer, serial number, and any extensions. If the -rfc
	     option is specified, certificate contents are printed using the
	     printable encoding format, as defined by the Internet RFC 1421
	     standard

	     You cannot specify both -v and -rfc.

	     -printcert {-file cert_file} {-v} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Internet RFC 1421 standard.

	     Note: This option can be used independently of a keystore.

   Managing the Keystore
	     -storepasswd [-new new_storepass] {-storetype storetype} {-key‐
	     store keystore} [-storepass storepass] {-providerName
	     provider_name} {-providerClass provider_class_name {-providerArg
	     provider_arg}} {-v} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Changes the password used to protect the integrity of the key‐
	     store contents. The new password is new_storepass, which must be
	     at least 6 characters long.

	     -keypasswd {-alias alias} [-keypass old_keypass] [-new new_key‐
	     pass] {-storetype storetype} {-keystore keystore} [-storepass
	     storepass] {-providerName provider_name} {-providerClass
	     provider_class_name {-providerArg provider_arg}} {-v} {-Jjavaop‐
	     tion}

	     Changes the password under which the private/secret key identi‐
	     fied by alias is protected, from old_keypass to new_keypass,
	     which must be at least 6 characters long.

	     If the -keypass option is not provided at the command line, and
	     the key password is different from the keystore password, the
	     user is prompted for it.

	     If the -new option is not provided at the command line, the user
	     is prompted for it.

	     -delete [-alias alias] {-storetype storetype} {-keystore key‐
	     store} [-storepass storepass] {-providerName provider_name}
	     {-providerClass provider_class_name {-providerArg provider_arg}}
	     {-v} {-protected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Deletes from the keystore the entry identified by alias. The user
	     is prompted for the alias, if no alias is provided at the command
	     line.

	     -changealias {-alias alias} [-destalias destalias] [-keypass key‐
	     pass] {-storetype storetype} {-keystore keystore} [-storepass
	     storepass] {-providerName provider_name} {-providerClass
	     provider_class_name {-providerArg provider_arg}} {-v} {-pro‐
	     tected} {-Jjavaoption}

	     Move an existing keystore entry from the specified alias to a new
	     alias, destalias. If no destination alias is provided, the com‐
	     mand will prompt for one. If the original entry is protected with
	     an entry password, the password can be supplied via the "-key‐
	     pass" option. If no key password is provided, the storepass (if
	     given) will be attempted first. If that attempt fails, the user
	     will be prompted for a password.

   Getting Help
	     -help

	     Lists the basic commands and their options.

EXAMPLES
       Suppose you want to create a keystore for managing your public/private
       key pair and certificates from entities you trust.

   Generating Your Key Pair
	  The first thing you need to do is create a keystore and generate the
	  key pair. You could use a command such as the following:

	      keytool -genkeypair -dname "cn=Mark Jones, ou=JavaSoft, o=Sun, c=US"
		-alias business -keypass kpi135 -keystore /working/mykeystore
		-storepass ab987c -validity 180

	  (Please note: This must be typed as a single line. Multiple lines
	  are used in the examples just for legibility purposes.)

	  This command creates the keystore named "mykeystore" in the "work‐
	  ing" directory (assuming it doesn't already exist), and assigns it
	  the password "ab987c". It generates a public/private key pair for
	  the entity whose "distinguished name" has a common name of "Mark
	  Jones", organizational unit of "JavaSoft", organization of "Sun" and
	  two-letter country code of "US". It uses the default "DSA" key gen‐
	  eration algorithm to create the keys, both 1024 bits long.

	  It creates a self-signed certificate (using the default "SHA1with‐
	  DSA" signature algorithm) that includes the public key and the dis‐
	  tinguished name information. This certificate will be valid for 180
	  days, and is associated with the private key in a keystore entry
	  referred to by the alias "business". The private key is assigned the
	  password "kpi135".

	  The command could be significantly shorter if option defaults were
	  accepted. As a matter of fact, no options are required; defaults are
	  used for unspecified options that have default values, and you are
	  prompted for any required values. Thus, you could simply have the
	  following:

	      keytool -genkeypair

	  In this case, a keystore entry with alias "mykey" is created, with a
	  newly-generated key pair and a certificate that is valid for 90
	  days. This entry is placed in the keystore named ".keystore" in your
	  home directory. (The keystore is created if it doesn't already
	  exist.) You will be prompted for the distinguished name information,
	  the keystore password, and the private key password.

	  The rest of the examples assume you executed the -genkeypair command
	  without options specified, and that you responded to the prompts
	  with values equal to those given in the first -genkeypair command,
	  above (a private key password of "kpi135", etc.)

   Requesting a Signed Certificate from a Certification Authority
	  So far all we've got is a self-signed certificate. A certificate is
	  more likely to be trusted by others if it is signed by a Certifica‐
	  tion Authority (CA). To get such a signature, you first generate a
	  Certificate Signing Request (CSR), via the following:

	      keytool -certreq -file MarkJ.csr

	  This creates a CSR (for the entity identified by the default alias
	  "mykey") and puts the request in the file named "MarkJ.csr". Submit
	  this file to a CA, such as VeriSign, Inc. The CA will authenticate
	  you, the requestor (usually off-line), and then will return a cer‐
	  tificate, signed by them, authenticating your public key. (In some
	  cases, they will actually return a chain of certificates, each one
	  authenticating the public key of the signer of the previous certifi‐
	  cate in the chain.)

