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LESS(1)								       LESS(1)

NAME
       less - opposite of more

SYNOPSIS
       less -?
       less --help
       less -V
       less --version
       less [-[+]aBcCdeEfgGiImMnNqQrsSuUVwX]
	    [-b bufs] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile]
	    [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag]
	    [-T tagsfile] [-x tab] [-y lines] [-[z] lines]
	    [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...
       (See  the  OPTIONS section for alternate option syntax with long option
       names.)

DESCRIPTION
       Less is a program similar to more (1), but which allows backward	 move‐
       ment in the file as well as forward movement.  Also, less does not have
       to read the entire input file before  starting,	so  with  large	 input
       files  it  starts  up  faster than text editors like vi (1).  Less uses
       termcap (or terminfo on some systems), so it can run on	a  variety  of
       terminals.   There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals.  (On
       a hardcopy terminal, lines which should be printed at the  top  of  the
       screen are prefixed with a caret.)

       Commands	 are based on both more and vi.	 Commands may be preceded by a
       decimal number, called N in the descriptions below.  The number is used
       by some commands, as indicated.

COMMANDS
       In  the following descriptions, ^X means control-X.  ESC stands for the
       ESCAPE  key;  for  example  ESC-v  means	 the  two  character  sequence
       "ESCAPE", then "v".

       h or H Help:  display  a	 summary of these commands.  If you forget all
	      the other commands, remember this one.

       SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
	      Scroll forward N	lines,	default	 one  window  (see  option  -z
	      below).	If  N  is  more	 than  the screen size, only the final
	      screenful is displayed.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a  spe‐
	      cial literalization character.

       z      Like  SPACE,  but	 if  N is specified, it becomes the new window
	      size.

       ESC-SPACE
	      Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful,	 even  if  it  reaches
	      end-of-file in the process.

       RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
	      Scroll  forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are dis‐
	      played, even if N is more than the screen size.

       d or ^D
	      Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the screen size.  If
	      N	 is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent d and
	      u commands.

       b or ^B or ESC-v
	      Scroll backward N lines,	default	 one  window  (see  option  -z
	      below).	If  N  is  more	 than  the screen size, only the final
	      screenful is displayed.

       w      Like ESC-v, but if N is specified, it  becomes  the  new	window
	      size.

       y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
	      Scroll backward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are dis‐
	      played, even if N is more than the screen size.	Warning:  some
	      systems use ^Y as a special job control character.

       u or ^U
	      Scroll  backward	N  lines, default one half of the screen size.
	      If N is specified, it becomes the new default for	 subsequent  d
	      and u commands.

       ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
	      Scroll  horizontally right N characters, default half the screen
	      width (see the -# option).  While the text is scrolled, it  acts
	      as  though the -S option (chop lines) were in effect.  Note that
	      if you wish to enter  a  number  N,  you	must  use  ESC-),  not
	      RIGHTARROW, because the arrow is taken to be a line editing com‐
	      mand (see the LINE EDITING section).

       ESC-( or LEFTARROW
	      Scroll horizontally left N characters, default half  the	screen
	      width (see the -# option).

       r or ^R or ^L
	      Repaint the screen.

       R      Repaint  the  screen,  discarding any buffered input.  Useful if
	      the file is changing while it is being viewed.

       F      Scroll forward, and keep trying to read when the end of file  is
	      reached.	 Normally  this	 command would be used when already at
	      the end of the file.  It is a way to monitor the tail of a  file
	      which  is	 growing  while	 it is being viewed.  (The behavior is
	      similar to the "tail -f" command.)

       g or < or ESC-<
	      Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning of file).	(Warn‐
	      ing: this may be slow if N is large.)

       G or > or ESC->
	      Go  to  line N in the file, default the end of the file.	(Warn‐
	      ing: this may be slow if N is large, or if N  is	not  specified
	      and standard input, rather than a file, is being read.)

       p or % Go to a position N percent into the file.	 N should be between 0
	      and 100.

       {      If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the
	      screen,  the  {  command	will  go  to  the matching right curly
	      bracket.	The matching right curly bracket is positioned on  the
	      bottom line of the screen.  If there is more than one left curly
	      bracket on the top line, a number N may be used to  specify  the
	      N-th bracket on the line.

       }      If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on
	      the screen, the } command will go to  the	 matching  left	 curly
	      bracket.	 The  matching left curly bracket is positioned on the
	      top line of the screen.  If there is more than one  right	 curly
	      bracket  on  the top line, a number N may be used to specify the
	      N-th bracket on the line.

       (      Like {, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.

       )      Like }, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.

       [      Like {, but applies to square brackets rather than curly	brack‐
	      ets.

       ]      Like  }, but applies to square brackets rather than curly brack‐
	      ets.

       ESC-^F Followed by two characters, acts like {, but uses the two	 char‐
	      acters  as  open and close brackets, respectively.  For example,
	      "ESC ^F < >" could be used to go forward to the > which  matches
	      the < in the top displayed line.

       ESC-^B Followed	by two characters, acts like }, but uses the two char‐
	      acters as open and close brackets, respectively.	 For  example,
	      "ESC ^B < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches
	      the > in the bottom displayed line.

       m      Followed by any lowercase letter,	 marks	the  current  position
	      with that letter.

       '      (Single  quote.)	 Followed  by any lowercase letter, returns to
	      the position which was previously marked with that letter.  Fol‐
	      lowed  by another single quote, returns to the position at which
	      the last "large" movement command was executed.  Followed by a ^
	      or  $,  jumps  to the beginning or end of the file respectively.
	      Marks are preserved when a new file is examined, so the  '  com‐
	      mand can be used to switch between input files.

       ^X^X   Same as single quote.

       /pattern
	      Search forward in the file for the N-th line containing the pat‐
	      tern.  N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular expression, as
	      recognized  by  ed.   The	 search starts at the second line dis‐
	      played (but see the -a and -j options, which change this).

	      Certain characters are special if entered at  the	 beginning  of
	      the  pattern;  they modify the type of search rather than become
	      part of the pattern:

	      ^N or !
		     Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.

	      ^E or *
		     Search multiple files.  That is, if  the  search  reaches
		     the  END of the current file without finding a match, the
		     search continues in the next file	in  the	 command  line
		     list.

