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INTRO(3TIFF)							  INTRO(3TIFF)

NAME
       libtiff	-  introduction	 to libtiff, a library for reading and writing
       TIFF files

SYNOPSIS
       #include <tiffio.h>

       cc file.c -ltiff

DESCRIPTION
       libtiff is a library for reading and writing data  files	 encoded  with
       the  Tag	 Image	File format, Revision 6.0 (or revision 5.0 or revision
       4.0). This file	format	is  suitable  for  archiving  multi-color  and
       monochromatic image data.

       The  library  supports  several compression algorithms, as indicated by
       the Compression field, including: no compression (1), CCITT 1D  Huffman
       compression (2), CCITT Group 3 Facsimile compression (3), CCITT Group 4
       Facsimile compression (4), Lempel-Ziv & Welch compression (5), baseline
       JPEG  compression (7), word-aligned 1D Huffman compression (32771), and
       PackBits compression (32773).  In addition,  several  nonstandard  com‐
       pression algorithms are supported: the 4-bit compression algorithm used
       by the ThunderScan program (32809) (decompression only),	 NeXT's	 2-bit
       compression algorithm (32766) (decompression only), an experimental LZ-
       style algorithm known as	 Deflate  (32946),  and	 an  experimental  CIE
       LogLuv  compression  scheme designed for images with high dynamic range
       (32845 for LogL and 32845 for LogLuv).  Directory information may be in
       either  little- or big-endian byte order-byte swapping is automatically
       done by the library. Data bit ordering may be either  Most  Significant
       Bit  (MSB)  to Least Significant Bit (LSB) or LSB to MSB.  Finally, the
       library does not support files in which the BitsPerSample, Compression,
       MinSampleValue,	or  MaxSampleValue fields are defined differently on a
       per-sample basis (in Rev. 6.0 the Compression tag is not defined	 on  a
       per-sample basis, so this is immaterial).

DATA TYPES
       The  library  makes extensive use of C typedefs to promote portability.
       Two sets of typedefs are used, one for communication  with  clients  of
       the  library  and  one  for internal data structures and parsing of the
       TIFF format.  The  following  typedefs  are  exposed  to	 users	either
       through	function  definitions or through parameters passed through the
       varargs interfaces.
	    typedef unsigned short uint16;	16-bit unsigned integer
	    typedef unsigned <thing> uint32;	32-bit unsigned integer
	    typedef unsigned int ttag_t;	directory tag
	    typedef uint16 tdir_t;		directory index
	    typedef uint16 tsample_t;		sample number
	    typedef uint32 tstrip_t;		strip number
	    typedef uint32 ttile_t;		tile number
	    typedef int32 tsize_t;		i/o size in bytes
	    typedef void* tdata_t;		image data ref
	    typedef void* thandle_t;		client data handle
	    typedef int32 toff_t;		file offset
       Note that tstrip_t, ttile_t, and tsize_t are constrained to be no  more
       than  32-bit quantities by 32-bit fields they are stored in in the TIFF
       image.  Likewise tsample_t is limited by the 16-bit field used to store
       the  SamplesPerPixel tag.  tdir_t constrains the maximum number of IFDs
       that may appear in an image and may be an arbitrary size (w/o penalty).
       ttag_t must be either int, unsigned int, pointer, or double because the
       library uses a varargs interface and ANSI C restricts the type  of  the
       parameter  before an ellipsis to be a promoted type.  toff_t is defined
       as int32 because TIFF file offsets are (unsigned) 32-bit quantities.  A
       signed  value  is  used	because	 some  interfaces  return -1 on error.
       Finally, note that user-specified data references are passed as	opaque
       handles	and  only  cast	 at the lowest layers where their type is pre‐
       sumed.

LIST OF ROUTINES
       The following routines are part of the library. Consult specific manual
       pages for details on their operation; on most systems doing ``man func‐
       tion-name'' will work.