   Importing a Certificate for the CA
	  You need to replace your self-signed certificate with a certificate
	  chain, where each certificate in the chain authenticates the public
	  key of the signer of the previous certificate in the chain, up to a
	  "root" CA.

	  Before you import the certificate reply from a CA, you need one or
	  more "trusted certificates" in your keystore or in the cacerts key‐
	  store file (which is described in importcert command):

	     o If the certificate reply is a certificate chain, you just need
	       the top certificate of the chain (that is, the "root" CA cer‐
	       tificate authenticating that CA's public key).

	     o If the certificate reply is a single certificate, you need a
	       certificate for the issuing CA (the one that signed it), and if
	       that certificate is not self-signed, you need a certificate for
	       its signer, and so on, up to a self-signed "root" CA certifi‐
	       cate.

	  The "cacerts" keystore file ships with five VeriSign root CA cer‐
	  tificates, so you probably won't need to import a VeriSign certifi‐
	  cate as a trusted certificate in your keystore. But if you request a
	  signed certificate from a different CA, and a certificate authenti‐
	  cating that CA's public key hasn't been added to "cacerts", you will
	  need to import a certificate from the CA as a "trusted certificate".

	  A certificate from a CA is usually either self-signed, or signed by
	  another CA (in which case you also need a certificate authenticating
	  that CA's public key). Suppose company ABC, Inc., is a CA, and you
	  obtain a file named "ABCCA.cer" that is purportedly a self-signed
	  certificate from ABC, authenticating that CA's public key.

	  Be very careful to ensure the certificate is valid prior to import‐
	  ing it as a "trusted" certificate! View it first (using the keytool
	  -printcert command, or the keytool -importcert command without the
	  -noprompt option), and make sure that the displayed certificate fin‐
	  gerprint(s) match the expected ones. You can call the person who
	  sent the certificate, and compare the fingerprint(s) that you see
	  with the ones that they show (or that a secure public key repository
	  shows). Only if the fingerprints are equal is it guaranteed that the
	  certificate has not been replaced in transit with somebody else's
	  (for example, an attacker's) certificate. If such an attack took
	  place, and you did not check the certificate before you imported it,
	  you would end up trusting anything the attacker has signed.

	  If you trust that the certificate is valid, then you can add it to
	  your keystore via the following:

	      keytool -importcert -alias abc -file ABCCA.cer

	  This creates a "trusted certificate" entry in the keystore, with the
	  data from the file "ABCCA.cer", and assigns the alias "abc" to the
	  entry.

   Importing the Certificate Reply from the CA
	  Once you've imported a certificate authenticating the public key of
	  the CA you submitted your certificate signing request to (or there's
	  already such a certificate in the "cacerts" file), you can import
	  the certificate reply and thereby replace your self-signed certifi‐
	  cate with a certificate chain. This chain is the one returned by the
	  CA in response to your request (if the CA reply is a chain), or one
	  constructed (if the CA reply is a single certificate) using the cer‐
	  tificate reply and trusted certificates that are already available
	  in the keystore where you import the reply or in the "cacerts" key‐
	  store file.

	  For example, suppose you sent your certificate signing request to
	  VeriSign. You can then import the reply via the following, which
	  assumes the returned certificate is named "VSMarkJ.cer":

	      keytool -importcert -trustcacerts -file VSMarkJ.cer

   Exporting a Certificate Authenticating Your Public Key
	  Suppose you have used the jarsigner @
	  http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/tooldocs/solaris/jarsigner.html
	  tool to sign a Java ARchive (JAR) file. Clients that want to use the
	  file will want to authenticate your signature.

	  One way they can do this is by first importing your public key cer‐
	  tificate into their keystore as a "trusted" entry. You can export
	  the certificate and supply it to your clients. As an example, you
	  can copy your certificate to a file named MJ.cer via the following,
	  assuming the entry is aliased by "mykey":

	      keytool -exportcert -alias mykey -file MJ.cer

	  Given that certificate, and the signed JAR file, a client can use
	  the jarsigner tool to authenticate your signature.

   Importing Keystore
	  The command "importkeystore" is used to import an entire keystore
	  into another keystore, which means all entries from the source key‐
	  store, including keys and certificates, are all imported to the des‐
	  tination keystore within a single command. You can use this command
	  to import entries from a different type of keystore. During the
	  import, all new entries in the destination keystore will have the
	  same alias names and protection passwords (for secret keys and pri‐
	  vate keys). If keytool has difficulties recover the private keys or
	  secret keys from the source keystore, it will prompt you for a pass‐
	  word. If it detects alias duplication, it will ask you for a new
	  one, you can specify a new alias or simply allow keytool to over‐
	  write the existing one.

