LAST(1) BSD General Commands Manual LAST(1)NAMElast — indicate last logins of users and ttys
SYNOPSISlast [-swy] [-d [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS]] [-f file] [-h host] [-n maxrec]
[-t tty] [user ...]
The last utility will either list the sessions of specified users, ttys,
and hosts, in reverse time order, or list the users logged in at a speci‐
fied date and time. Each line of output contains the user name, the tty
from which the session was conducted, any hostname, the start and stop
times for the session, and the duration of the session. If the session
is still continuing or was cut short by a crash or shutdown, last will so
The following options are available:
-d date Specify the snapshot date and time. All users logged in at
the snapshot date and time will be reported. This may be
used with the -f option to derive the results from stored
wtmp files. When this argument is provided, all other
options except for -f and -n are ignored. The argument
should be in the form [[CC]YY][MMDD]hhmm[.SS] where each pair
of letters represents the following:
CC The first two digits of the year (the century).
YY The second two digits of the year. If YY is
specified, but CC is not, a value for YY
between 69 and 99 results in a CC value of 19.
Otherwise, a CC value of 20 is used.
MM Month of the year, from 1 to 12.
DD Day of the month, from 1 to 31.
hh Hour of the day, from 0 to 23.
mm Minute of the hour, from 0 to 59.
SS Second of the minute, from 0 to 61.
If the CC and YY letter pairs are not specified, the values
default to the current year. If the SS letter pair is not
specified, the value defaults to 0.
-f file Read the file file instead of the default, /var/log/wtmp.
-h host Host names may be names or internet numbers.
-n maxrec Limit the report to maxrec lines.
-s Report the duration of the login session in seconds, instead
of the default days, hours and minutes.
-t tty Specify the tty. Tty names may be given fully or abbrevi‐
ated, for example, “last -t 03” is equivalent to “last -t
-w Widen the duration field to show seconds, as well as the
default days, hours and minutes.
-y Report the year in the session start time.
If multiple arguments are given, and a snapshot time is not specified,
the information which applies to any of the arguments is printed, e.g.,
“last root -t console” would list all of “root's” sessions as well as all
sessions on the console terminal. If no users, hostnames or terminals
are specified, last prints a record of all logins and logouts.
The pseudo-user reboot logs in at reboots of the system, thus “last
reboot” will give an indication of mean time between reboot.
If last is interrupted, it indicates to what date the search has pro‐
gressed. If interrupted with a quit signal last indicates how far the
search has progressed and then continues.
/var/log/wtmp login data base
SEE ALSOlastcomm(1), utmp(5), ac(8)HISTORY
A last utility appeared in 3.0BSD.
If a login shell should terminate abnormally for some reason, it is
likely that a logout record will not be written to the wtmp file. In
this case, last will indicate the logout time as "shutdown".
BSD July 27, 2003 BSD