	      ^F or @
		     Begin  the	 search at the first line of the FIRST file in
		     the command line list, regardless of  what	 is  currently
		     displayed	on  the screen or the settings of the -a or -j
		     options.

	      ^K     Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the  cur‐
		     rent screen, but don't move to the first match (KEEP cur‐
		     rent position).

	      ^R     Don't interpret regular expression	 metacharacters;  that
		     is, do a simple textual comparison.

       ?pattern
	      Search  backward	in  the	 file for the N-th line containing the
	      pattern.	The search starts at the line immediately  before  the
	      top line displayed.

	      Certain characters are special as in the / command:

	      ^N or !
		     Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.

	      ^E or *
		     Search  multiple  files.	That is, if the search reaches
		     the beginning of  the  current  file  without  finding  a
		     match,  the  search continues in the previous file in the
		     command line list.

	      ^F or @
		     Begin the search at the last line of the last file in the
		     command  line  list, regardless of what is currently dis‐
		     played on the screen or the settings  of  the  -a	or  -j
		     options.

	      ^K     As in forward searches.

	      ^R     As in forward searches.

       ESC-/pattern
	      Same as "/*".

       ESC-?pattern
	      Same as "?*".

       n      Repeat  previous	search, for N-th line containing the last pat‐
	      tern.  If the previous search was modified by ^N, the search  is
	      made  for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern.  If the pre‐
	      vious search was modified by ^E, the  search  continues  in  the
	      next  (or	 previous)  file if not satisfied in the current file.
	      If the previous search was modified by ^R, the  search  is  done
	      without  using  regular  expressions.  There is no effect if the
	      previous search was modified by ^F or ^K.

       N      Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction.

       ESC-n  Repeat previous  search,	but  crossing  file  boundaries.   The
	      effect is as if the previous search were modified by *.

       ESC-N  Repeat  previous search, but in the reverse direction and cross‐
	      ing file boundaries.

       ESC-u  Undo search highlighting.	  Turn	off  highlighting  of  strings
	      matching the current search pattern.  If highlighting is already
	      off because of a previous ESC-u command, turn highlighting  back
	      on.   Any	 search	 command  will also turn highlighting back on.
	      (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option; in
	      that case search commands do not turn highlighting back on.)

       :e [filename]
	      Examine  a  new file.  If the filename is missing, the "current"
	      file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list  of	 files
	      in  the  command line is re-examined.  A percent sign (%) in the
	      filename is replaced by the name of the current file.   A	 pound
	      sign  (#)	 is  replaced  by  the name of the previously examined
	      file.   However,	two  consecutive  percent  signs  are	simply
	      replaced with a single percent sign.  This allows you to enter a
	      filename that contains a percent sign in the  name.   Similarly,
	      two  consecutive	pound  signs  are replaced with a single pound
	      sign.  The filename is inserted into the command	line  list  of
	      files  so	 that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands.
	      If the filename consists of several files, they are all inserted
	      into  the	 list  of files and the first one is examined.	If the
	      filename contains one or more spaces, the entire filename should
	      be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option).

       ^X^V or E
	      Same  as :e.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a special literal‐
	      ization character.  On such systems, you may not be able to  use
	      ^V.

       :n     Examine  the next file (from the list of files given in the com‐
	      mand line).  If a number N is specified, the N-th next  file  is
	      examined.

       :p     Examine the previous file in the command line list.  If a number
	      N is specified, the N-th previous file is examined.

       :x     Examine the first file in the command line list.	If a number  N
	      is specified, the N-th file in the list is examined.

       :d     Remove the current file from the list of files.

       = or ^G or :f
	      Prints  some  information about the file being viewed, including
	      its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom  line
	      being  displayed.	 If possible, it also prints the length of the
	      file, the number of lines in the file and	 the  percent  of  the
	      file above the last displayed line.

       -      Followed	by one of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS
	      below), this will change the setting of that option and print  a
	      message  describing  the	new  setting.	If a ^P (CONTROL-P) is
	      entered immediately after the dash, the setting of the option is
	      changed  but  no message is printed.  If the option letter has a
	      numeric value (such as -b or -h), or a string value (such as  -P
	      or  -t), a new value may be entered after the option letter.  If
	      no new value is entered, a message describing the	 current  set‐
	      ting is printed and nothing is changed.

       --     Like  the	 -  command, but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS
	      below) rather than a  single  option  letter.   You  must	 press
	      RETURN after typing the option name.  A ^P immediately after the
	      second dash suppresses printing of a message describing the  new
	      setting, as in the - command.

       -+     Followed	by  one	 of  the command line option letters this will
	      reset the option to its default  setting	and  print  a  message
	      describing  the  new  setting.  (The "-+X" command does the same
	      thing as "-+X" on the command line.)  This  does	not  work  for
	      string-valued options.

       --+    Like  the -+ command, but takes a long option name rather than a
	      single option letter.

       -!     Followed by one of the command line option  letters,  this  will
	      reset  the  option  to the "opposite" of its default setting and
	      print a message describing the new setting.  This does not  work
	      for numeric or string-valued options.

       --!    Like  the -! command, but takes a long option name rather than a
	      single option letter.

       _      (Underscore.)  Followed by one of the command line  option  let‐
	      ters,  this  will print a message describing the current setting
	      of that option.  The setting of the option is not changed.

       __     (Double underscore.)  Like the _ (underscore) command, but takes
	      a long option name rather than a single option letter.  You must
	      press RETURN after typing the option name.

       +cmd   Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file  is
	      examined.	 For example, +G causes less to initially display each
	      file starting at the end rather than the beginning.

       V      Prints the version number of less being run.

       q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
	      Exits less.

       The following four commands may or may not be valid, depending on  your
       particular installation.

       v      Invokes  an  editor  to edit the current file being viewed.  The
	      editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL if defined,
	      or  EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined, or defaults to "vi" if nei‐
	      ther VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined.  See also the	discussion  of
	      LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below.

