make man page on FreeBSD

Man page or keyword search:  
man Server   9747 pages
apropos Keyword Search (all sections)
Output format
FreeBSD logo
[printable version]

MAKE(1)			  BSD General Commands Manual		       MAKE(1)

     make — maintain program dependencies

     make [-ABPSXeiknpqrstv] [-C directory] [-D variable] [-d flags]
	  [-E variable] [-f makefile] [-I directory] [-j max_jobs]
	  [-m directory] [-V variable] [-x warning_options] [variable=value]
	  [target ...]

     The make utility is a program designed to simplify the maintenance of
     other programs.  Its input is a list of specifications describing depen‐
     dency relationships between the generation of files and programs.

     First of all, the initial list of specifications will be read from the
     system makefile,, unless inhibited with the -r option.  The stan‐
     dard as shipped with FreeBSD also handles make.conf(5), the
     default path to which can be altered via the make variable __MAKE_CONF.

     Then the first of BSDmakefile, makefile, and Makefile that can be found
     in the current directory, object directory (see .OBJDIR), or search path
     (see the -I option) will be read for the main list of dependency specifi‐
     cations.  A different makefile or list of them can be supplied via the -f
     option(s).	 Finally, if the file .depend can be found in any of the
     aforesaid locations, it will also be read (see mkdep(1)).

     When make searches for a makefile, its name takes precedence over its
     location.	For instance, BSDmakefile in the object directory will be
     favored over Makefile in the current directory.

     The options are as follows:

     -A	     Make archive errors non-fatal, causing make to just skip the
	     remainder or all of the archive and continue after printing a

     -B	     Try to be backwards compatible by executing a single shell per
	     command and by executing the commands to make the sources of a
	     dependency line in sequence.  This is turned on by default unless
	     -j is used.

     -C directory
	     Change to directory before reading the makefiles or doing any‐
	     thing else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each is inter‐
	     preted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to
	     -C /etc.

     -D variable
	     Define variable to be 1, in the global context.

     -d flags
	     Turn on debugging, and specify which portions of make are to
	     print debugging information.  Argument flags is one or more of
	     the following:

	     A	     Print all possible debugging information; equivalent to
		     specifying all of the debugging flags.

	     a	     Print debugging information about archive searching and

	     c	     Print debugging information about conditional evaluation.

	     d	     Print debugging information about directory searching and

	     f	     Print debugging information about the execution of for

	     g1	     Print the input graph before making anything.

	     g2	     Print the input graph after making everything, or before
		     exiting on error.

	     j	     Print debugging information about running multiple

	     l	     Print commands in Makefiles regardless of whether or not
		     they are prefixed by @ or other "quiet" flags.  Also
		     known as "loud" behavior.

	     m	     Print debugging information about making targets, includ‐
		     ing modification dates.

	     s	     Print debugging information about suffix-transformation

	     t	     Print debugging information about target list mainte‐

	     v	     Print debugging information about variable assignment.

     -E variable
	     Specify a variable whose environment value (if any) will override
	     macro assignments within makefiles.

     -e	     Specify that environment values override macro assignments within
	     makefiles for all variables.

     -f makefile
	     Specify a makefile to read instead of the default one.  If
	     makefile is not an absolute pathname, make will search for it as
	     described above.  In case makefile is ‘-’, standard input is
	     read.  Multiple -f options can be supplied, and the makefiles
	     will be read in that order.  Unlike the other command-line
	     options, -f is neither stored in .MAKEFLAGS nor pushed down to
	     sub-makes via MAKEFLAGS.  See below for more details on these

     -I directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for makefiles and included
	     makefiles.	 Multiple -I options can be specified to form a search
	     path.  The system makefile directory (or directories, see the -m
	     option) is automatically appended at the tail of this path.

     -i	     Ignore non-zero exit of shell commands in the makefile.  Equiva‐
	     lent to specifying ‘-’ before each command line in the makefile.

     -j max_jobs
	     Specify the maximum number of jobs that make may have running at
	     any one time.  Turns compatibility mode off, unless the -B flag
	     is also specified.

     -k	     Continue processing after errors are encountered, but only on
	     those targets that do not depend on the target whose creation
	     caused the error.

