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lpd(8)									lpd(8)

Name
       lpd - line printer daemon

Syntax
       /usr/lib/lpd [ -l ] [ -L logfile ] [ portnumber ]

Description
       The  line  printer daemon uses the system calls and to receive requests
       to print files in the print queue, transfer files to the spooling area,
       display the queue, and remove jobs from the queue.

       The  line printer daemon is invoked by the command file when the system
       goes multi-user (normally at system start up).  The daemon looks at the
       file  to	 find  out  about  the	capabilities of existing printers, and
       prints any files that were not printed when  the	 system	 last  stopped
       operating.

       The  Internet  port  number  used to rendezvous with other processes is
       normally obtained with but can be changed by using the portnumber argu‐
       ment.

       Access  to  the facilities provided by the daemon is controlled by only
       allowing requests from the machines listed in the or files.   The  file
       is  described  on the reference page.  The file is a list of names con‐
       sisting of one host machine name per line.  An * character at the start
       of  any	line  in  allows print requests from all systems.  The machine
       names listed in the and files may optionally  contain  the  local  BIND
       domain  name.   For  more  information  on  BIND,  see the Guide to the
       BIND/Hesiod Service.

       You can also control access to the daemon by specifying the rs capabil‐
       ity  for	 a particular printer in the file.  This restricts the printer
       users to those with accounts on the machine which the printer  is  con‐
       nected to.

       The  file lock in each spool directory is used to prevent multiple dae‐
       mons from becoming active  simultaneously,  and	to  store  information
       about the daemon process for and

       After  the daemon has successfully set the lock, it scans the directory
       for command files with names beginning with cf .	 These	files  specify
       names of files which are to be printed and parameters affecting how the
       files are printed.  Each line in a command file begins with a key char‐
       acter  to  specify  what to do with the remainder of the line.  The key
       characters and their meanings are shown below.  They are listed in  the
       order that they would appear in a command file.

       If  a  file  is	to be printed but can not be opened, a message will be
       placed in the logfile (by default, the system console).

       The daemon uses to provide exclusive access to the lock file.  The lock
       is  automatically  removed  by the kernel when a process terminates for
       any reason.  The lock file  contains  two  lines.   The	first  is  the
       process id of the daemon and the second is the control file name of the
       current job being printed.  The second line is updated for use by and

       The key characters in the command file and their meanings are  as  fol‐
       lows:

       Hhost	 Host Name.  Name of the machine where was invoked.

       Puser	 Person.  Login name of the person who invoked This is used to
		 verify ownership by

       Jjob	 Job Name.  String to be used for the job name on  the	banner
		 page.

       Cclass	 Classification.   String  to  be  used for the classification
		 line on the banner page.

       Luser	 Literal.  The line contains identification  information  from
		 the password file and causes the banner page to be printed.

       Inum	 Indent.   The	number	of  characters	by which the output is
		 indented (in ASCII).

       Muser	 Send mail to the specified user when the  current  print  job
		 completes.

       1font	 Troff	Font  R.   Name of the font file to use instead of the
		 default.

       2font	 Troff Font I.	Name of the font file to use  instead  of  the
		 default.

       3font	 Troff	Font  B.   Name of the font file to use instead of the
		 default.

       4font	 Troff Font S.	Name of the font file to use  instead  of  the
		 default.

       Wnum	 Width.	  Changes  the	page width (in characters) used by and
		 the text filters.

       Znum	 Length.  Changes the page length (in lines) used by  and  the
		 text filters.

       Ddata_type
		 Data type of the job.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       <input_tray
		 Selects the input tray that supplies paper for the print job.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       >output_tray
		 Selects the output tray where the printed paper is deposited.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Oorientation
		 Specifies the orientation of the printed output on the page.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Fpage_size
		 Specifies the size of the pages being printed.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Ssheet_size
		 Specifies the physical size of the sheets being printed.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Emessage	 Specifies  what happens to messages generated when processing
		 the print job.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Xnum	 Specifies the number of times each page is printed.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Anum	 Specifies the first page to be printed for the job.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Bnum	 Specifies the last page to be printed for the job.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Gnum	 Specifies the number of pages to be printed on a single phys‐
		 ical sheet.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       zfilename Layup	definition  file  which alters the appearance of pages
		 (margins, borders, etc).
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Ksides	 Specifies whether the job should be printed on both sides  to
		 the  physical	sheet, and whether the pages should be rotated
		 by 180 degrees.
		 (PostScript (TM) printers only.)