       Name			Description
       TIFFCheckpointDirectory	writes the current state of the directory
       TIFFCheckTile		very x,y,z,sample is within image
       TIFFCIELabToRGBInit	initialize CIE L*a*b* 1976 to RGB conversion state
       TIFFCIELabToXYZ		perform CIE L*a*b* 1976 to CIE XYZ conversion
       TIFFClientOpen		open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFClose		close an open file
       TIFFComputeStrip		return strip containing y,sample
       TIFFComputeTile		return tile containing x,y,z,sample
       TIFFCurrentDirectory	return index of current directory
       TIFFCurrentRow		return index of current scanline
       TIFFCurrentStrip		return index of current strip
       TIFFCurrentTile		return index of current tile
       TIFFDataWidth		return the size of TIFF data types
       TIFFError		library error handler
       TIFFFdOpen		open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFFileName		return name of open file
       TIFFFileno		return open file descriptor
       TIFFFindCODEC		find standard codec for the specific scheme
       TIFFFlush		flush all pending writes
       TIFFFlushData		flush pending data writes
       TIFFGetBitRevTable	return bit reversal table
       TIFFGetField		return tag value in current directory
       TIFFGetFieldDefaulted	return tag value in current directory
       TIFFGetMode		return open file mode
       TIFFGetVersion		return library version string
       TIFFIsCODECConfigured	check, whether we have working codec
       TIFFIsMSB2LSB		return true if image data is being returned
				with bit 0 as the most significant bit
       TIFFIsTiled		return true if image data is tiled
       TIFFIsByteSwapped	return true if image data is byte-swapped
       TIFFNumberOfStrips	return number of strips in an image
       TIFFNumberOfTiles	return number of tiles in an image
       TIFFOpen			open a file for reading or writing
       TIFFPrintDirectory	print description of the current directory
       TIFFReadBufferSetup	specify i/o buffer for reading
       TIFFReadDirectory	read the next directory
       TIFFReadEncodedStrip	read and decode a strip of data
       TIFFReadEncodedTile	read and decode a tile of data
       TIFFReadRawStrip		read a raw strip of data
       TIFFReadRawTile		read a raw tile of data
       TIFFReadRGBAImage	read an image into a fixed format raster
       TIFFReadScanline		read and decode a row of data
       TIFFReadTile		read and decode a tile of data
       TIFFRegisterCODEC	override standard codec for the specific scheme
       TIFFReverseBits		reverse bits in an array of bytes
       TIFFRGBAImageBegin	setup decoder state for TIFFRGBAImageGet
       TIFFRGBAImageEnd		release TIFFRGBAImage decoder state
       TIFFRGBAImageGet		read and decode an image
       TIFFRGBAImageOK		is image readable by TIFFRGBAImageGet
       TIFFScanlineSize		return size of a scanline
       TIFFSetDirectory		set the current directory
       TIFFSetSubDirectory	set the current directory
       TIFFSetErrorHandler	set error handler function
       TIFFSetField		set a tag's value in the current directory
       TIFFSetWarningHandler	set warning handler function
       TIFFStripSize		returns size of a strip
       TIFFRawStripSize		returns the number of bytes in a raw strip
       TIFFSwabShort		swap bytes of short
       TIFFSwabLong		swap bytes of long
       TIFFSwabArrayOfShort	swap bytes of an array of shorts
       TIFFSwabArrayOfLong	swap bytes of an array of longs
       TIFFTileRowSize		return size of a row in a tile
       TIFFTileSize		return size of a tile
       TIFFUnRegisterCODEC	unregisters the codec
       TIFFVGetField		return tag value in current directory
       TIFFVGetFieldDefaulted	return tag value in current directory
       TIFFVSetField		set a tag's value in the current directory
       TIFFVStripSize		returns the number of bytes in a strip
       TIFFWarning		library warning handler
       TIFFWriteDirectory	write the current directory
       TIFFWriteEncodedStrip	compress and write a strip of data
       TIFFWriteEncodedTile	compress and write a tile of data
       TIFFWriteRawStrip	write a raw strip of data
       TIFFWriteRawTile		write a raw tile of data
       TIFFWriteScanline	write a scanline of data
       TIFFWriteTile		compress and write a tile of data
       TIFFXYZToRGB		perform CIE XYZ to RGB conversion
       TIFFYCbCrToRGBInit	initialize YCbCr to RGB conversion state
       TIFFYCbCrtoRGB		perform YCbCr to RGB conversion