     -m directory
	     Specify a directory in which to search for the system makefile
	     and makefiles included via the <...> style.  Multiple -m options
	     can be specified to form a search path.  This path will override
	     the default system include path, /usr/share/mk.  The system
	     include path will always be appended to the search path used for
	     "..."-style inclusions and makefile searches (see the -I option).

     -n	     Display the commands that would have been executed, but do not
	     actually execute them.

     -P	     Collate the output of a given job and display it only when the
	     job finishes, instead of mixing the output of parallel jobs
	     together.	This option has no effect unless -j is used too.

     -p	     Only print the input graph, not executing any commands.  The out‐
	     put is the same as -d g1.	When combined with -f /dev/null, only
	     the builtin rules of make are displayed.

     -Q	     Be extra quiet.  For multi-job makes, this will cause file ban‐
	     ners not to be generated.

     -q	     Do not execute any commands, but exit 0 if the specified targets
	     are up-to-date and 1, otherwise.

     -r	     Do not process the system makefile.

     -S	     Stop processing when an error is encountered.  Default behaviour.
	     This is needed to negate the -k option during recursive builds.

     -s	     Do not echo any commands as they are executed.  Equivalent to
	     specifying ‘@’ before each command line in the makefile.

     -t	     Rather than re-building a target as specified in the makefile,
	     create it or update its modification time to make it appear up-

     -V variable
	     Print make's idea of the value of variable, in the global con‐
	     text.  Do not build any targets.  Multiple instances of this
	     option may be specified; the variables will be printed one per
	     line, with a blank line for each null or undefined variable.

     -v	     Be extra verbose.	Print any extra information.

     -X	     When using the -V option to print the values of variables, do not
	     recursively expand the values.

	     Set the value of the variable variable to value.

     -x warning_options
	     Specify extended warning options.	This option may be specified
	     several times.  A warning_option can be prefixed with “no” in
	     which case the warning is switched off.  The currently available
	     options are:

		     Warn if anything except blanks and comments follows an
		     .endif or .else directive.

	     See also the .WARN special target.

     There are seven different types of lines in a makefile: file dependency
     specifications, shell commands, variable assignments, include statements,
     conditional directives, for loops, and comments.

     In general, lines may be continued from one line to the next by ending
     them with a backslash (‘\’).  The trailing newline character and initial
     whitespace on the following line are compressed into a single space.

     Dependency lines consist of one or more targets, an operator, and zero or
     more sources.  This creates a relationship where the targets “depend” on
     the sources and are usually created from them.  The exact relationship
     between the target and the source is determined by the operator that sep‐
     arates them.  The three operators are as follows:

     :	   A target is considered out-of-date if its modification time is less
	   than those of any of its sources.  Sources for a target accumulate
	   over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target is
	   removed if make is interrupted.

     !	   Targets are always re-created, but not until all sources have been
	   examined and re-created as necessary.  Sources for a target accumu‐
	   late over dependency lines when this operator is used.  The target
	   is removed if make is interrupted.

     ::	   If no sources are specified, the target is always re-created.  Oth‐
	   erwise, a target is considered out-of-date if any of its sources
	   has been modified more recently than the target.  Sources for a
	   target do not accumulate over dependency lines when this operator
	   is used.  The target will not be removed if make is interrupted.

     Targets and sources may contain the shell wildcard expressions ‘?’, ‘*’,
     ‘[]’ and ‘{}’.  The expressions ‘?’, ‘*’ and ‘[]’ may only be used as
     part of the final component of the target or source, and must be used to
     describe existing files.  The expression ‘{}’ need not necessarily be
     used to describe existing files.  Expansion is in directory order, not
     alphabetically as done in the shell.

     Each target may have associated with it a series of shell commands, nor‐
     mally used to create the target.  Each of the commands in this script
     must be preceded by a tab.	 While any target may appear on a dependency
     line, only one of these dependencies may be followed by a creation
     script, unless the ‘::’ operator is used.

     If the first characters of the command line are ‘@’, ‘-’, and/or ‘+’, the
     command is treated specially.  A ‘@’ causes the command not to be echoed
     before it is executed.  A ‘-’ causes any non-zero exit status of the com‐
     mand line to be ignored.  A ‘+’ causes the command to be executed even if
     -n is specified on the command line.