       ! shell-command
	      Invokes  a shell to run the shell-command given.	A percent sign
	      (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current	 file.
	      A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously exam‐
	      ined file.  "!!" repeats the last shell command.	 "!"  with  no
	      shell  command  simply  invokes  a  shell.  On Unix systems, the
	      shell is taken from the environment variable SHELL, or  defaults
	      to  "sh".	  On  MS-DOS and OS/2 systems, the shell is the normal
	      command processor.

       | <m> shell-command
	      <m> represents any mark letter.  Pipes a section	of  the	 input
	      file  to the given shell command.	 The section of the file to be
	      piped is between the first line on the current  screen  and  the
	      position	marked by the letter.  <m> may also be ^ or $ to indi‐
	      cate beginning or end of file respectively.  If <m> is . or new‐
	      line, the current screen is piped.

       s filename
	      Save  the	 input	to  a file.  This only works if the input is a
	      pipe, not an ordinary file.

OPTIONS
       Command line options are described below.  Most options may be  changed
       while less is running, via the "-" command.

       Most  options  may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed
       by a single letter, or two dashes followed by a long  option  name.   A
       long  option  name  may	be  abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is
       unambiguous.  For example, --quit-at-eof may be abbreviated --quit, but
       not --qui, since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui.  Some
       long option names are in uppercase, such as --QUIT-AT-EOF, as  distinct
       from  --quit-at-eof.  Such option names need only have their first let‐
       ter capitalized; the remainder of the name may be in either case.   For
       example, --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.

       Options are also taken from the environment variable "LESS".  For exam‐
       ple, to avoid typing "less -options ..." each time less is invoked, you
       might tell csh:

       setenv LESS "-options"

       or if you use sh:

       LESS="-options"; export LESS

       On  MS-DOS,  you don't need the quotes, but you should replace any per‐
       cent signs in the options string by double percent signs.

       The environment variable is parsed before the command line, so  command
       line  options  override	the  LESS  environment variable.  If an option
       appears in the LESS variable, it can be reset to its default  value  on
       the command line by beginning the command line option with "-+".

       For  options like -P or -D which take a following string, a dollar sign
       ($) must be used to signal the end of the string.  For example, to  set
       two  -D	options	 on  MS-DOS, you must have a dollar sign between them,
       like this:

       LESS="-Dn9.1$-Ds4.1"

       -? or --help
	      This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by  less
	      (the  same  as  the  h  command).	  (Depending on how your shell
	      interprets the question mark, it may be necessary to  quote  the
	      question mark, thus: "-\?".)

       -a or --search-skip-screen
	      Causes  searches	to  start after the last line displayed on the
	      screen, thus skipping all lines displayed	 on  the  screen.   By
	      default,	searches  start	 at  the second line on the screen (or
	      after the last found line; see the -j option).

       -bn or --buffers=n
	      Specifies the number of buffers less will	 use  for  each	 file.
	      Buffers are 1K, and by default 10 buffers are used for each file
	      (except if the file is a pipe; see the -B option).  The number n
	      specifies a different number of buffers to use.

       -B or --auto-buffers
	      By default, when data is read from a pipe, buffers are allocated
	      automatically as needed.	If a large amount of data is read from
	      the  pipe,  this	can cause a large amount of memory to be allo‐
	      cated.  The -B option disables this automatic allocation of buf‐
	      fers  for pipes, so that only the number of buffers specified by
	      the -b option are used.  Warning: use of -B can result in	 erro‐
	      neous  display,  since only the most recently viewed part of the
	      file is kept in memory; any earlier data is lost.

       -c or --clear-screen
	      Causes full screen repaints to be	 painted  from	the  top  line
	      down.   By  default,  full screen repaints are done by scrolling
	      from the bottom of the screen.

       -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
	      The -C option is like -c, but the screen is cleared before it is
	      repainted.

       -d or --dumb
	      The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if
	      the terminal is dumb; that is, lacks some important  capability,
	      such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward.  The
	      -d option does not otherwise change the behavior of  less	 on  a
	      dumb terminal).

       -Dxcolor or --color=xcolor
	      [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed.  x is a sin‐
	      gle character which selects the type  of	text  whose  color  is
	      being  set: n=normal, s=standout, d=bold, u=underlined, k=blink.
	      color is a pair of numbers separated by  a  period.   The	 first
	      number  selects  the foreground color and the second selects the
	      background color of the text.  A single number N is the same  as
	      N.0.

       -e or --quit-at-eof
	      Causes  less  to	automatically  exit the second time it reaches
	      end-of-file.  By default, the only way to exit less is  via  the
	      "q" command.

       -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
	      Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-
	      of-file.

       -f or --force
	      Forces non-regular files to be opened.  (A non-regular file is a
	      directory	 or a device special file.)  Also suppresses the warn‐
	      ing message when a binary file is opened.	 By default, less will
	      refuse to open non-regular files.

       -F or --quit-if-one-screen
	      Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be dis‐
	      played on the first screen.

       -g or --hilite-search
	      Normally, less will highlight ALL strings which match  the  last
	      search  command.	 The  -g option changes this behavior to high‐
	      light only the particular string which was  found	 by  the  last
	      search command.  This can cause less to run somewhat faster than
	      the default.

       -G or --HILITE-SEARCH
	      The -G option suppresses all highlighting of  strings  found  by
	      search commands.

       -hn or ---max-back-scroll=n
	      Specifies	 a  maximum number of lines to scroll backward.	 If it
	      is necessary to scroll backward more than n lines, the screen is
	      repainted in a forward direction instead.	 (If the terminal does
	      not have the ability to scroll backward, -h0 is implied.)

       -i or --ignore-case
	      Causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase and lowercase
	      are  considered identical.  This option is ignored if any upper‐
	      case letters appear in the search pattern; in other words, if  a
	      pattern  contains	 uppercase  letters, then that search does not
	      ignore case.

       -I or --IGNORE-CASE
	      Like -i, but searches ignore case even if the  pattern  contains
	      uppercase letters.

       -jn or --jump-target=n
	      Specifies	 a line on the screen where the "target" line is to be
	      positioned.  A target line is the object of a text  search,  tag
	      search,  jump  to	 a  line number, jump to a file percentage, or
	      jump to a marked position.  The screen line is  specified	 by  a
	      number:  the  top line on the screen is 1, the next is 2, and so
	      on.  The number may be negative to specify a  line  relative  to
	      the  bottom  of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1,
	      the second to the bottom is -2, and so on.  If the -j option  is
	      used,  searches  begin  at the line immediately after the target
	      line.  For example, if "-j4" is used, the	 target	 line  is  the
	      fourth  line  on the screen, so searches begin at the fifth line
	      on the screen.