       Auxiliary functions:
       _TIFFfree		free memory buffer
       _TIFFmalloc		dynamically allocate memory buffer
       _TIFFmemcmp		compare contents of the memory buffers
       _TIFFmemcpy		copy contents of the one buffer to another
       _TIFFmemset		fill memory buffer with a constant byte
       _TIFFrealloc		dynamically reallocate memory buffer

TAG USAGE
       The table below lists the TIFF tags that are recognized and handled  by
       the  library.   If  no  use is indicated in the table, then the library
       reads and writes the tag, but does not use it  internally.   Note  that
       some  tags  are meaningful only when a particular compression scheme is
       being used; e.g.	 Group3Options is only useful if Compression is set to
       CCITT  Group  3	encoding.  Tags of this sort are considered codec-spe‐
       cific tags and the library does not recognize them except when the Com‐
       pression	 tag  has  been	 previously  set  to  the relevant compression
       scheme.

       Tag Name		       Value  R/W  Library Use/Notes
       Artist		       315    R/W
       BadFaxLines	       326    R/W
       BitsPerSample	       258    R/W  lots
       CellLength	       265	   parsed but ignored
       CellWidth	       264	   parsed but ignored
       CleanFaxData	       327    R/W
       ColorMap		       320    R/W
       ColorResponseUnit       300	   parsed but ignored
       Compression	       259    R/W  choosing codec
       ConsecutiveBadFaxLines  328    R/W
       Copyright       33432   R/W
       DataType		       32996  R	   obsoleted by SampleFormat tag
       DateTime		       306    R/W
       DocumentName	       269    R/W
       DotRange		       336    R/W
       ExtraSamples	       338    R/W  lots
       FaxRecvParams	       34908  R/W
       FaxSubAddress	       34909  R/W
       FaxRecvTime	       34910  R/W
       FillOrder	       266    R/W  control bit order
       FreeByteCounts	       289	   parsed but ignored
       FreeOffsets	       288	   parsed but ignored
       GrayResponseCurve       291	   parsed but ignored
       GrayResponseUnit	       290	   parsed but ignored
       Group3Options	       292    R/W  used by Group 3 codec
       Group4Options	       293    R/W
       HostComputer	       316    R/W
       ImageDepth	       32997  R/W  tile/strip calculations
       ImageDescription	       270    R/W
       ImageLength	       257    R/W  lots
       ImageWidth	       256    R/W  lots
       InkNames		       333    R/W
       InkSet		       332    R/W
       JPEGTables	       347    R/W  used by JPEG codec
       Make		       271    R/W
       Matteing		       32995  R	   obsoleted by ExtraSamples tag
       MaxSampleValue	       281    R/W
       MinSampleValue	       280    R/W
       Model		       272    R/W
       NewSubFileType	       254    R/W  called SubFileType in spec
       NumberOfInks	       334    R/W
       Orientation	       274    R/W
       PageName		       285    R/W
       PageNumber	       297    R/W
       PhotometricInterpretation      262  R/Wused by Group 3 and JPEG codecs
       PlanarConfiguration     284    R/W  data i/o
       Predictor	       317    R/W  used by LZW and Deflate codecs
       PrimaryChromacities     319    R/W
       ReferenceBlackWhite     532    R/W
       ResolutionUnit	       296    R/W  used by Group 3 codec
       RowsPerStrip	       278    R/W  data i/o
       SampleFormat	       339    R/W
       SamplesPerPixel	       277    R/W  lots
       SMinSampleValue	       340    R/W
       SMaxSampleValue	       341    R/W
       Software		       305    R/W
       StoNits		       37439  R/W
       StripByteCounts	       279    R/W  data i/o
       StripOffsets	       273    R/W  data i/o
       SubFileType	       255    R/W  called OSubFileType in spec
       TargetPrinter	       337    R/W
       Thresholding	       263    R/W
       TileByteCounts	       324    R/W  data i/o
       TileDepth	       32998  R/W  tile/strip calculations
       TileLength	       323    R/W  data i/o
       TileOffsets	       324    R/W  data i/o
       TileWidth	       322    R/W  data i/o
       TransferFunction	       301    R/W
       WhitePoint	       318    R/W
       XPosition	       286    R/W
       XResolution	       282    R/W
       YCbCrCoefficients       529    R/W  used by TIFFRGBAImage support
       YCbCrPositioning	       531    R/W  tile/strip size calulcations
       YCbCrSubsampling	       530    R/W
       YPosition	       286    R/W
       YResolution	       283    R/W  used by Group 3 codec