	  For example, to import entries from a normal JKS type keystore
	  key.jks into a PKCS #11 type hardware based keystore, you can use
	  the command:

	  keytool -importkeystore
	      -srckeystore key.jks -destkeystore NONE
	      -srcstoretype JKS -deststoretype PKCS11
	      -srcstorepass changeit -deststorepass topsecret

	  The importkeystore command can also be used to import a single entry
	  from a source keystore to a destination keystore. In this case,
	  besides the options you see in the above example, you need to spec‐
	  ify the alias you want to import. With the srcalias option given,
	  you can also specify the desination alias name in the command line,
	  as well as protection password for a secret/private key and the des‐
	  tination protection password you want. In this way, you can issue a
	  keytool command that will never ask you a question. This makes it
	  very convenient to include a keytool command into a script file,
	  like this:

	  keytool -importkeystore
	      -srckeystore key.jks -destkeystore NONE
	      -srcstoretype JKS -deststoretype PKCS11
	      -srcstorepass changeit -deststorepass topsecret
	      -srcalias myprivatekey -destalias myoldprivatekey
	      -srckeypass oldkeypass -destkeypass mynewkeypass
	      -noprompt


TERMINOLOGY and WARNINGS
   KeyStore
	  A keystore is a storage facility for cryptographic keys and certifi‐
	  cates.

	  o

	  o KeyStore Entries

	     Keystores may have different types of entries. The two most
	     applicable entry types for keytool include:

		1. key entries - each holds very sensitive cryptographic key
		   information, which is stored in a protected format to pre‐
		   vent unauthorized access. Typically, a key stored in this
		   type of entry is a secret key, or a private key accompanied
		   by the certificate "chain" for the corresponding public
		   key. The keytool can handle both types od entry, while jar‐
		   signer tool only handle the latter type of entry, that is
		   private keys and their associated certificate chains.

		2. trusted certificate entries - each contains a single public
		   key certificate belonging to another party. It is called a
		   "trusted certificate" because the keystore owner trusts
		   that the public key in the certificate indeed belongs to
		   the identity identified by the "subject" (owner) of the
		   certificate. The issuer of the certificate vouches for
		   this, by signing the certificate.

	  o KeyStore Aliases

	     All keystore entries (key and trusted certificate entries) are
	     accessed via unique aliases.

	     An alias is specified when you add an entity to the keystore
	     using the -genseckey command to generate a secret key, -genkey‐
	     pair command to generate a key pair (public and private key) or
	     the -importcert command to add a certificate or certificate chain
	     to the list of trusted certificates. Subsequent keytool commands
	     must use this same alias to refer to the entity.

	     For example, suppose you use the alias duke to generate a new
	     public/private key pair and wrap the public key into a
	     self-signed certificate (see Certificate Chains) via the follow‐
	     ing command:

		 keytool -genkeypair -alias duke -keypass dukekeypasswd

	     This specifies an inital password of "dukekeypasswd" required by
	     subsequent commands to access the private key assocated with the
	     alias duke. If you later want to change duke's private key pass‐
	     word, you use a command like the following:
		 keytool -keypasswd -alias duke -keypass dukekeypasswd -new newpass

	     This changes the password from "dukekeypasswd" to "newpass".

	     Please note: A password should not actually be specified on a
	     command line or in a script unless it is for testing purposes, or
	     you are on a secure system. If you don't specify a required pass‐
	     word option on a command line, you will be prompted for it.

	  o KeyStore Implementation
	     The KeyStore class provided in the java.security package supplies
	     well-defined interfaces to access and modify the information in a
	     keystore. It is possible for there to be multiple different con‐
	     crete implementations, where each implementation is that for a
	     particular type of keystore.

	     Currently, two command-line tools (keytool and jarsigner) and a
	     GUI-based tool named Policy Tool make use of keystore implementa‐
	     tions. Since KeyStore is publicly available, users can write
	     additional security applications that use it.

	     There is a built-in default implementation, provided by Sun
	     Microsystems. It implements the keystore as a file, utilizing a
	     proprietary keystore type (format) named "JKS". It protects each
	     private key with its individual password, and also protects the
	     integrity of the entire keystore with a (possibly different)
	     password.

	     Keystore implementations are provider-based. More specifically,
	     the application interfaces supplied by KeyStore are implemented
	     in terms of a "Service Provider Interface" (SPI). That is, there
	     is a corresponding abstract KeystoreSpi class, also in the
	     java.security package, which defines the Service Provider Inter‐
	     face methods that "providers" must implement. (The term
	     "provider" refers to a package or a set of packages that supply a
	     concrete implementation of a subset of services that can be
	     accessed by the Java Security API.) Thus, to provide a keystore
	     implementation, clients must implement a "provider" and supply a
	     KeystoreSpi subclass implementation, as described in How to
	     Implement a Provider for the Java Cryptography Architecture.

	     Applications can choose different types of keystore implementa‐
	     tions from different providers, using the "getInstance" factory
	     method supplied in the KeyStore class. A keystore type defines
	     the storage and data format of the keystore information, and the
	     algorithms used to protect private/secret keys in the keystore
	     and the integrity of the keystore itself. Keystore implementa‐
	     tions of different types are not compatible.

	     keytool works on any file-based keystore implementation. (It
	     treats the keytore location that is passed to it at the command
	     line as a filename and converts it to a FileInputStream, from
	     which it loads the keystore information.) The jarsigner and poli‐
	     cytool tools, on the other hand, can read a keystore from any
	     location that can be specified using a URL.

	     For keytool and jarsigner, you can specify a keystore type at the
	     command line, via the -storetype option. For Policy Tool, you can
	     specify a keystore type via the "Keystore" menu.

	     If you don't explicitly specify a keystore type, the tools choose
	     a keystore implementation based simply on the value of the key‐
	     store.type property specified in the security properties file.
	     The security properties file is called java.security, and it
	     resides in the security properties directory, java.home/lib/secu‐
	     rity, where java.home is the runtime environment's directory (the
	     jre directory in the SDK or the top-level directory of the Java 2
	     Runtime Environment).

