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LAST, LASTB(1)			 User Commands			LAST, LASTB(1)

       last, lastb - show listing of last logged in users

       last [options] [username...]  [tty...]
       lastb [options] [username...]  [tty...]

       last  searches  back through the file /var/log/wtmp (or the file desig‐
       nated by the -f option) and displays a list of all users logged in (and
       out)  since  that  file was created.  One or more usernames and/or ttys
       can be given, in which case last will show only	the  entries  matching
       those  arguments.  Names of ttys can be abbreviated, thus last 0 is the
       same as last tty0.

       When catching a SIGINT signal (generated by the interrupt key,  usually
       control-C)  or a SIGQUIT signal, last will show how far it has searched
       through the file; in the case of the SIGINT signal last will then  ter‐

       The  pseudo user reboot logs in each time the system is rebooted.  Thus
       last reboot will show a log of all reboots since the log file was  cre‐

       lastb is the same as last, except that by default it shows a log of the
       file /var/log/btmp, which contains all the bad login attempts.

       -a, --hostlast
	      Display the hostname in the last column.	Useful in  combination
	      with the --dns option.

       -d, --dns
	      For non-local logins, Linux stores not only the host name of the
	      remote host but its IP number as well.  This  option  translates
	      the IP number back into a hostname.

       -f, --file file
	      Tell  last to use a specific file instead of /var/log/wtmp.  The
	      --file option can be given multiple times, and all of the speci‐
	      fied files will be processed.

       -F, --fulltimes
	      Print full login and logout times and dates.

       -i, --ip
	      Like --dns but displays the host's IP number instead of name.

       -n, --limit number
	      This is a count telling last how many lines to show.

       -p, --present time
	      Display  the users who were present at the specified time.  This
	      is like using the options

       -R, --nohostname
	      Suppresses the display  of  the  hostname	 field.	  --since  and
	      --until together with the same time.

       -s, --since time
	      Display  the state of logins since specified time.  This is use‐
	      ful, e.g., to determine easily who was logged in at a particular
	      time.  The option is often combined with --until.

       -t, --until time
	      Display the state of logins until the specified time.

       --time-format format
	      Define  the  output timestamp format to be one of notime, short,
	      full, or iso.  The notime variant will not print	any  timestamp
	      at  all,	short  is  the	default,  and  full is the same as the
	      --fulltimes option.  The iso variant will display the  timestamp
	      in  ISO-8601  format.  The ISO format contains timezone informa‐
	      tion, making it preferrable when printouts are investigated out‐
	      side of the system.

       -w, --fullnames
	      Display full user names and domain names in the output.

       -x, --system
	      Display the system shutdown entries and run level changes.

       The  options  that take the time argument understand the following for‐

       YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm:ss
       YYYY-MM-DD hh:mm	     (seconds will be set to 00)
       YYYY-MM-DD	     (time will be set to 00:00:00)
       hh:mm:ss		     (date will be set to today)
       hh:mm		     (date will be set to today, seconds to 00)
       yesterday	     (time is set to 00:00:00)
       today		     (time is set to 00:00:00)
       tomorrow		     (time is set to 00:00:00)

       The files wtmp and btmp might not  be  found.   The  system  only  logs
       information  in	these files if they are present.  This is a local con‐
       figuration issue.  If you want the files to be used, they can  be  cre‐
       ated with a simple touch(1) command (for example, touch /var/log/wtmp).


       Miquel van Smoorenburg ⟨⟩

       The  last  command  is  part of the util-linux package and is available
       from Linux Kernel  Archive  ⟨

       shutdown(8), login(1), init(8)

util-linux			 October 2013			LAST, LASTB(1)

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