PSEUDO TAGS
       In addition to the normal TIFF tags the library supports	 a  collection
       of  tags	 whose	values	lie in a range outside the valid range of TIFF
       tags.  These tags are termed pseud-tags and are used to control various
       codec-specific  functions  within  the library.	The table below summa‐
       rizes the defined pseudo-tags.

       Tag Name		       Codec  R/W  Library Use/Notes
       TIFFTAG_FAXMODE	       G3     R/W  general codec operation
       TIFFTAG_FAXFILLFUNC     G3/G4  R/W  bitmap fill function
       TIFFTAG_JPEGQUALITY     JPEG   R/W  compression quality control
       TIFFTAG_JPEGCOLORMODE   JPEG   R/W  control colorspace conversions
       TIFFTAG_JPEGTABLESMODE  JPEG   R/W  control contents of JPEGTables tag
       TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY      Deflate	   R/Wcompression quality level
       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGDATAFMT PixarLog	   R/Wuser data format
       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGQUALITY PixarLog	   R/Wcompression quality level
       TIFFTAG_SGILOGDATAFMT   SGILog R/W  user data format

       TIFFTAG_FAXMODE
	      Control the operation of the Group  3  codec.   Possible	values
	      (independent  bits that can be combined by or'ing them together)
	      are: FAXMODE_CLASSIC (enable old-style format in which  the  RTC
	      is  written  at the end of the last strip), FAXMODE_NORTC (oppo‐
	      site  of	FAXMODE_CLASSIC;  also	called	FAXMODE_CLASSF),  FAX‐
	      MODE_NOEOL  (do  not write EOL codes at the start of each row of
	      data), FAXMODE_BYTEALIGN (align each encoded  row	 to  an	 8-bit
	      boundary),  FAXMODE_WORDALIGN  (align  each  encoded  row	 to an
	      16-bit boundary), The default value is dependent on the compres‐
	      sion  scheme;  this  pseudo-tag is used by the various G3 and G4
	      codecs to share code.

       TIFFTAG_FAXFILLFUNC
	      Control the function used to convert arrays of black  and	 white
	      runs  to	packed	bit  arrays.   This  hook can be used to image
	      decoded scanlines in multi-bit depth rasters (e.g.  for  display
	      in colormap mode) or for other purposes.	The default value is a
	      pointer to a builtin function that images packed bilevel data.

       TIFFTAG_IPTCNEWSPHOTO
	      Tag contaings image metadata per the IPTC newsphoto spec:	 Head‐
	      line, captioning, credit, etc... Used by most wire services.

       TIFFTAG_PHOTOSHOP
	      Tag contains Photoshop captioning information and metadata. Pho‐
	      toshop uses in parallel and redundantly alongside	 IPTCNEWSPHOTO
	      information.

       TIFFTAG_JPEGQUALITY
	      Control the compression quality level used in the baseline algo‐
	      rithm.  Note that quality levels are in the range 0-100  with  a
	      default value of 75.

       TIFFTAG_JPEGCOLORMODE
	      Control  whether or not conversion is done between RGB and YCbCr
	      colorspaces.  Possible values  are:  JPEGCOLORMODE_RAW  (do  not
	      convert),	  and  JPEGCOLORMODE_RGB  (convert  to/from  RGB)  The
	      default value is JPEGCOLORMODE_RAW.