     Variables in make are much like variables in the shell, and, by tradi‐
     tion, consist of all upper-case letters.  The five operators that can be
     used to assign values to variables are as follows:

     =	     Assign the value to the variable.	Any previous value is overrid‐

     +=	     Append the value to the current value of the variable.

     ?=	     Assign the value to the variable if it is not already defined.

     :=	     Assign with expansion, i.e., expand the value before assigning it
	     to the variable.  Normally, expansion is not done until the vari‐
	     able is referenced.

     !=	     Expand the value and pass it to the shell for execution and
	     assign the result to the variable.	 Any newlines in the result
	     are replaced with spaces.

     Any whitespace before the assigned value is removed; if the value is
     being appended, a single space is inserted between the previous contents
     of the variable and the appended value.

     Variables are expanded by surrounding the variable name with either curly
     braces (‘{}’) or parentheses (‘()’) and preceding it with a dollar sign
     (‘$’).  If the variable name contains only a single letter, the surround‐
     ing braces or parentheses are not required.  This shorter form is not

     Variable substitution occurs at two distinct times, depending on where
     the variable is being used.  Variables in dependency lines are expanded
     as the line is read.  Variables in shell commands are expanded when the
     shell command is executed.

     The four different classes of variables (in order of increasing prece‐
     dence) are:

     Environment variables
	     Variables defined as part of make's environment.

     Global variables
	     Variables defined in the makefile or in included makefiles.

     Command line variables
	     Variables defined as part of the command line and variables
	     obtained from the MAKEFLAGS environment variable or the
	     .MAKEFLAGS target.

     Local variables
	     Variables that are defined specific to a certain target.

     If the name of an environment variable appears in a makefile on the left-
     hand side of an assignment, a global variable with the same name is cre‐
     ated, and the latter shadows the former as per their relative prece‐
     dences.  The environment is not changed in this case, and the change is
     not exported to programs executed by make.	 However, a command-line vari‐
     able actually replaces the environment variable of the same name if the
     latter exists, which is visible to child programs.

     There are seven local variables in make:

     .ALLSRC   The list of all sources for this target; also known as ‘>’.

     .ARCHIVE  The name of the archive file; also known as ‘!’.

     .IMPSRC   The name/path of the source from which the target is to be
	       transformed (the “implied” source); also known as ‘<’.

     .MEMBER   The name of the archive member; also known as ‘%’.

     .OODATE   The list of sources for this target that were deemed out-of-
	       date; also known as ‘?’.

     .PREFIX   The file prefix of the file, containing only the file portion,
	       no suffix or preceding directory components; also known as ‘*’.

     .TARGET   The name of the target; also known as ‘@’.

     The shorter forms ‘@’, ‘!’, ‘<’, ‘%’, ‘?’, ‘>’, and ‘*’ are permitted for
     backward compatibility and are not recommended.  The six variables ‘@F’,
     ‘@D’, ‘<F’, ‘<D’, ‘*F’, and ‘*D’ are permitted for compatibility with
     AT&T System V UNIX makefiles and are not recommended.

     Four of the local variables may be used in sources on dependency lines
     because they expand to the proper value for each target on the line.
     These variables are .TARGET, .PREFIX, .ARCHIVE, and .MEMBER.

     In addition, make sets or knows about the following internal variables or
     environment variables:

     $		     A single dollar sign ‘$’, i.e. ‘$$’ expands to a single
		     dollar sign.

     MAKE	     The name that make was executed with (argv[0]).

     .CURDIR	     A path to the directory where make was executed.  The
		     make utility sets .CURDIR to the canonical path given by

     .OBJDIR	     A path to the directory where the targets are built.  At
		     startup, make searches for an alternate directory to
		     place target files.  It will attempt to change into this
		     special directory and will search this directory for
		     makefiles not found in the current directory.  The fol‐
		     lowing directories are tried in order:

		     1.	  ${MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX}/`pwd`
		     2.	  ${MAKEOBJDIR}
		     3.	  obj.${MACHINE}
		     4.	  obj
		     5.	  /usr/obj/`pwd`

		     The first directory that make successfully changes into
		     is used.  If either MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX or MAKEOBJDIR is set
		     in the environment but make is unable to change into the
		     corresponding directory, then the current directory is
		     used without checking the remainder of the list.  If they
		     are undefined and make is unable to change into any of
		     the remaining three directories, then the current direc‐
		     tory is used.  Note, that MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX and MAKEOBJDIR
		     must be environment variables and should not be set on
		     make's command line.

