ln man page on HP-UX

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ln(1)									 ln(1)

       ln - link files and directories

       file1 new_file

       file1 [file2]...	 dest_directory

       directory1 [directory2]...  dest_directory

       The command links:

	      ·	 file1 to a new or existing new_file,

	      ·	 file1	to  a  new  or	existing  file named file1 in existing

	      ·	 file1, file2, ...  to new or existing files of the same  name
		 in existing dest_directory,

	      ·	 directory1,  directory2, ...	to new directories of the same
		 name in existing dest_directory,

	      ·	 or it creates symbolic links between files or between	direc‐

       If  links  are to dest_directory, corresponding file or directory names
       in that directory are  linked  to  file1,  file2, ...,  or  directory1,
       directory2, ...,	 etc.,	as appropriate.	 If two or more existing files
       or directories (excluding destination file name	new_file)  are	speci‐
       fied,  the destination must be a directory.  If new_file already exists
       as a regular file (or link to  another  file),  its  contents  (or  the
       existing	 link)	and its ACL are destroyed only if the option is speci‐
       fied.  The ACL on the new_file after the link is the same  as  that  of
       the source_file file.

       If the and options are specified and the link being created is the name
       of an existing link or ordinary file and the access permissions of  the
       file  forbid  writing,  asks  permission to overwrite the file.	If the
       access permissions of the directory forbid writing, aborts and  returns
       with the error message:

       (even  if the file is an ordinary file and not a link to another file).
       When asking for permission to  overwrite	 an  existing  file  or	 link,
       prints the mode (see chmod(2) and below), followed by the first letters
       of the words and in  the	 current  native  language,  prompting	for  a
       response,  and  reading	one  line  from	 the  standard	input.	If the
       response is affirmative and is permissible, the	operation  occurs;  if
       not, the command proceeds to the next source file, if any.

       Hard  links are created with the same ownerships and permissions as the
       file or directory to which they are linked.  If	ownership  or  permis‐
       sions  are changed on a link or file, the same changes appear on corre‐
       sponding hard links.  The command does  not  permit  hard  links	 to  a

       Symbolic	 links	are  created with the ownership of the creator and the
       permissions are of the creator's current umask.	Once created, the sym‐
       bolic  link  ownership  and permissions will not change, since the mode
       and ownership of the symbolic link is ignored by the system.

       If file1 is a file and new_file is a link to an	existing  file	or  an
       existing	 file  with  other  links,  new_file is disassociated from the
       existing file and links and linked to file1.  When creates a link to  a
       new  or existing file name, ownerships and permissions are always iden‐
       tical to those for the file to which it is linked.  If or  is  used  to
       change  ownership  or permissions of a file or link, the change applies
       to the file and all associated links.  The last modification  time  and
       last  access  time  of  the file and all associated links are identical
       (see chown(1) and chmod(1)).

       For a discussion of symbolic links, see symlink(4).

       The command recognizes the following options:

	      Force existing destination
		      path names to be removed to allow the link.

	      Write a prompt to the standard error output
		      requesting confirmation for each link that  would	 over‐
		      write  an	 existing file.	 This option takes effect only
		      if used in conjunction with the option.

	      Cause   to create symbolic  links	 instead  of  the  usual  hard
		      links.  A symbolic link contains the name of the file to
		      which it is linked.  The referenced file is used when an
		      operation	 is performed on the link (see open(2)).  A on
		      a symbolic link returns the linked-to file; an  must  be
		      performed	 to  obtain  information  about	 the link (see
		      stat(2)).	 A call can be used to read  the  contents  of
		      the symbolic link (see readlink(2)).  Symbolic links may
		      span file systems and refer to directories.

   Access Control Lists (ACLs)
       If optional ACL entries are associated with new_file, displays  a  plus
       sign  after  the	 access	 mode  when asking permission to overwrite the

       If new_file is a new file, it  inherits	the  access  control  list  of
       file1,  altered	to reflect any difference in ownership between the two
       files (see acl(5) and aclv(5)).	In JFS file systems, new files created
       by  do  not  inherit  their  parent directory's default ACL entries (if
       any), but instead retain their original ACLs.

   Environment Variables
       determines the interpretation of text as single byte  and/or  multibyte

       and determine the local language equivalent of (for yes/no queries).

       determines the language in which messages are displayed.

       If  is  not specified in the environment or is set to the empty string,
       the value of is used as a default for each unspecified or  empty	 vari‐
       able.   If is not specified or is set to the empty string, a default of
       (see lang(5)) is used instead of If any	internationalization  variable
       contains	 an  invalid  setting,	behaves as if all internationalization
       variables are set to See environ(5).

   International Code Set Support
       Single byte and multibyte character code sets are supported.

       The following command creates and in which are linked back to the orig‐
       inal files and

       If  and/or  exists  in  the  destination	 directory,  it is removed and
       replaced by a link to or respectively.  If existing file or is  a  link
       to  another file or a file with links, the existing file remains.  Only
       the link is broken and replaced by a new link to or

       does not create hard links across file systems.

       Access control lists of networked files are summarized (as returned  in
       by  but not copied to the new file.  When using on such files, a is not
       printed after the mode value when asking for permission to overwrite  a

       was developed by AT&T, the University of California, Berkeley and HP.

       cp(1),  cpio(1),	 mv(1),	 rm(1),	 link(1M),  readlink(2), stat(2), sym‐
       link(2), symlink(4), acl(5), aclv(5).


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