       TIFFTAG_JPEGTABLESMODE
	      Control the information written in the JPEGTables tag.  Possible
	      values  (independent  bits  that	can be combined by or'ing them
	      together)	 are:	JPEGTABLESMODE_QUANT   (include	  quantization
	      tables),	 and  JPEGTABLESMODE_HUFF  (include  Huffman  encoding
	      tables).	 The  default  value  is  JPEGTABLESMODE_QUANT|JPEGTA‐
	      BLESMODE_HUFF.

       TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY
	      Control  the  compression	 technique  used by the Deflate codec.
	      Quality levels are in the range 1-9 with larger numbers yielding
	      better compression at the cost of more computation.  The default
	      quality level is 6 which yields a good time-space tradeoff.

       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGDATAFMT
	      Control the format of user data passed in to the PixarLog	 codec
	      when  encoding and passed out from when decoding.	 Possible val‐
	      ues are: PIXARLOGDATAFMT_8BIT for 8-bit unsigned pixels,	PIXAR‐
	      LOGDATAFMT_8BITABGR  for	8-bit  unsigned	 ABGR-ordered  pixels,
	      PIXARLOGDATAFMT_11BITLOG for 11-bit log-encoded raw data, PIXAR‐
	      LOGDATAFMT_12BITPICIO  for  12-bit PICIO-compatible data, PIXAR‐
	      LOGDATAFMT_16BIT	for  16-bit  signed  samples,  and   PIXARLOG‐
	      DATAFMT_FLOAT for 32-bit IEEE floating point samples.

       TIFFTAG_PIXARLOGQUALITY
	      Control  the  compression	 technique used by the PixarLog codec.
	      This value is treated identically to TIFFTAG_ZIPQUALITY; see the
	      above description.

       TIFFTAG_SGILOGDATAFMT
	      Control  the format of client data passed in to the SGILog codec
	      when encoding and passed out from when decoding.	Possible  val‐
	      ues  are: SGILOGDATAFMT_FLTXYZ for converting between LogLuv and
	      32-bit IEEE floating valued XYZ  pixels,	SGILOGDATAFMT_16BITLUV
	      for   16-bit  encoded  Luv  pixels,  SGILOGDATAFMT_32BITRAW  and
	      SGILOGDATAFMT_24BITRAW  for  no  conversion  of  data,   SGILOG‐
	      DATAFMT_8BITRGB  for  returning  8-bit RGB data (valid only when
	      decoding LogLuv-encoded data), SGILOGDATAFMT_FLTY for converting
	      between  LogL  and 32-bit IEEE floating valued Y pixels, SGILOG‐
	      DATAFMT_16BITL  for  16-bit  encoded  L  pixels,	 and   SGILOG‐
	      DATAFMT_8BITGRY  for  returning 8-bit greyscale data (valid only
	      when decoding LogL-encoded data).

DIAGNOSTICS
       All error messages are directed	through	 the  TIFFError	 routine.   By
       default messages are directed to stderr in the form: module: message\n.
       Warning messages are likewise directed through the TIFFWarning routine.

SEE ALSO
       fax2tiff(1),  gif2tiff(1),   pal2rgb(1),	  ppm2tiff(1),	 rgb2ycbcr(1),
       ras2tiff(1), raw2tiff(1), sgi2tiff(1), tiff2bw(1), tiffdither(1), tiff‐
       dump(1), tiffcp(1), tiffcmp(1), tiffgt(1), tiffinfo(1),	tiffmedian(1),
       tiffsplit(1), tiffsv(1).

       Tag  Image File Format Specification — Revision 6.0, an Aldus Technical
       Memorandum.

       The Spirit of TIFF Class F, an appendix to the TIFF  5.0	 specification
       prepared by Cygnet Technologies.

       Libtiff library home page: http://www.remotesensing.org/libtiff/

BUGS
       The  library  does  not	support multi-sample images where some samples
       have different bits/sample.

       The library does not support random access to compressed data  that  is
       organized with more than one row per tile or strip.

libtiff			       November 2, 2005			  INTRO(3TIFF)
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