		     The make utility sets .OBJDIR to the canonical path given
		     by getcwd(3).

     .MAKEFILE_LIST  As make reads various makefiles, including the default
		     files and any obtained from the command line and .include
		     and .sinclude directives, their names will be automati‐
		     cally appended to the .MAKEFILE_LIST variable.  They are
		     added right before make begins to parse them, so that the
		     name of the current makefile is the last word in this

     MAKEFLAGS	     The environment variable MAKEFLAGS may initially contain
		     anything that may be specified on make's command line,
		     including -f option(s).  After processing, its contents
		     are stored in the .MAKEFLAGS global variable, although
		     any -f options are omitted.  Then all options and vari‐
		     able assignments specified on make's command line, except
		     for -f, are appended to the .MAKEFLAGS variable.

		     Whenever make executes a program, it sets MAKEFLAGS in
		     the program's environment to the current value of the
		     .MAKEFLAGS global variable.  Thus, if MAKEFLAGS in make's
		     environment contains any -f options, they will not be
		     pushed down to child programs automatically.  The make
		     utility effectively filters out -f options from the envi‐
		     ronment and command line although it passes the rest of
		     its options down to sub-makes via MAKEFLAGS by default.

		     When passing macro definitions and flag arguments in the
		     MAKEFLAGS environment variable, space and tab characters
		     are quoted by preceding them with a backslash.  When
		     reading the MAKEFLAGS variable from the environment, all
		     sequences of a backslash and one of space or tab are
		     replaced just with their second character without causing
		     a word break.  Any other occurrences of a backslash are
		     retained.	Groups of unquoted space, tab and newline
		     characters cause word breaking.

     .MAKEFLAGS	     Initially, this global variable contains make's current
		     run-time options from the environment and command line as
		     described above, under MAKEFLAGS.	By modifying the con‐
		     tents of the .MAKEFLAGS global variable, the makefile can
		     alter the contents of the MAKEFLAGS environment variable
		     made available for all programs which make executes.
		     This includes adding -f option(s).	 The current value of
		     .MAKEFLAGS is just copied verbatim to MAKEFLAGS in the
		     environment of child programs.

		     Note that any options entered to .MAKEFLAGS neither
		     affect the current instance of make nor show up in its
		     own copy of MAKEFLAGS instantly.  However, they do show
		     up in the MAKEFLAGS environment variable of programs exe‐
		     cuted by make.  On the other hand, a direct assignment to
		     MAKEFLAGS neither affects the current instance of make
		     nor is passed down to make's children.  Compare with the
		     .MAKEFLAGS special target below.

     MFLAGS	     This variable is provided for backward compatibility and
		     contains all the options from the MAKEFLAGS environment
		     variable plus any options specified on make's command

     .MAKE.PID	     The process-id of make.

     .MAKE.PPID	     The parent process-id of make.

		     If make is run with -j -v then output for each target is
		     prefixed with a token ‘--- target ---’ the first part of
		     which can be controlled via .MAKE.JOB.PREFIX.
		     For example:
		     would produce tokens like ‘---make[1234] target ---’ or
		     would produce tokens like ‘---pid[56789],ppid[1234]
		     target ---’ making it easier to track the degree of par‐
		     allelism being achieved.

     .TARGETS	     List of targets make is currently building.

     .INCLUDES	     See .INCLUDES special target.

     .LIBS	     See .LIBS special target.

     MACHINE	     Name of the machine architecture make is running on,
		     obtained from the MACHINE environment variable, or
		     through uname(3) if not defined.

     MACHINE_ARCH    Name of the machine architecture make was compiled for,
		     defined at compilation time.