       -J or --status-column
	      Displays a status column at the left edge of  the	 screen.   The
	      status column is used only if the -w or -W option is in effect.

       -kfilename or --lesskey-file=filename
	      Causes  less  to	open and interpret the named file as a lesskey
	      (1) file.	 Multiple -k options may be specified.	If the LESSKEY
	      or  LESSKEY_SYSTEM  environment variable is set, or if a lesskey
	      file is found in a standard place (see KEY BINDINGS), it is also
	      used as a lesskey file.

       -m or --long-prompt
	      Causes  less  to	prompt verbosely (like more), with the percent
	      into the file.  By default, less prompts with a colon.

       -M or --LONG-PROMPT
	      Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more.

       -n or --line-numbers
	      Suppresses line numbers.	The default (to use line numbers)  may
	      cause  less  to run more slowly in some cases, especially with a
	      very large input file.  Suppressing line	numbers	 with  the  -n
	      option  will  avoid this problem.	 Using line numbers means: the
	      line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the =
	      command,	and the v command will pass the current line number to
	      the editor (see also  the	 discussion  of	 LESSEDIT  in  PROMPTS
	      below).

       -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
	      Causes  a	 line  number to be displayed at the beginning of each
	      line in the display.

       -ofilename or --log-file=filename
	      Causes less to copy its input to the named file as it  is	 being
	      viewed.  This applies only when the input file is a pipe, not an
	      ordinary file.  If the file already exists, less	will  ask  for
	      confirmation before overwriting it.

       -Ofilename or --LOG-FILE=filename
	      The -O option is like -o, but it will overwrite an existing file
	      without asking for confirmation.

	      If no log file has been specified, the -o and -O options can  be
	      used  from  within  less	to specify a log file.	Without a file
	      name, they will simply report the name of the log file.  The "s"
	      command is equivalent to specifying -o from within less.

       -ppattern or --pattern=pattern
	      The  -p  option  on the command line is equivalent to specifying
	      +/pattern; that is, it tells less to start at the	 first	occur‐
	      rence of pattern in the file.

       -Pprompt or --prompt=prompt
	      Provides	a  way	to  tailor the three prompt styles to your own
	      preference.  This option would normally be put in the LESS envi‐
	      ronment variable, rather than being typed in with each less com‐
	      mand.  Such an option must either be the last option in the LESS
	      variable,	 or be terminated by a dollar sign.  -Ps followed by a
	      string changes the default (short) prompt to that	 string.   -Pm
	      changes  the  medium  (-m)  prompt.   -PM	 changes the long (-M)
	      prompt.  -Ph changes  the	 prompt	 for  the  help	 screen.   -P=
	      changes  the  message  printed  by  the  =  command.  All prompt
	      strings consist of a sequence  of	 letters  and  special	escape
	      sequences.  See the section on PROMPTS for more details.

       -q or --quiet or --silent
	      Causes  moderately  "quiet"  operation: the terminal bell is not
	      rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the file or
	      before the beginning of the file.	 If the terminal has a "visual
	      bell", it is used instead.  The bell will	 be  rung  on  certain
	      other  errors, such as typing an invalid character.  The default
	      is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases.

       -Q or --QUIET or --SILENT
	      Causes totally "quiet" operation: the  terminal  bell  is	 never
	      rung.

       -r or --raw-control-chars
	      Causes "raw" control characters to be displayed.	The default is
	      to display control characters  using  the	 caret	notation;  for
	      example, a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "^A".  Warning:
	      when the -r option is used, less cannot keep track of the actual
	      appearance  of  the screen (since this depends on how the screen
	      responds to each type of control character).  Thus, various dis‐
	      play  problems may result, such as long lines being split in the
	      wrong place.

       -R or --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
	      Like -r, but tries to keep track of the screen appearance	 where
	      possible.	  This works only if the input consists of normal text
	      and possibly some	 ANSI  "color"	escape	sequences,  which  are
	      sequences of the form:

		   ESC [ ... m

	      where  the "..." is zero or more characters other than "m".  For
	      the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance,  all  control
	      characters  and  all  ANSI color escape sequences are assumed to
	      not move the cursor.  You can make less  think  that  characters
	      other  than  "m"	can end ANSI color escape sequences by setting
	      the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of charac‐
	      ters which can end a color escape sequence.

       -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
	      Causes  consecutive  blank  lines	 to  be squeezed into a single
	      blank line.  This is useful when viewing nroff output.

       -S or --chop-long-lines
	      Causes lines longer than the screen width to be  chopped	rather
	      than  folded.   That  is, the remainder of a long line is simply
	      discarded.  The default is to fold long lines; that is,  display
	      the remainder on the next line.

       -ttag or --tag=tag
	      The -t option, followed immediately by a TAG, will edit the file
	      containing that tag.  For this to work, there  must  be  a  file
	      called  "tags"  in  the  current directory, which was previously
	      built by the ctags (1) command.  This option may also be	speci‐
	      fied  from within less (using the - command) as a way of examin‐
	      ing a new file.  The command ":t" is equivalent to specifying -t
	      from within less.

       -Ttagsfile or --tag-file=tagsfile
	      Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "tags".

       -u or --underline-special
	      Causes  backspaces  and carriage returns to be treated as print‐
	      able characters; that is, they are sent  to  the	terminal  when
	      they appear in the input.

       -U or --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
	      Causes  backspaces,  tabs	 and carriage returns to be treated as
	      control characters; that is, they are handled  as	 specified  by
	      the -r option.

	      By  default,  if	neither	 -u  nor -U is given, backspaces which
	      appear adjacent to an  underscore	 character  are	 treated  spe‐
	      cially:  the  underlined	text is displayed using the terminal's
	      hardware underlining capability.	Also, backspaces which	appear
	      between  two  identical  characters  are	treated specially: the
	      overstruck text is printed using the terminal's  hardware	 bold‐
	      face  capability.	  Other backspaces are deleted, along with the
	      preceding character.  Carriage returns immediately followed by a
	      newline  are  deleted.   other  carriage	returns are handled as
	      specified by the -r option.  Text which is overstruck or	under‐
	      lined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect.

       -V or --version
	      Displays the version number of less.