       Ttitle	 Title.	 String to be used as the title for

       ffilename Formatted File.  Name of a file to  print  which  is  already
		 formatted.

       pfilename Name of a file to print using as a filter.

       lfilename Like  but  passes  control  characters and does not make page
		 breaks.

       tfilename Troff File.  The file contains

       nfilename Ditroff File.	The file contains output (device independent

       dfilename DVI File.  The file contains  TeX  output  (DVI  format  from
		 Stanford).

       gfilename Graph File.  The file contains data produced by

       vfilename The file contains a raster image.

       cfilename Cifplot File.	The file contains data produced by cifplot.

       rfilename The  file  contains  text  data with Fortran carriage control
		 characters.

       xfilename Do not interpret any control characters in the file.

       Ufilename Unlink.  Name of file to remove upon completion of printing.

       Nname	 File name.  The name of the file which is being printed, or a
		 blank for the standard input (when is invoked in a pipeline).

   PostScript (TM) Printers With Specialised Support
       To  use	the  features  of  the PostScript (TM) printers for which spe‐
       cialised support is available, you must ensure that :ps=LPS: is set  in
       the appropriate entry in the file.

       For  PostScript	(TM)  printers,	 the line printer daemon assembles the
       PostScript (TM) from the users data files and  PostScript  (TM)	device
       control modules.	 The device control modules access device features and
       manipulate the appropriate printer parameters.  Device control  modules
       (the  Dl capability in are provided in an archive file, refer to Device
       control modules access printer specific features of PostScript (TM) and
       are therefore device dependent.

       The data type of the spooled files is given by the Da capability in the
       file.  The data type can be overridden by the D key  character  in  the
       command file.

       The  support  for  PostScript  (TM) printers introduces a new method of
       specifying the type of the data to be printed using the -D option of or
       the Da capability in The mechanism for invoking these translators needs
       to interact with the existing mechanism for invoking filters  for  non-
       text  files,  so	 that  the existing mechanism can be used if required.
       The mechanism has the following features:

	      The new translators are invoked via the shell program  which  is
	      passed the data type as one of its parameters.

	      Any  old	style  filter  arguments (for example, -t and -x) take
	      precedence over -D (even though will  accept  the	 combination).
	      This  means  that	 the if capability in must not be specified if
	      data types are being used.

   Filter Capabilities
       Two of the capabilities that affect the behaviour  of  require  a  more
       detailed explanation than that given on the reference page.

       ct Connection type.  This entry in the file determines the type of con‐
	  nection.  The following table shows the valid choices	 for  ct,  and
	  the mandatory and optional entries to go with each choice.

	  ───────────────────────────────────────────────
	  ct=	    Mandatory Entries	Optional Entries
	  ───────────────────────────────────────────────
	  ®dev	     lp			 of
	  lat	    lp, ts, op, os	of
	  remote    rp, rm
	  network   of
	  ───────────────────────────────────────────────

	  Remote means a printer that is connected to another system running a
	  compatible printing daemon.  Network means that  the	output	filter
	  does not use stdout (that is, no lp) and is restarted for each job.

       uv ULTRIX  version.   To enable the ct capability to determine the type
	  of connection, and to ensure % escapes are expanded  in  all	filter
	  command strings, you must have
	  :uv=psv1.0:
	  as part of the entry.