	     Each tool gets the keystore.type value and then examines all the
	     currently-installed providers until it finds one that implements
	     keystores of that type. It then uses the keystore implementation
	     from that provider.

	     The KeyStore class defines a static method named getDefaultType
	     that lets applications and applets retrieve the value of the key‐
	     store.type property. The following line of code creates an
	     instance of the default keystore type (as specified in the key‐
	     store.type property):

		 KeyStore keyStore = KeyStore.getInstance(KeyStore.getDefaultType());

	     The default keystore type is "jks" (the proprietary type of the
	     keystore implementation provided by Sun). This is specified by
	     the following line in the security properties file:

		 keystore.type=jks

	     To have the tools utilize a keystore implementation other than
	     the default, you can change that line to specify a different key‐
	     store type.

	     For example, if you have a provider package that supplies a key‐
	     store implementation for a keystore type called "pkcs12", change
	     the line to

		 keystore.type=pkcs12

	     Note: case doesn't matter in keystore type designations. For
	     example, "JKS" would be considered the same as "jks".

   Certificate
	  A certificate (also known as a public-key certificate) is a digi‐
	  tally signed statement from one entity (the issuer), saying that the
	  public key (and some other information) of another entity (the sub‐
	  ject) has some specific value.

	  o

	  o Certificate Terms

		Public Keys
		   These are numbers associated with a particular entity, and
		   are intended to be known to everyone who needs to have
		   trusted interactions with that entity. Public keys are used
		   to verify signatures.

		Digitally Signed
		   If some data is digitally signed it has been stored with
		   the "identity" of an entity, and a signature that proves
		   that entity knows about the data. The data is rendered
		   unforgeable by signing with the entity's private key.

		Identity
		   A known way of addressing an entity. In some systems the
		   identity is the public key, in others it can be anything
		   from a Unix UID to an Email address to an X.509 Distin‐
		   guished Name.

		Signature
		   A signature is computed over some data using the private
		   key of an entity (the signer, which in the case of a cer‐
		   tificate is also known as the issuer).

		Private Keys
		   These are numbers, each of which is supposed to be known
		   only to the particular entity whose private key it is (that
		   is, it's supposed to be kept secret). Private and public
		   keys exist in pairs in all public key cryptography systems
		   (also referred to as "public key crypto systems"). In a
		   typical public key crypto system, such as DSA, a private
		   key corresponds to exactly one public key. Private keys are
		   used to compute signatures.

		Entity
		   An entity is a person, organization, program, computer,
		   business, bank, or something else you are trusting to some
		   degree.

	     Basically, public key cryptography requires access to users' pub‐
	     lic keys. In a large-scale networked environment it is impossible
	     to guarantee that prior relationships between communicating enti‐
	     ties have been established or that a trusted repository exists
	     with all used public keys. Certificates were invented as a solu‐
	     tion to this public key distribution problem. Now a Certification
	     Authority (CA) can act as a trusted third party. CAs are entities
	     (for example, businesses) that are trusted to sign (issue) cer‐
	     tificates for other entities. It is assumed that CAs will only
	     create valid and reliable certificates, as they are bound by
	     legal agreements. There are many public Certification Authori‐
	     ties, such as VeriSign @
	     http://www.verisign.com/, Thawte @
	     http://www.thawte.com/, Entrust @
	     http://www.entrust.com/, and so on. You can also run your own
	     Certification Authority using products such as the Netscape/Mi‐
	     crosoft Certificate Servers or the Entrust CA product for your
	     organization.

	     Using keytool, it is possible to display, import, and export cer‐
	     tificates. It is also possible to generate self-signed certifi‐
	     cates.

	     keytool currently handles X.509 certificates.

	  o X.509 Certificates
	     The X.509 standard defines what information can go into a cer‐
	     tificate, and describes how to write it down (the data format).
	     All the data in a certificate is encoded using two related stan‐
	     dards called ASN.1/DER. Abstract Syntax Notation 1 describes
	     data. The Definite Encoding Rules describe a single way to store
	     and transfer that data.

	     All X.509 certificates have the following data, in addition to
	     the signature:

		Version
		   This identifies which version of the X.509 standard applies
		   to this certificate, which affects what information can be
		   specified in it. Thus far, three versions are defined. key‐
		   tool can import and export v1, v2, and v3 certificates. It
		   generates v3 certificates.

		X.509 Version 1 has been available since 1988, is widely
		deployed, and is the most generic.

		X.509 Version 2 introduced the concept of subject and issuer
		unique identifiers to handle the possibility of reuse of sub‐
		ject and/or issuer names over time. Most certificate profile
		documents strongly recommend that names not be reused, and
		that certificates should not make use of unique identifiers.
		Version 2 certificates are not widely used.

		X.509 Version 3 is the most recent (1996) and supports the
		notion of extensions, whereby anyone can define an extension
		and include it in the certificate. Some common extensions in
		use today are: KeyUsage (limits the use of the keys to partic‐
		ular purposes such as "signing-only") and AlternativeNames
		(allows other identities to also be associated with this pub‐
		lic key, e.g. DNS names, Email addresses, IP addresses).
		Extensions can be marked critical to indicate that the exten‐
		sion should be checked and enforced/used. For example, if a
		certificate has the KeyUsage extension marked critical and set
		to "keyCertSign" then if this certificate is presented during
		SSL communication, it should be rejected, as the certificate
		extension indicates that the associated private key should
		only be used for signing certificates and not for SSL use.