       -w or --hilite-unread
	      Temporarily  highlights  the  first  "new"  line after a forward
	      movement of a full page.	The first "new" line is the line imme‐
	      diately  following  the  line  previously	 at  the bottom of the
	      screen.  Also highlights the target line after a g or p command.
	      The  highlight is removed at the next command which causes move‐
	      ment.  The entire line is highlighted, unless the -J  option  is
	      in effect, in which case only the status column is highlighted.

       -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
	      Like -w, but temporarily highlights the first new line after any
	      forward movement command larger than one line.

       -xn or --tabs=n
	      Sets tab stops every n positions.	 The default for n is 8.

       -X or --no-init
	      Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization
	      strings  to  the	terminal.   This is sometimes desirable if the
	      deinitialization string does something unnecessary, like	clear‐
	      ing the screen.

       -yn or --max-forw-scroll=n
	      Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward.  If it is
	      necessary to scroll forward more than n  lines,  the  screen  is
	      repainted	 instead.   The -c or -C option may be used to repaint
	      from the top of the screen if desired.  By default, any  forward
	      movement causes scrolling.

       -[z]n or --window=n
	      Changes  the  default  scrolling	window	size  to n lines.  The
	      default is one screenful.	 The z and w commands can also be used
	      to  change the window size.  The "z" may be omitted for compati‐
	      bility with more.	 If the number n is negative, it  indicates  n
	      lines  less  than	 the current screen size.  For example, if the
	      screen is 24 lines, -z-4 sets the scrolling window to 20	lines.
	      If the screen is resized to 40 lines, the scrolling window auto‐
	      matically changes to 36 lines.

       -"cc or --quotes=cc
	      Changes the filename quoting character.  This may	 be  necessary
	      if  you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces and
	      quote characters.	 Followed by a single character, this  changes
	      the  quote  character to that character.	Filenames containing a
	      space should then be surrounded by that character rather than by
	      double  quotes.	Followed  by  two characters, changes the open
	      quote to the first character, and the close quote to the	second
	      character.  Filenames containing a space should then be preceded
	      by the open quote character and  followed	 by  the  close	 quote
	      character.   Note	 that  even  after  the	 quote	characters are
	      changed, this option remains -" (a dash  followed	 by  a	double
	      quote).

       -~ or --tilde
	      Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde
	      (~).  This option causes lines after end of file to be displayed
	      as blank lines.

       -# or --shift
	      Specifies the default number of positions to scroll horizontally
	      in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.	 If the number	speci‐
	      fied  is	zero,  it  sets the default number of positions to one
	      half of the screen width.

       --     A command line argument of "--" marks the end  of	 option	 argu‐
	      ments.   Any  arguments  following this are interpreted as file‐
	      names.  This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins
	      with a "-" or "+".

       +      If  a  command  line option begins with +, the remainder of that
	      option is taken to be an initial command to less.	 For  example,
	      +G  tells	 less  to start at the end of the file rather than the
	      beginning, and +/xyz tells it to start at the  first  occurrence
	      of  "xyz"	 in  the file.	As a special case, +<number> acts like
	      +<number>g; that is, it starts the display at the specified line
	      number  (however,	 see  the caveat under the "g" command above).
	      If the option starts with ++, the	 initial  command  applies  to
	      every  file being viewed, not just the first one.	 The + command
	      described previously may also be used to set (or change) an ini‐
	      tial command for every file.

LINE EDITING
       When  entering command line at the bottom of the screen (for example, a
       filename for the :e command, or the pattern for a search command), cer‐
       tain  keys  can	be used to manipulate the command line.	 Most commands
       have an alternate form in [ brackets ] which can be used if a key  does
       not  exist  on a particular keyboard.  (The bracketed forms do not work
       in the MS-DOS version.)	Any of these special keys may be entered  lit‐
       erally  by  preceding it with the "literal" character, either ^V or ^A.
       A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two	 back‐
       slashes.

       LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
	      Move the cursor one space to the left.

       RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
	      Move the cursor one space to the right.

       ^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
	      (That  is, CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously.)	 Move the cur‐
	      sor one word to the left.

       ^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
	      (That is, CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.)	 Move the cur‐
	      sor one word to the right.

       HOME [ ESC-0 ]
	      Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.

       END [ ESC-$ ]
	      Move the cursor to the end of the line.

       BACKSPACE
	      Delete  the  character  to the left of the cursor, or cancel the
	      command if the command line is empty.

       DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
	      Delete the character under the cursor.

       ^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
	      (That is, CONTROL and  BACKSPACE	simultaneously.)   Delete  the
	      word to the left of the cursor.

       ^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
	      (That  is,  CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously.)  Delete the word
	      under the cursor.

       UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
	      Retrieve the previous command line.

       DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
	      Retrieve the next command line.

       TAB    Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor.	If  it
	      matches  more than one filename, the first match is entered into
	      the command line.	 Repeated  TABs	 will  cycle  thru  the	 other
	      matching filenames.  If the completed filename is a directory, a
	      "/" is appended to the filename.	(On MS-DOS systems, a  "\"  is
	      appended.)   The	environment variable LESSSEPARATOR can be used
	      to specify a different character to append to a directory name.

       BACKTAB [ ESC-TAB ]
	      Like, TAB, but cycles in the reverse direction thru the matching
	      filenames.

       ^L     Complete	the partial filename to the left of the cursor.	 If it
	      matches more than one filename, all matches are entered into the
	      command line (if they fit).

       ^U (Unix) or ESC (MS-DOS)
	      Delete  the  entire  command  line, or cancel the command if the
	      command line is empty.  If you have changed your line-kill char‐
	      acter in Unix to something other than ^U, that character is used
	      instead of ^U.

KEY BINDINGS
       You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey  (1)
       to  create  a  lesskey file.  This file specifies a set of command keys
       and an action associated with each key.	You may also  use  lesskey  to
       change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDITING), and to set environment
       variables.  If the environment variable LESSKEY is set, less uses  that
       as  the	name of the lesskey file.  Otherwise, less looks in a standard
       place for the lesskey file: On Unix systems, less looks for  a  lesskey
       file  called  "$HOME/.less".  On MS-DOS and Windows systems, less looks
       for a lesskey file called "$HOME/_less", and if it is not found	there,
       then looks for a lesskey file called "_less" in any directory specified
       in the PATH environment variable.  On OS/2 systems, less	 looks	for  a
       lesskey	file  called  "$HOME/less.ini",	 and  if it is not found, then
       looks for a lesskey file called "less.ini" in any  directory  specified
       in the INIT environment variable, and if it not found there, then looks
       for a lesskey file called "less.ini" in any directory specified in  the
       PATH  environment  variable.   See  the	lesskey	 manual	 page for more
       details.