   Using Filter Capabilities
       This  section  refers to the programs specified by the following filter
       capabilities in the file: and

       Filters may be specified as pipelines as well as simple commands.   The
       syntax  accepts tab or space as word separators, and | to set up a pipe
       connection.  You can specify arguments to the filters.  The  individual
       commands	 may  be  specified  as	 full  path names or as simple program
       names, in which case the path searched is:
       /usr/local/lib/lpdfilters:/usr/ucb:/bin:/usr/bin:
				   /usr/lib:/usr/lib/lpdfilters

   Filter Argument Parameterisation
       The arguments to the filter program are normally supplied automatically
       by  but	you  can assign your own arguments to filters.	When arguments
       are supplied automatically, they are put after the  arguments  for  the
       first  command  in  a pipeline, or after the arguments of a simple com‐
       mand.

       If you want to assign your own arguments to filters,  you  must	ensure
       that :uv=psv1.0: is set in the appropriate entry in the file.

       Arguments  are  supplied exactly as for previous releases unless a spe‐
       cial character (%) is found anywhere in the command.  If a %  is	 found
       it  tells  that you have taken control of passing arguments to the fil‐
       ter.  In this case, the default set of arguments are no longer appended
       to  the argument list.  The arguments supplied to the command are those
       specified in the command string,	 but  with  replacing  %x  pairs  with
       parameter strings.

       To  allow  the  special	character, %, to be passed, a pair of %%'s are
       replaced by a %.	 It is an error to specify an unknown %x pair.	The %x
       pairs and the parameter strings that replace them are shown below.

       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       %x Pairs	  Parameter String
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ®%%	   %
       %0	  null string (used to pass null argument or
		  disable default arguments)
       %_	  space (used to insert spaces in arguments)
       %A	  accounting file
       %D	  data type
       %F	  pagesize
       %H	  host where job was submitted
       %I	  indent
       %j	  job name
       %J	  job id as shown by
       %L	  length
       %O	  orientation
       %P	  printer name
       %T	  title
       %U	  user's login name
       %W	  width
       %X	  pixel width
       %Y	  pixel length
       ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────

       All of the above %x pairs are available to all input  filters.	For  a
       network	printer	 (:ct=network:	in the file) they are all available to
       the output filter of.  For dev and lat printers the per-job  parameters
       (%H,  %U,  %J  and %j) are not available to the output filter.  This is
       because the output filter is invoked per session so that per-job param‐
       eters are still unset.

   Filter Arguments Supplied By lpd
       The arguments automatically assigned to each filter by are shown below.
       For clarity the parameters for each argument are shown as the appropri‐
       ate %x pair.

       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       Filter			Parameterised Form of Default Arguments
       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
       ®cf			 -x%X -y%Y -n %U -h %H %A
       df			-x%X -y%Y -n %U -h %H %A
       gf			-x%X -y%Y -n %U -h %H %A
       if			-w%W -l%L -n %U -h %H %A
       ishinvoked
       without the -l option)
       if			-c -w%W -l%L -n %U -h %H %A
       ishinvoked
       with the -l option)
       nf			-w%W -l%L -n %U -h %H %A
       of			-w%W -l%L
       pp			-w%W -l%L -h %T
       rf			-w%W -l%L -n %U -h %H %A
       tf			-x%X -y%Y -n %U -h %H %A
       vf			-x%X -y%Y -n %U -h %H %A
       xf			(no arguments)
       Lf			(no arguments)

       Xf			%D %O %F %W %L %I
       ─────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────

       The %A argument is only supplied if the af capability is present.

Options
       -l Log  valid  requests	received from the network.  This can be useful
	  for debugging purposes.

       -Llogfile
	  Write error conditions to the file specified by  the	argument  log‐
	  file.	  If  this option is not used, error conditions are written to
	  the system console.

Files
       Printer description file

       Spool directories

       Line printer devices

       Socket for local requests

       Lists machine names allowed printer access

       Lists machine names allowed printer access as trusted machines

See Also
       lpq(1), lpr(1), lprm(1), printcap(5), lpc(8), pac(8), xlator_call(8)
       Guide to the BIND/Hesiod Service
       Guide to System Environment Setup

									lpd(8)
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