     VPATH	     Makefiles may assign a colon-delimited list of directo‐
		     ries to VPATH.  These directories will be searched for
		     source files by make after it has finished parsing all
		     input makefiles.

     Variable expansion may be modified to select or modify each word of the
     variable (where a “word” is whitespace-delimited sequence of characters).
     The general format of a variable expansion is as follows:


     Each modifier begins with a colon and one of the following special char‐
     acters.  The colon may be escaped with a backslash (‘\’).

		 Modify each word of the value, substituting every match of
		 the extended regular expression pattern (see re_format(7))
		 with the ed(1)-style replacement string.  Normally, the first
		 occurrence of the pattern in each word of the value is
		 changed.  The ‘1’ modifier causes the substitution to apply
		 to at most one word; the ‘g’ modifier causes the substitution
		 to apply to as many instances of the search pattern as occur
		 in the word or words it is found in.  Note that ‘1’ and ‘g’
		 are orthogonal; the former specifies whether multiple words
		 are potentially affected, the latter whether multiple substi‐
		 tutions can potentially occur within each affected word.

     E		 Replaces each word in the variable with its suffix.

     H		 Replaces each word in the variable with everything but the
		 last component.

     L		 Converts variable to lower-case letters.

     Mpattern	 Select only those words that match the rest of the modifier.
		 The standard shell wildcard characters (‘*’, ‘?’, and ‘[]’)
		 may be used.  The wildcard characters may be escaped with a
		 backslash (‘\’).

     Npattern	 This is identical to M, but selects all words which do not
		 match the rest of the modifier.

     O		 Order every word in the variable alphabetically.

     Q		 Quotes every shell meta-character in the variable, so that it
		 can be passed safely through recursive invocations of make.

     R		 Replaces each word in the variable with everything but its

		 Modify the first occurrence of old_string in each word of the
		 variable's value, replacing it with new_string.  If a ‘g’ is
		 appended to the last slash of the pattern, all occurrences in
		 each word are replaced.  If old_string begins with a caret
		 (‘^’), old_string is anchored at the beginning of each word.
		 If old_string ends with a dollar sign (‘$’), it is anchored
		 at the end of each word.  Inside new_string, an ampersand
		 (‘&’) is replaced by old_string.  Any character may be used
		 as a delimiter for the parts of the modifier string.  The
		 anchoring, ampersand, and delimiter characters may be escaped
		 with a backslash (‘\’).

		 Variable expansion occurs in the normal fashion inside both
		 old_string and new_string with the single exception that a
		 backslash is used to prevent the expansion of a dollar sign
		 (‘$’), not a preceding dollar sign as is usual.

		 This is the AT&T System V UNIX style variable substitution.
		 It must be the last modifier specified.  If old_string or
		 new_string do not contain the pattern matching character %
		 then it is assumed that they are anchored at the end of each
		 word, so only suffixes or entire words may be replaced.  Oth‐
		 erwise % is the substring of old_string to be replaced in

     T		 Replaces each word in the variable with its last component.

     U		 Converts variable to upper-case letters.

     u		 Remove adjacent duplicate words (like uniq(1)).

     Directives, conditionals, and for loops reminiscent of the C programming
     language are provided in make.  All such structures are identified by a
     line beginning with a single dot (‘.’) character.	The following direc‐
     tives are supported:

     .include <file>

     .include "file"
	     Include the specified makefile.  Variables between the angle
	     brackets or double quotes are expanded to form the file name.  If
	     angle brackets are used, the included makefile is expected to be
	     in the system makefile directory.	If double quotes are used, the
	     including makefile's directory and any directories specified
	     using the -I option are searched before the system makefile

     .sinclude <file>

     .sinclude "file"
	     Like .include, but silently ignored if the file cannot be found
	     and opened.

     .undef variable
	     Un-define the specified global variable.  Only global variables
	     may be un-defined.

     .error message
	     Terminate processing of the makefile immediately.	The filename
	     of the makefile, the line on which the error was encountered and
	     the specified message are printed to the standard error output
	     and make terminates with exit code 1.  Variables in the message
	     are expanded.

     .warning message
	     Emit a warning message.  The filename of the makefile, the line
	     on which the warning was encountered, and the specified message
	     are printed to the standard error output.	Variables in the mes‐
	     sage are expanded.