		Serial Number
		   The entity that created the certificate is responsible for
		   assigning it a serial number to distinguish it from other
		   certificates it issues. This information is used in numer‐
		   ous ways, for example when a certificate is revoked its
		   serial number is placed in a Certificate Revocation List
		   (CRL).

		Signature Algorithm Identifier
		   This identifies the algorithm used by the CA to sign the
		   certificate.

		Issuer Name
		   The X.500 Distinguished Name of the entity that signed the
		   certificate. This is normally a CA. Using this certificate
		   implies trusting the entity that signed this certificate.
		   (Note that in some cases, such as root or top-level CA cer‐
		   tificates, the issuer signs its own certificate.)

		Validity Period
		   Each certificate is valid only for a limited amount of
		   time. This period is described by a start date and time and
		   an end date and time, and can be as short as a few seconds
		   or almost as long as a century. The validity period chosen
		   depends on a number of factors, such as the strength of the
		   private key used to sign the certificate or the amount one
		   is willing to pay for a certificate. This is the expected
		   period that entities can rely on the public value, if the
		   associated private key has not been compromised.

		Subject Name
		   The name of the entity whose public key the certificate
		   identifies. This name uses the X.500 standard, so it is
		   intended to be unique across the Internet. This is the
		   X.500 Distinguished Name (DN) of the entity, for example,
		       CN=Java Duke, OU=Java Software Division, O=Sun Microsystems Inc, C=US
		   (These refer to the subject's Common Name, Organizational
		   Unit, Organization, and Country.)

		Subject Public Key Information
		   This is the public key of the entity being named, together
		   with an algorithm identifier which specifies which public
		   key crypto system this key belongs to and any associated
		   key parameters.

	  o Certificate Chains

	     keytool can create and manage keystore "key" entries that each
	     contain a private key and an associated certificate "chain". The
	     first certificate in the chain contains the public key corre‐
	     sponding to the private key.

	     When keys are first generated (see the -genkeypair command), the
	     chain starts off containing a single element, a self-signed cer‐
	     tificate. A self-signed certificate is one for which the issuer
	     (signer) is the same as the subject (the entity whose public key
	     is being authenticated by the certificate). Whenever the -genkey‐
	     pair command is called to generate a new public/private key pair,
	     it also wraps the public key into a self-signed certificate.

	     Later, after a Certificate Signing Request (CSR) has been gener‐
	     ated (see the -certreq command) and sent to a Certification
	     Authority (CA), the response from the CA is imported (see
	     -importcert), and the self-signed certificate is replaced by a
	     chain of certificates. At the bottom of the chain is the certifi‐
	     cate (reply) issued by the CA authenticating the subject's public
	     key. The next certificate in the chain is one that authenticates
	     the CA's public key.

	     In many cases, this is a self-signed certificate (that is, a cer‐
	     tificate from the CA authenticating its own public key) and the
	     last certificate in the chain. In other cases, the CA may return
	     a chain of certificates. In this case, the bottom certificate in
	     the chain is the same (a certificate signed by the CA, authenti‐
	     cating the public key of the key entry), but the second certifi‐
	     cate in the chain is a certificate signed by a different CA,
	     authenticating the public key of the CA you sent the CSR to.
	     Then, the next certificate in the chain will be a certificate
	     authenticating the second CA's key, and so on, until a
	     self-signed "root" certificate is reached. Each certificate in
	     the chain (after the first) thus authenticates the public key of
	     the signer of the previous certificate in the chain.

	     Many CAs only return the issued certificate, with no supporting
	     chain, especially when there is a flat hierarchy (no intermedi‐
	     ates CAs). In this case, the certificate chain must be estab‐
	     lished from trusted certificate information already stored in the
	     keystore.

	     A different reply format (defined by the PKCS#7 standard) also
	     includes the supporting certificate chain, in addition to the
	     issued certificate. Both reply formats can be handled by keytool.

	     The top-level (root) CA certificate is self-signed. However, the
	     trust into the root's public key does not come from the root cer‐
	     tificate itself (anybody could generate a self-signed certificate
	     with the distinguished name of say, the VeriSign root CA!), but
	     from other sources like a newspaper. The root CA public key is
	     widely known. The only reason it is stored in a certificate is
	     because this is the format understood by most tools, so the cer‐
	     tificate in this case is only used as a "vehicle" to transport
	     the root CA's public key. Before you add the root CA certificate
	     to your keystore, you should view it (using the -printcert
	     option) and compare the displayed fingerprint with the well-known
	     fingerprint (obtained from a newspaper, the root CA's webpage,
	     etc.).

	  o The cacerts Certificates File

	     A certificates file named "cacerts" resides in the security prop‐
	     erties directory, java.home/lib/security, where java.home is the
	     runtime environment's directory (the jre directory in the SDK or
	     the top-level directory of the Java 2 Runtime Environment).