       A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key  bindings.
       If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file and in the system-wide
       file, key bindings in the local file take precedence over those in  the
       system-wide  file.   If the environment variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set,
       less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file.  Otherwise,
       less  looks  in	a  standard place for the system-wide lesskey file: On
       Unix systems, the system-wide lesskey file is  /usr/local/bin/.sysless.
       (However,  if  less  was	 built	with a different binary directory than
       /usr/local/bin, that directory is where the .sysless  file  is  found.)
       On MS-DOS and Windows systems, the system-wide lesskey file is c:\_sys‐
       less.  On OS/2 systems, the system-wide lesskey file is c:\sysless.ini.

INPUT PREPROCESSOR
       You may define an "input preprocessor" for less.	 Before less  opens  a
       file, it first gives your input preprocessor a chance to modify the way
       the contents of the file are displayed.	An input preprocessor is  sim‐
       ply  an executable program (or shell script), which writes the contents
       of the file to a different file, called the replacement file.  The con‐
       tents  of  the replacement file are then displayed in place of the con‐
       tents of the original file.  However, it will appear to the user as  if
       the  original  file  is opened; that is, less will display the original
       filename as the name of the current file.

       An input preprocessor receives one command line argument, the  original
       filename,  as  entered  by  the user.  It should create the replacement
       file, and when finished, print the name of the replacement file to  its
       standard	 output.  If the input preprocessor does not output a replace‐
       ment filename, less uses the original file, as normal.  The input  pre‐
       processor  is  not  called  when	 viewing standard input.  To set up an
       input preprocessor, set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a  command
       line  which  will  invoke  your	input preprocessor.  This command line
       should include one  occurrence  of  the	string	"%s",  which  will  be
       replaced	 by  the  filename  when  the  input  preprocessor  command is
       invoked.

       When less closes a file opened in such a way, it will call another pro‐
       gram,  called  the  input  postprocessor, which may perform any desired
       clean-up action (such as	 deleting  the	replacement  file  created  by
       LESSOPEN).  This program receives two command line arguments, the orig‐
       inal filename as entered by the user, and the name of  the  replacement
       file.   To set up an input postprocessor, set the LESSCLOSE environment
       variable to a command line which will invoke your input	postprocessor.
       It  may	include	 two  occurrences  of  the  string  "%s"; the first is
       replaced with the original name of the file and	the  second  with  the
       name of the replacement file, which was output by LESSOPEN.

       For  example, on many Unix systems, these two scripts will allow you to
       keep files in compressed format, but still let less view them directly:

       lessopen.sh:
	    #! /bin/sh
	    case "$1" in
	    *.Z) uncompress -c $1  >/tmp/less.$$  2>/dev/null
		 if [ -s /tmp/less.$$ ]; then
		      echo /tmp/less.$$
		 else
		      rm -f /tmp/less.$$
		 fi
		 ;;
	    esac

       lessclose.sh:
	    #! /bin/sh
	    rm $2

       To use these scripts, put them both where they can be executed and  set
       LESSOPEN="lessopen.sh %s",  and	LESSCLOSE="lessclose.sh %s %s".	  More
       complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to	 accept	 other
       types of compressed files, and so on.

       It  is  also  possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file
       data directly to less, rather than putting the data into a  replacement
       file.  This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before start‐
       ing to view it.	An input preprocessor that works this way is called an
       input  pipe.   An input pipe, instead of writing the name of a replace‐
       ment file on its standard output, writes the  entire  contents  of  the
       replacement  file  on  its standard output.  If the input pipe does not
       write any characters on its standard output, then there is no  replace‐
       ment  file and less uses the original file, as normal.  To use an input
       pipe, make the first character in the LESSOPEN environment  variable  a
       vertical	 bar  (|)  to  signify that the input preprocessor is an input
       pipe.

       For example, on many Unix systems, this script will work like the  pre‐
       vious example scripts:

       lesspipe.sh:
	    #! /bin/sh
	    case "$1" in
	    *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/dev/null
		 ;;
	    esac

       To  use	this  script,  put  it	where  it  can	be  executed  and  set
       LESSOPEN="|lesspipe.sh %s".  When an input pipe is  used,  a  LESSCLOSE
       postprocessor  can be used, but it is usually not necessary since there
       is no replacement file to clean up.  In this case, the replacement file
       name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "-".

NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS
       There are three types of characters in the input file:

       normal characters
	      can be displayed directly to the screen.

       control characters
	      should  not  be displayed directly, but are expected to be found
	      in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab).

       binary characters
	      should not be displayed directly and  are	 not  expected	to  be
	      found in text files.

       A "character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be
       considered normal, control, and binary.	 The  LESSCHARSET  environment
       variable	 may  be  used to select a character set.  Possible values for
       LESSCHARSET are:

       ascii  BS, TAB, NL, CR, and formfeed are control characters, all	 chars
	      with  values  between  32 and 126 are normal, and all others are
	      binary.

       iso8859
	      Selects an ISO 8859 character set.  This is the same  as	ASCII,
	      except  characters  between  160	and  255 are treated as normal
	      characters.

       latin1 Same as iso8859.

       dos    Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.

       ebcdic Selects an EBCDIC character set.

       koi8-r Selects a Russian character set.

       next   Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers.

       utf-8  Selects the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set.

       If the LESSCHARSET environment variable is not set, the default charac‐
       ter  set	 is  latin1.   However,	 if the string "UTF-8" is found in the
       LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE or LANG environment variables, then the default	 char‐
       acter set is utf-8 instead.