     Conditionals are used to determine which parts of the Makefile to
     process.  They are used similarly to the conditionals supported by the C
     pre-processor.  The following conditionals are supported:

     .if [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     Test the value of an expression.

     .ifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     Test the value of a variable.

     .ifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .ifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     Test the target being built.

     .else   Reverse the sense of the last conditional.

     .elif [!]expression [operator expression ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .if.

     .elifdef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifdef.

     .elifndef [!]variable [operator variable ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifndef.

     .elifmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifmake.

     .elifnmake [!]target [operator target ...]
	     A combination of .else followed by .ifnmake.

     .endif  End the body of the conditional.

     The operator may be any one of the following:

     ||	    Logical OR

     &&	    Logical AND; of higher precedence than ‘||’.

     As in C, make will only evaluate a conditional as far as is necessary to
     determine its value.  Parentheses may be used to change the order of
     evaluation.  The boolean operator ‘!’ may be used to logically negate an
     entire conditional.  It is of higher precedence than ‘&&’.

     The value of expression may be any of the following:

     defined	 Takes a variable name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the variable has been defined.

     make	 Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the target was specified as part of make's command line or
		 was declared the default target (either implicitly or explic‐
		 itly, see .MAIN) before the line containing the conditional.

     empty	 Takes a variable, with possible modifiers, and evaluates to
		 true if the expansion of the variable would result in an
		 empty string.

     exists	 Takes a file name as an argument and evaluates to true if the
		 file exists.  The file is searched for on the system search
		 path (see .PATH).

     target	 Takes a target name as an argument and evaluates to true if
		 the target has been defined.

     An expression may also be a numeric or string comparison: in this case,
     the left-hand side must be a variable expansion, whereas the right-hand
     side can be a constant or a variable expansion.  Variable expansion is
     performed on both sides, after which the resulting values are compared.
     A value is interpreted as hexadecimal if it is preceded by 0x, otherwise
     it is decimal; octal numbers are not supported.

     String comparison can only use the ‘==’ or ‘!=’ operators, whereas
     numeric values (both integer and floating point) can also be compared
     using the ‘>’, ‘>=’, ‘<’ and ‘<=’ operators.

     If no relational operator (and right-hand value) are given, an implicit
     ‘!= 0’ is used.  However be very careful in using this feature especially
     when the left-hand side variable expansion returns a string.

     When make is evaluating one of these conditional expressions, and it
     encounters a word it does not recognize, either the “make” or “defined”
     expression is applied to it, depending on the form of the conditional.
     If the form is .if, .ifdef or .ifndef, the “defined” expression is
     applied.  Similarly, if the form is .ifmake or .ifnmake, the “make”
     expression is applied.

     If the conditional evaluates to true the parsing of the makefile contin‐
     ues as before.  If it evaluates to false, the following lines are
     skipped.  In both cases this continues until a .else or .endif is found.

     For loops are typically used to apply a set of rules to a list of files.
     The syntax of a for loop is:

     .for variable in expression

     After the for expression is evaluated, it is split into words.  The iter‐
     ation variable is successively set to each word, and substituted in the
     make-rules inside the body of the for loop.

     Comments begin with a hash (‘#’) character, anywhere but in a shell com‐
     mand line, and continue to the end of the line.

     .IGNORE	 Ignore any errors from the commands associated with this tar‐
		 get, exactly as if they all were preceded by a dash (‘-’).

     .MAKE	 Execute the commands associated with this target even if the
		 -n or -t options were specified.  Normally used to mark
		 recursive make's.

     .NOTMAIN	 Normally make selects the first target it encounters as the
		 default target to be built if no target was specified.	 This
		 source prevents this target from being selected.

     .OPTIONAL	 If a target is marked with this attribute and make cannot
		 figure out how to create it, it will ignore this fact and
		 assume the file is not needed or already exists.

     .PRECIOUS	 When make is interrupted, it removes any partially made tar‐
		 gets.	This source prevents the target from being removed.

     .SILENT	 Do not echo any of the commands associated with this target,
		 exactly as if they all were preceded by an at sign (‘@’).