	     The "cacerts" file represents a system-wide keystore with CA cer‐
	     tificates. System administrators can configure and manage that
	     file using keytool, specifying "jks" as the keystore type. The
	     "cacerts" keystore file ships with several root CA certificates
	     with the following aliases and X.500 owner distinguished names:

		* Alias: thawtepersonalfreemailca
		  Owner DN: EmailAddress=personal-freemail@thawte.com,
		  CN=Thawte Personal Freemail CA,
		  OU=Certification Services Division,
		  O=Thawte Consulting, L=Cape Town, ST=Western Cape, C=ZA

		* Alias: thawtepersonalbasicca
		  Owner DN: EmailAddress=personal-basic@thawte.com,
		  CN=Thawte Personal Basic CA,
		  OU=Certification Services Division,
		  O=Thawte Consulting, L=Cape Town, ST=Western Cape, C=ZA

		* Alias: thawtepersonalpremiumca
		  Owner DN: EmailAddress=personal-premium@thawte.com,
		  CN=Thawte Personal Premium CA,
		  OU=Certification Services Division,
		  O=Thawte Consulting, L=Cape Town, ST=Western Cape, C=ZA

		* Alias: thawteserverca
		  Owner DN: EmailAddress=server-certs@thawte.com,
		  CN=Thawte Server CA, OU=Certification Services Division,
		  O=Thawte Consulting cc, L=Cape Town, ST=Western Cape, C=ZA

		* Alias: thawtepremiumserverca
		  Owner DN: EmailAddress=premium-server@thawte.com,
		  CN=Thawte Premium Server CA,
		  OU=Certification Services Division,
		  O=Thawte Consulting cc, L=Cape Town, ST=Western Cape, C=ZA

		* Alias: verisignclass1ca
		  Owner DN: OU=Class 1 Public Primary Certification Authority,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass2ca
		  Owner DN: OU=Class 2 Public Primary Certification Authority,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass3ca
		  Owner DN: OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignserverca
		  Owner DN: OU=Secure Server Certification Authority,
		  O="RSA Data Security, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass1g2ca
		  Owner DN: OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
		  OU="(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only",
		  OU=Class 1 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass1g3ca
		  Owner DN: CN=VeriSign Class 1 Public Primary Certification
		  Authority - G3, OU="(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized
		  use only",
		  OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass2g2ca
		  Owner DN: OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
		  OU="(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only",
		  OU=Class 2 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass2g3ca
		  Owner DN: CN=VeriSign Class 2 Public Primary Certification
		  Authority - G3,
		  OU="(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only",
		  OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass3g2ca
		  Owner DN: OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
		  OU="(c) 1998 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only",
		  OU=Class 3 Public Primary Certification Authority - G2,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: verisignclass3g3ca
		  Owner DN: CN=VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Certification
		  Authority - G3,
		  OU="(c) 1999 VeriSign, Inc. - For authorized use only",
		  OU=VeriSign Trust Network,
		  O="VeriSign, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: baltimorecodesigningca
		  Owner DN: CN=Baltimore CyberTrust Code Signing Root,
		  OU=CyberTrust, O=Baltimore, C=IE

		* Alias: gtecybertrustglobalca
		  Owner DN: CN=GTE CyberTrust Global Root,
		  OU="GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc.", O=GTE Corporation, C=US

		* Alias: baltimorecybertrustca
		  Owner DN: CN=Baltimore CyberTrust Root,
		  OU=CyberTrust, O=Baltimore, C=IE

		* Alias: gtecybertrustca
		  Owner DN: CN=GTE CyberTrust Root,
		  O=GTE Corporation, C=US

		* Alias: gtecybertrust5ca
		  Owner DN: CN=GTE CyberTrust Root 5,
		  OU="GTE CyberTrust Solutions, Inc.", O=GTE Corporation, C=US

		* Alias: entrustclientca
		  Owner DN: CN=Entrust.net Client Certification Authority,
		  OU=(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited,
		  OU=www.entrust.net/Client_CA_Info/CPS incorp. by ref. limits
		  liab.,
		  O=Entrust.net, C=US

		* Alias: entrustglobalclientca
		  Owner DN: CN=Entrust.net Client Certification Authority,
		  OU=(c) 2000 Entrust.net Limited,
		  OU=www.entrust.net/GCCA_CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.),
		  O=Entrust.net

		* Alias: entrust2048ca
		  Owner DN: CN=Entrust.net Certification Authority (2048),
		  OU=(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited,
		  OU=www.entrust.net/CPS_2048 incorp. by ref. (limits liab.),
		  O=Entrust.net

		* Alias: entrustsslca
		  Owner DN: CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification Author‐
		  ity,
		  OU=(c) 1999 Entrust.net Limited,
		  OU=www.entrust.net/CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.),
		  O=Entrust.net, C=US

		* Alias: entrustgsslca
		  Owner DN: CN=Entrust.net Secure Server Certification Author‐
		  ity,
		  OU=(c) 2000 Entrust.net Limited,
		  OU=www.entrust.net/SSL_CPS incorp. by ref. (limits liab.),
		  O=Entrust.net

		* Alias: godaddyclass2ca
		  Owner DN: OU=Go Daddy Class 2 Certification Authority,
		  O="The Go Daddy Group, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: starfieldclass2ca
		  Owner DN: OU=Starfield Class 2 Certification Authority,
		  O="Starfield Technologies, Inc.", C=US

		* Alias: valicertclass2ca
		  Owner DN: EMAILADDRESS=info@valicert.com,
		  CN=http://www.valicert.com/,
		  OU=ValiCert Class 2 Policy Validation Authority,
		  O="ValiCert, Inc.", L=ValiCert Validation Network

