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ls(1)									 ls(1)

       ls - list and generate statistics for files

       ls [ options ] name ...

       For  each directory argument, lists the contents of the directory.  For
       each file argument, repeats the file name and gives any other  informa‐
       tion  you  request with the options available.  By default, the list is
       sorted alphabetically.  When no argument is given, the  current	direc‐
       tory  is	 listed.   When	 several arguments are given, files are listed
       first, followed by directories and the  files  within  each  directory.
       Options are listed below.

       -1   Displays  one  entry per line.  This is the default when output is
	    not to a terminal.

       -a   Displays all entries including those beginning with a period (.).

       -C   Forces multicolumn output for pipe or filter.  This is the default
	    when the output is to a terminal.

       -c   Uses time of last file status change (ctime), reflecting file cre‐
	    ation, mode, etc., for sorting (with the -t	 option)  or  printing
	    (with  the -l option) rather than the time of file modification or
	    access. See also the -t and -u options.

       -d   Displays names of directories only, not contents.  Use this option
	    with -l to get the status of a directory.

       -F   Marks directories with trailing slash (/), sockets with a trailing
	    equal sign (=), symbolic links with a trailing at  sign  (@),  and
	    executable files with a trailing asterisk (*).

       -f   Displays  names in the order they exist in directory.  For further
	    information, see Entries beginning with  a	period	(.)  are  also
	    listed.  This option overrides the -l, -t, -s, and -r options.

       -g   Displays  assigned	group  ID  (used  with	-l  only).  Default is
	    assigned owner ID.

       -i   Displays the i-number for each file in the	first  column  of  the

       -L   Lists  the	information,  if  the file is a symbolic link, for the
	    file or directory the link references rather  than	that  for  the
	    link itself.

       -l   Lists the mode, number of links, owner, size in bytes, and time of
	    last modification (mtime) for each file.  If the file is a special
	    file,  the	size field contains the major and minor device numbers
	    instead of the size.  If the file is a symbolic link, the pathname
	    of the linked-to file is printed, preceded by ``->''.

	    The	 mode  field  consists	of 11 characters.  The first character
	    indicates the type of entry:

	    d if the entry is a directory
	    b if the entry is a block-type special file
	    c if the entry is a character-type special file
	    l if the entry is a symbolic link
	    s if the entry is a socket
	    - if the entry is a plain file

	    The next 9 characters are interpreted as three sets of three char‐
	    acters  each.   The	 first set of three characters refers to file-
	    access permissions for the user; the next set, for the user-group;
	    and	 the  last set, for all others.	 The permissions are indicated
	    as follows:

	    r if the file is readable
	    w if the file is writable
	    x if the file is executable
	    - if the indicated permission is not granted.

	    The group-execute permission character is given as s if  the  file
	    has	 the  set-group-id bit set; likewise, the user-execute permis‐
	    sion character is given as s if the file has the  set-user-id  bit

	    The	 last  character of the mode (normally `x' or `-') is t if the
	    1000 bit of the mode is on.	 See for the  meaning  of  this	 mode.
	    The	 indications of set-ID and the 01000 bit of the mode are capi‐
	    talized (S and T, respectively) if the corresponding execute  per‐
	    mission is not set.

       -q   Forces  the printing of nongraphic characters in file names as the
	    question mark character (?).  This is the default when  output  is
	    to a terminal.

       -R   Recursively lists all subdirectories.

       -r   Sorts entries in reverse alphabetic or time order.

       -s   Displays  the  size	 in kilobytes of each file.  This is the first
	    item listed in each entry.

       -t   Sorts by time modified (most recently modified first)  instead  of
	    by name. See also the -c and -u options.

       -u   Uses  the time of last access (atime) instead of last modification
	    for sorting (with the -t option) or printing (with the -l option).

       The output device is assumed to be 80 columns wide.

       New line and tab are considered printing characters in file names.

       The option setting based on whether the output is a teletype  is	 unde‐
       sirable	as  "ls -s" is much different than "ls -s |lpr".  On the other
       hand, not doing this setting would make old shell scripts which used ls
       almost certain to fail.

       Used to obtain user id's for ls -l

       Used to obtain group id's for ls -g

See Also


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