     .USE	 Turn the target into make's version of a macro.  When the
		 target is used as a source for another target, the other tar‐
		 get acquires the commands, sources, and attributes (except
		 for .USE) of the source.  If the target already has commands,
		 the .USE target's commands are appended to them.

     .WAIT	 If special .WAIT source appears in a dependency line, the
		 sources that precede it are made before the sources that suc‐
		 ceed it in the line.  Loops are not being detected and tar‐
		 gets that form loops will be silently ignored.

     Special targets may not be included with other targets, i.e., they must
     be the only target specified.

     .BEGIN	 Any command lines attached to this target are executed before
		 anything else is done.

     .DEFAULT	 This is sort of a .USE rule for any target (that was used
		 only as a source) that make cannot figure out any other way
		 to create.  Only the shell script is used.  The .IMPSRC vari‐
		 able of a target that inherits .DEFAULT's commands is set to
		 the target's own name.

     .END	 Any command lines attached to this target are executed after
		 everything else is done.

     .IGNORE	 Mark each of the sources with the .IGNORE attribute.  If no
		 sources are specified, this is the equivalent of specifying
		 the -i option.

     .INCLUDES	 A list of suffixes that indicate files that can be included
		 in a source file.  The suffix must have already been declared
		 with .SUFFIXES; any suffix so declared will have the directo‐
		 ries on its search path (see .PATH) placed in the .INCLUDES
		 special variable, each preceded by a -I flag.

     .INTERRUPT	 If make is interrupted, the commands for this target will be

     .LIBS	 This does for libraries what .INCLUDES does for include
		 files, except that the flag used is -L.

     .MAIN	 If no target is specified when make is invoked, this target
		 will be built.	 This is always set, either explicitly, or
		 implicitly when make selects the default target, to give the
		 user a way to refer to the default target on the command

		 Enable the “Remaking Makefiles” functionality, as explained
		 in the REMAKING MAKEFILES section below.

     .MAKEFLAGS	 This target provides a way to specify flags for make when the
		 makefile is used.  The flags are as if typed to the shell,
		 though the -f option will have no effect.  Flags (except for
		 -f) and variable assignments specified as the source for this
		 target are also appended to the .MAKEFLAGS internal variable.
		 Please note the difference between this target and the
		 .MAKEFLAGS internal variable: specifying an option or vari‐
		 able assignment as the source for this target will affect
		 both the current makefile and all processes that make exe‐

     .MFLAGS	 Same as above, for backward compatibility.

		 Disable parallel mode.

		 Same as above, for compatibility with other pmake variants.

     .ORDER	 The named targets are made in sequence.

     .PATH	 The sources are directories which are to be searched for
		 files not found in the current directory.  If no sources are
		 specified, any previously specified directories are deleted.
		 Where possible, use of .PATH is preferred over use of the
		 VPATH variable.

		 The sources are directories which are to be searched for suf‐
		 fixed files not found in the current directory.  The make
		 utility first searches the suffixed search path, before
		 reverting to the default path if the file is not found there.
		 This form is required for .LIBS and .INCLUDES to work.

     .PHONY	 Apply the .PHONY attribute to any specified sources.  Targets
		 with this attribute are always considered to be out of date.

     .POSIX	 Adjust make's behavior to match the applicable POSIX specifi‐
		 cations.  (Note this disables the “Remaking Makefiles” fea‐

     .PRECIOUS	 Apply the .PRECIOUS attribute to any specified sources.  If
		 no sources are specified, the .PRECIOUS attribute is applied
		 to every target in the file.

     .SHELL	 Select another shell.	The sources of this target have the
		 format key=value.  The key is one of:

		 path	    Specify the path to the new shell.

		 name	    Specify the name of the new shell.	This may be
			    either one of the three builtin shells (see below)
			    or any other name.

		 quiet	    Specify the shell command to turn echoing off.

		 echo	    Specify the shell command to turn echoing on.

		 filter	    Usually shells print the echo off command before
			    turning echoing off.  This is the exact string
			    that will be printed by the shell and is used to
			    filter the shell output to remove the echo off

		 echoFlag   The shell option that turns echoing on.