		* Alias: geotrustglobalca
		  Owner DN: CN=GeoTrust Global CA,
		  O=GeoTrust Inc., C=US

		* Alias: equifaxsecureca
		  Owner DN: OU=Equifax Secure Certificate Authority,
		  O=Equifax, C=US

		* Alias: equifaxsecureebusinessca1
		  Owner DN: CN=Equifax Secure eBusiness CA-1,
		  O=Equifax Secure Inc., C=US

		* Alias: equifaxsecureebusinessca2
		  Owner DN: OU=Equifax Secure eBusiness CA-2,
		  O=Equifax Secure, C=US

		* Alias: equifaxsecureglobalebusinessca1
		  Owner DN: CN=Equifax Secure Global eBusiness CA-1,
		  O=Equifax Secure Inc., C=US

		* Alias: soneraclass1ca
		  Owner DN: CN=Sonera Class1 CA, O=Sonera, C=FI

		* Alias: soneraclass2ca
		  Owner DN: CN=Sonera Class2 CA, O=Sonera, C=FI

		* Alias: comodoaaaca
		  Owner DN: CN=AAA Certificate Services,
		  O=Comodo CA Limited, L=Salford, ST=Greater Manchester, C=GB

		* Alias: addtrustclass1ca
		  Owner DN: CN=AddTrust Class 1 CA Root,
		  OU=AddTrust TTP Network, O=AddTrust AB, C=SE

		* Alias: addtrustexternalca
		  Owner DN: CN=AddTrust External CA Root,
		  OU=AddTrust External TTP Network, O=AddTrust AB, C=SE

		* Alias: addtrustqualifiedca
		  Owner DN: CN=AddTrust Qualified CA Root,
		  OU=AddTrust TTP Network, O=AddTrust AB, C=SE

		* Alias: utnuserfirsthardwareca
		  Owner DN: CN=UTN-USERFirst-Hardware,
		  OU=http://www.usertrust.com, O=The USERTRUST Network,
		  L=Salt Lake City, ST=UT, C=US

		* Alias: utnuserfirstclientauthemailca
		  Owner DN: CN=UTN-USERFirst-Client Authentication and Email,
		  OU=http://www.usertrust.com, O=The USERTRUST Network,
		  L=Salt Lake City, ST=UT, C=US

		* Alias: utndatacorpsgcca
		  Owner DN: CN=UTN - DATACorp SGC,
		  OU=http://www.usertrust.com, O=The USERTRUST Network,
		  L=Salt Lake City, ST=UT, C=US

		* Alias: utnuserfirstobjectca
		  Owner DN: CN=UTN-USERFirst-Object,
		  OU=http://www.usertrust.com, O=The USERTRUST Network,
		  L=Salt Lake City, ST=UT, C=US

	     The initial password of the "cacerts" keystore file is
	     "changeit". System administrators should change that password and
	     the default access permission of that file upon installing the
	     SDK.

		IMPORTANT: Verify Your cacerts File

		Since you trust the CAs in the cacerts file as entities for
		signing and issuing certificates to other entities, you must
		manage the cacerts file carefully. The cacerts file should
		contain only certificates of the CAs you trust. It is your
		responsibility to verify the trusted root CA certificates bun‐
		dled in the cacerts file and make your own trust decisions. To
		remove an untrusted CA certificate from the cacerts file, use
		the delete option of the keytool command. You can find the
		cacerts file in the JRE installation directory. Contact your
		system administrator if you do not have permission to edit
		this file.

	  o The Internet RFC 1421 Certificate Encoding Standard

	     Certificates are often stored using the printable encoding format
	     defined by the Internet RFC 1421 standard, instead of their
	     binary encoding. This certificate format, also known as "Base 64
	     encoding", facilitates exporting certificates to other applica‐
	     tions by email or through some other mechanism.

	     Certificates read by the -importcert and -printcert commands can
	     be in either this format or binary encoded.

	     The -exportcert command by default outputs a certificate in
	     binary encoding, but will instead output a certificate in the
	     printable encoding format, if the -rfc option is specified.

	     The -list command by default prints the MD5 fingerprint of a cer‐
	     tificate. If the -v option is specified, the certificate is
	     printed in human-readable format, while if the -rfc option is
	     specified, the certificate is output in the printable encoding
	     format.

	     In its printable encoding format, the encoded certificate is
	     bounded at the beginning by

	     -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----

	     and at the end by

	     -----END CERTIFICATE-----

   X.500 Distinguished Names
	  X.500 Distinguished Names are used to identify entities, such as
	  those which are named by the subject and issuer (signer) fields of
	  X.509 certificates. keytool supports the following subparts:

	     o commonName - common name of a person, e.g., "Susan Jones"

	     o organizationUnit - small organization (e.g, department or divi‐
	       sion) name, e.g., "Purchasing"

	     o organizationName - large organization name, e.g., "ABCSystems,
	       Inc."

	     o localityName - locality (city) name, e.g., "Palo Alto"

	     o stateName - state or province name, e.g., "California"

	     o country - two-letter country code, e.g., "CH"

	  When supplying a distinguished name string as the value of a -dname
	  option, as for the -genkeypair  command, the string must be in the
	  following format:

	  CN=cName, OU=orgUnit, O=org, L=city, S=state, C=countryCode

	  where all the italicized items represent actual values and the above
	  keywords are abbreviations for the following:

		 CN=commonName
		  OU=organizationUnit
		  O=organizationName
		  L=localityName
		  S=stateName
		  C=country

	  A sample distinguished name string is

	  CN=Mark Smith, OU=JavaSoft, O=Sun, L=Cupertino, S=California, C=US

	  and a sample command using such a string is
	  keytool -genkeypair -dname "CN=Mark Smith, OU=JavaSoft, O=Sun, L=Cupertino,
	  S=California, C=US" -alias mark

	  Case does not matter for the keyword abbreviations. For example,
	  "CN", "cn", and "Cn" are all treated the same.