       In  special  cases, it may be desired to tailor less to use a character
       set other than the ones definable by LESSCHARSET.  In  this  case,  the
       environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set.
       It should be set to a string where each character in the string	repre‐
       sents  one  character  in the character set.  The character "." is used
       for a normal character, "c" for control, and "b" for binary.  A decimal
       number  may  be used for repetition.  For example, "bccc4b." would mean
       character 0 is binary, 1, 2 and 3 are  control,	4,  5,	6  and	7  are
       binary, and 8 is normal.	 All characters after the last are taken to be
       the same as the last, so characters 9  through  255  would  be  normal.
       (This  is an example, and does not necessarily represent any real char‐
       acter set.)

       This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent  to  each
       of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:

	    ascii     8bcccbcc18b95.b
	    dos	      8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
	    ebcdic    5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
		      9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
	    iso8859   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
	    koi8-r    8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
	    latin1    8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
	    next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb

       If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set, but your system supports
       the setlocale interface, less will use setlocale to determine the char‐
       acter  set.   setlocale	is  controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE
       environment variables.

       Control and  binary  characters	are  displayed	in  standout  (reverse
       video).	Each such character is displayed in caret notation if possible
       (e.g. ^A for control-A).	 Caret notation is used only if inverting  the
       0100 bit results in a normal printable character.  Otherwise, the char‐
       acter is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets.  This format  can
       be  changed by setting the LESSBINFMT environment variable.  LESSBINFMT
       may begin with a "*" and one character to select the display attribute:
       "*k"  is	 blinking, "*d" is bold, "*u" is underlined, "*s" is standout,
       and "*n" is normal.  If LESSBINFMT does not begin with  a  "*",	normal
       attribute  is  assumed.	 The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which
       may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x, X,  o,
       d,  etc.).   For	 example, if LESSBINFMT is "*u[%x]", binary characters
       are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded  by  brackets.   The
       default if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "*s<%X>".

PROMPTS
       The  -P option allows you to tailor the prompt to your preference.  The
       string given to the -P option replaces  the  specified  prompt  string.
       Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially.  The prompt
       mechanism is rather complicated to provide flexibility, but  the	 ordi‐
       nary  user need not understand the details of constructing personalized
       prompt strings.

       A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according  to
       what the following character is:

       %bX    Replaced	by the byte offset into the current input file.	 The b
	      is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which spec‐
	      ifies  the line whose byte offset is to be used.	If the charac‐
	      ter is a "t", the byte offset of the top line in the display  is
	      used, an "m" means use the middle line, a "b" means use the bot‐
	      tom line, a "B" means use the line just after the	 bottom	 line,
	      and  a  "j"  means use the "target" line, as specified by the -j
	      option.

       %B     Replaced by the size of the current input file.

       %c     Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first
	      column of the screen.

       %dX    Replaced	by  the	 page number of a line in the input file.  The
	      line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.

       %D     Replaced by the number of pages in the input  file,  or  equiva‐
	      lently, the page number of the last line in the input file.

       %E     Replaced	by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment
	      variable, or the EDITOR environment variable if  VISUAL  is  not
	      defined).	 See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.

       %f     Replaced by the name of the current input file.

       %i     Replaced	by  the index of the current file in the list of input
	      files.

       %lX    Replaced by the line number of a line in the  input  file.   The
	      line to be used is determined by the X, as with the %b option.

       %L     Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file.

       %m     Replaced by the total number of input files.

       %pX    Replaced	by  the	 percent into the current input file, based on
	      byte offsets.  The line used is determined by the X as with  the
	      %b option.

       %PX    Replaced	by  the	 percent into the current input file, based on
	      line numbers.  The line used is determined by the X as with  the
	      %b option.

       %s     Same as %B.

       %t     Causes  any  trailing spaces to be removed.  Usually used at the
	      end of the string, but may appear anywhere.

       %x     Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list.

       If any item is unknown (for example, the file size if input is a pipe),
       a question mark is printed instead.

       The  format  of	the  prompt string can be changed depending on certain
       conditions.  A question mark followed by a single character  acts  like
       an  "IF":  depending  on the following character, a condition is evalu‐
       ated.  If the condition is true, any characters following the  question
       mark  and  condition  character,	 up  to	 a period, are included in the
       prompt.	If the condition is false, such characters are	not  included.
       A  colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used
       to establish an "ELSE": any characters between the colon and the period
       are  included  in  the string if and only if the IF condition is false.
       Condition characters (which follow a question mark) may be:

       ?a     True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far.

       ?bX    True if the byte offset of the specified line is known.

       ?B     True if the size of current input file is known.

       ?c     True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero).

       ?dX    True if the page number of the specified line is known.

       ?e     True if at end-of-file.

       ?f     True if there is an input filename (that is, if input is	not  a
	      pipe).

       ?lX    True if the line number of the specified line is known.

       ?L     True if the line number of the last line in the file is known.

       ?m     True if there is more than one input file.

       ?n     True if this is the first prompt in a new input file.

       ?pX    True  if	the percent into the current input file, based on byte
	      offsets, of the specified line is known.

       ?PX    True if the percent into the current input file, based  on  line
	      numbers, of the specified line is known.

       ?s     Same as "?B".

       ?x     True  if	there  is  a  next input file (that is, if the current
	      input file is not the last one).

       Any characters other than  the  special	ones  (question	 mark,	colon,
       period,	percent,  and  backslash) become literally part of the prompt.
       Any of the special characters may be included in the  prompt  literally
       by preceding it with a backslash.

       Some examples:

       ?f%f:Standard input.

       This  prompt prints the filename, if known; otherwise the string "Stan‐
       dard input".

       ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?pt%pt\%:?btByte %bt:-...

       This prompt would print the filename, if known.	The filename  is  fol‐
       lowed  by  the  line  number, if known, otherwise the percent if known,
       otherwise the byte offset if known.   Otherwise,	 a  dash  is  printed.
       Notice  how  each  question  mark  has a matching period, and how the %
       after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash.

       ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x..%t

       This prints the filename if this is the first prompt in	a  file,  fol‐
       lowed  by  the  "file  N	 of N" message if there is more than one input
       file.  Then, if we are at end-of-file, the string  "(END)"  is  printed
       followed	 by  the name of the next file, if there is one.  Finally, any
       trailing spaces are truncated.  This is the default prompt.  For refer‐
       ence,  here  are	 the  defaults	for  the  other two prompts (-m and -M
       respectively).  Each is broken into  two	 lines	here  for  readability
       only.