	  Order matters; each subcomponent must appear in the designated
	  order. However, it is not necessary to have all the subcomponents.
	  You may use a subset, for example:

	  CN=Steve Meier, OU=SunSoft, O=Sun, C=US

	  If a distinguished name string value contains a comma, the comma
	  must be escaped by a "\" character when you specify the string on a
	  command line, as in

	     cn=peter schuster, o=Sun Microsystems\, Inc., o=sun, c=us

	  It is never necessary to specify a distinguished name string on a
	  command line. If it is needed for a command, but not supplied on the
	  command line, the user is prompted for each of the subcomponents. In
	  this case, a comma does not need to be escaped by a "\".

   WARNING Regarding Importing Trusted Certificates
	  IMPORTANT: Be sure to check a certificate very carefully before
	  importing it as a trusted certificate!

	  View it first (using the -printcert command, or the -importcert com‐
	  mand without the -noprompt option), and make sure that the displayed
	  certificate fingerprint(s) match the expected ones. For example,
	  suppose someone sends or emails you a certificate, and you put it in
	  a file named /tmp/cert. Before you consider adding the certificate
	  to your list of trusted certificates, you can execute a -printcert
	  command to view its fingerprints, as in

	    keytool -printcert -file /tmp/cert
	      Owner: CN=ll, OU=ll, O=ll, L=ll, S=ll, C=ll
	      Issuer: CN=ll, OU=ll, O=ll, L=ll, S=ll, C=ll
	      Serial Number: 59092b34
	      Valid from: Thu Sep 25 18:01:13 PDT 1997 until: Wed Dec 24 17:01:13 PST 1997
	      Certificate Fingerprints:
		   MD5:	 11:81:AD:92:C8:E5:0E:A2:01:2E:D4:7A:D7:5F:07:6F
		   SHA1: 20:B6:17:FA:EF:E5:55:8A:D0:71:1F:E8:D6:9D:C0:37:13:0E:5E:FE

	  Then call or otherwise contact the person who sent the certificate,
	  and compare the fingerprint(s) that you see with the ones that they
	  show. Only if the fingerprints are equal is it guaranteed that the
	  certificate has not been replaced in transit with somebody else's
	  (for example, an attacker's) certificate. If such an attack took
	  place, and you did not check the certificate before you imported it,
	  you would end up trusting anything the attacker has signed (for
	  example, a JAR file with malicious class files inside).

	  Note: it is not required that you execute a -printcert command prior
	  to importing a certificate, since before adding a certificate to the
	  list of trusted certificates in the keystore, the -importcert com‐
	  mand prints out the certificate information and prompts you to ver‐
	  ify it. You then have the option of aborting the import operation.
	  Note, however, this is only the case if you invoke the -importcert
	  command without the -noprompt option. If the -noprompt option is
	  given, there is no interaction with the user.

   Warning Regarding Passwords
	  Most commands operating on a keystore require the store password.
	  Some commands require a private/secret key password.

	  Passwords can be specified on the command line (in the -storepass
	  and -keypass options, respectively). However, a password should not
	  be specified on a command line or in a script unless it is for test‐
	  ing purposes, or you are on a secure system.

	  If you don't specify a required password option on a command line,
	  you will be prompted for it.

SEE ALSO
	  o jar @
	    http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/tooldocs/solaris/jar.html tool
	    documentation

	  o jarsigner @
	    http://java.sun.com/javase/6/docs/tooldocs/solaris/jarsigner.html
	    tool documentation

	  o the Security @
	    http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/security/index.html trail
	    of the Java Tutorial @
	    http://java.sun.com/docs/books/tutorial/trailmap.html for examples
	    of the use of keytool

CHANGES
       The command interface for keytool changed in Java SE 6.

       keytool no longer displays password input when entered by users. Since
       password input can no longer be viewed when entered, users will be
       prompted to re-enter passwords any time a password is being set or
       changed (for example, when setting the initial keystore password, or
       when changing a key password).

       Some commands have simply been renamed, and other commands deemed obso‐
       lete are no longer listed in this document. All previous commands (both
       renamed and obsolete) are still supported in this release and will con‐
       tinue to be supported in future releases. The following summarizes all
       of the changes made to the keytool command interface:

       Renamed commands:

	  o -export, renamed to -exportcert

	  o -genkey, renamed to -genkeypair

	  o -import, renamed to -importcert

       Commands deemed obsolete and no longer documented:

	  o -keyclone @
	    http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/tooldocs/solaris/key‐
	    tool.html#keycloneCmd

	  o -identitydb @
	    http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/tooldocs/solaris/key‐
	    tool.html#identitydbCmd

	  o -selfcert @
	    http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.5.0/docs/tooldocs/solaris/key‐
	    tool.html#selfcertCmd

				  07 Aug 2006			    keytool(1)
[top]

List of man pages available for ElementaryOS

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Tweet
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
...................................................................
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net