       ?n?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
	    ?pB%pB\%:byte %bB?s/%s...%t

       ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. :
	    byte %bB?s/%s. .?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?pB%pB\%..%t

       And here is the default message produced by the = command:

       ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltlines %lt-%lb?L/%L. .
	    byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?pB%pB\%..%t

       The  prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an
       environment variable LESSEDIT is defined, it is used as the command  to
       be  executed  when  the	v  command is invoked.	The LESSEDIT string is
       expanded in the same way as the prompt strings.	The default value  for
       LESSEDIT is:

	    %E ?lm+%lm. %f

       Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by a + and the line
       number, followed by the file name.  If your editor does not accept  the
       "+linenumber"  syntax,  or  has other differences in invocation syntax,
       the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to modify this default.

SECURITY
       When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1, less  runs	 in  a
       "secure" mode.  This means these features are disabled:

	      !	     the shell command

	      |	     the pipe command

	      :e     the examine command.

	      v	     the editing command

	      s	 -o  log files

	      -k     use of lesskey files

	      -t     use of tags files

		     metacharacters in filenames, such as *

		     filename completion (TAB, ^L)

       Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "secure" mode.

ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
       Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment
       as usual, or in a lesskey  (1)  file.   If  environment	variables  are
       defined	in  more  than one place, variables defined in a local lesskey
       file take precedence over variables defined in the system  environment,
       which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey
       file.

       COLUMNS
	      Sets the number of columns on the screen.	 Takes precedence over
	      the  number  of columns specified by the TERM variable.  (But if
	      you  have	 a  windowing  system  which  supports	TIOCGWINSZ  or
	      WIOCGETD,	 the  window  system's	idea  of the screen size takes
	      precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)

       EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command).

       HOME   Name of the user's home directory (used to find a	 lesskey  file
	      on Unix systems).

       HOMEDRIVE, HOMEPATH
	      Concatenation  of	 the  HOMEDRIVE and HOMEPATH environment vari‐
	      ables is the name of the user's home directory if the HOME vari‐
	      able is not set (only in the Windows version).

       INIT   Name  of	the user's init directory (used to find a lesskey file
	      on OS/2 systems).

       LANG   Language for determining the character set.

       LC_CTYPE
	      Language for determining the character set.

       LESS   Options which are passed to less automatically.

       LESSANSIENDCHARS
	      Characters which	are  assumed  to  end  an  ANSI	 color	escape
	      sequence (default "m").

       LESSBINFMT
	      Format for displaying non-printable, non-control characters.

       LESSCHARDEF
	      Defines a character set.

       LESSCHARSET
	      Selects a predefined character set.

       LESSCLOSE
	      Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor.

       LESSECHO
	      Name of the lessecho program (default "lessecho").  The lessecho
	      program is needed to expand metacharacters, such as * and ?,  in
	      filenames on Unix systems.

       LESSEDIT
	      Editor  prototype	 string (used for the v command).  See discus‐
	      sion under PROMPTS.

       LESSKEY
	      Name of the default lesskey(1) file.

       LESSKEY_SYSTEM
	      Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.

       LESSMETACHARS
	      List of characters which are considered "metacharacters" by  the
	      shell.

       LESSMETAESCAPE
	      Prefix  which  less will add before each metacharacter in a com‐
	      mand sent to the shell.  If LESSMETAESCAPE is an	empty  string,
	      commands	containing  metacharacters  will  not be passed to the
	      shell.

       LESSOPEN
	      Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor.

       LESSSECURE
	      Runs less in "secure" mode.  See discussion under SECURITY.

       LESSSEPARATOR
	      String to be appended to a directory name	 in  filename  comple‐
	      tion.

       LINES  Sets  the	 number of lines on the screen.	 Takes precedence over
	      the number of lines specified by the TERM variable.  (But if you
	      have  a  windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD,
	      the window system's idea of the  screen  size  takes  precedence
	      over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)

       PATH   User's  search  path  (used to find a lesskey file on MS-DOS and
	      OS/2 systems).

       SHELL  The shell used to execute the ! command, as well	as  to	expand
	      filenames.

       TERM   The type of terminal on which less is being run.

       VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).

SEE ALSO
       lesskey(1)

WARNINGS
       The  =  command and prompts (unless changed by -P) report the line num‐
       bers of the lines at the top and bottom of the screen, but the byte and
       percent of the line after the one at the bottom of the screen.

       If  the	:e  command is used to name more than one file, and one of the
       named files has been viewed previously, the new files  may  be  entered
       into the list in an unexpected order.

       On  certain  older  terminals (the so-called "magic cookie" terminals),
       search highlighting will cause an erroneous display.   On  such	termi‐
       nals,  search  highlighting  is	disabled  by default to avoid possible
       problems.

       In certain cases, when search highlighting is enabled and a search pat‐
       tern  begins  with a ^, more text than the matching string may be high‐
       lighted.	 (This problem does not occur when less is compiled to use the
       POSIX regular expression package.)

       On  some	 systems, setlocale claims that ASCII characters 0 thru 31 are
       control characters rather than binary characters.  This causes less  to
       treat  some  binary files as ordinary, non-binary files.	 To workaround
       this problem, set the environment variable LESSCHARSET to  "ascii"  (or
       whatever character set is appropriate).

       See http://www.flash.net/~marknu/less for the latest list of known bugs
       in this version of less.

COPYRIGHT
       Copyright (C) 2000  Mark Nudelman

       less is part of the GNU project and is free software.  You  can	redis‐
       tribute	it and/or modify it under the terms of either (1) the GNU Gen‐
       eral Public License as published by the Free  Software  Foundation;  or
       (2) the Less License.  See the file README in the less distribution for
       more details regarding redistribution.  You should have received a copy
       of  the	GNU General Public License along with the source for less; see
       the file COPYING.  If not, write to the Free  Software  Foundation,  59
       Temple  Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.  You should also
       have received a copy of the Less License; see the file LICENSE.

       less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY
       WARRANTY;  without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FIT‐
       NESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU General Public License  for
       more details.

AUTHOR
       Mark Nudelman <marknu@flash.net>
       Send  bug  reports  or  comments	 to  the  above	 address  or  to  bug-
       less@gnu.org.

			   Version 358: 08 Jul 2000		       LESS(1)
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