		 errFlag    The shell option to turn on error checking.	 If
			    error checking is on, the shell should exit if a
			    command returns a non-zero status.

		 hasErrCtl  True if the shell has error control.

		 check	    If hasErrCtl is true then this is the shell com‐
			    mand to turn error checking on.  If hasErrCtl is
			    false then this is a command template to echo com‐
			    mands for which error checking is disabled.	 The
			    template must contain a ‘%s’.

		 ignore	    If hasErrCtl is true, this is the shell command to
			    turn error checking off.  If hasErrCtl is false,
			    this is a command template to execute a command so
			    that errors are ignored.  The template must con‐
			    tain a ‘%s’.

		 meta	    This is a string of meta characters of the shell.

		 builtins   This is a string holding all the shell's builtin
			    commands separated by blanks.  The meta and
			    builtins strings are used in compat mode.  When a
			    command line contains neither a meta character nor
			    starts with a shell builtin, it is executed
			    directly without invoking a shell.	When one of
			    these strings (or both) is empty all commands are
			    executed through a shell.

		 unsetenv   If true, remove the ENV environment variable
			    before executing any command.  This is useful for
			    the Korn-shell (ksh).

		 Values that are strings must be surrounded by double quotes.
		 Boolean values are specified as ‘T’ or ‘Y’ (in either case)
		 to mean true.	Any other value is taken to mean false.

		 There are several uses of the .SHELL target:

		 ·   Selecting one of the builtin shells.  This is done by
		     just specifying the name of the shell with the name key‐
		     word.  It is also possible to modify the parameters of
		     the builtin shell by just specifying other keywords
		     (except for path).

		 ·   Using another executable for one of the builtin shells.
		     This is done by specifying the path to the executable
		     with the path keyword.  If the last component is the same
		     as the name of the builtin shell, no name needs to be
		     specified; if it is different, the name must be given:

			   .SHELL: path="/usr/local/bin/sh"

		     selects the builtin shell “sh” but will execute it from
		     /usr/local/bin/sh.	 Like in the previous case, it is pos‐
		     sible to modify parameters of the builtin shell by just
		     specifying them.

		 ·   Using an entirely different shell.	 This is done by spec‐
		     ifying all keywords.

		 The builtin shells are “sh”, “csh” and “ksh”.	Because
		 FreeBSD has no ksh in /bin, it is unwise to specify
		 name="ksh" without also specifying a path.

     .SILENT	 Apply the .SILENT attribute to any specified sources.	If no
		 sources are specified, the .SILENT attribute is applied to
		 every command in the file.

     .SUFFIXES	 Each source specifies a suffix to make.  If no sources are
		 specified, any previous specified suffixes are deleted.

     .WARN	 Each source specifies a warning flag as previously described
		 for the -x command line option.  Warning flags specified on
		 the command line take precedence over flags specified in the
		 makefile.  Also, command line warning flags are pushed to
		 sub-makes through the MAKEFLAGS environment variables so that
		 a warning flag specified on the command line will influence
		 all sub-makes.	 Several flags can be specified on a single
		 .WARN target by separating them with blanks.

     If the special target .MAKEFILEDEPS exists in the Makefile, make enables
     the “Remaking Makefiles” feature.	After reading Makefile and all the
     files that are included using .include or .sinclude directives (source
     Makefiles) make considers each source Makefile as a target and tries to
     rebuild it.  Both explicit and implicit rules are checked and all source
     Makefiles are updated if necessary. If any of the source Makefiles were
     rebuilt, make restarts from clean state.

     To prevent infinite loops the following source Makefile targets are

     ·	 :: targets that have no prerequisites

     ·	 !  targets

     ·	 targets that have .PHONY or .EXEC attributes

     ·	 targets without prerequisites and without commands

     When remaking a source Makefile options -t (touch target), -q (query
     mode), and -n (no exec) do not take effect, unless source Makefile is
     specified explicitly as a target in make command line.

     Additionally, system makefiles and .depend are not considered as Make‐
     files that can be rebuilt.

     The make utility uses the following environment variables, if they exist:

     .depend			 list of dependencies
     Makefile			 list of dependencies
     makefile			 list of dependencies
     obj			 object directory			 system makefile
     /usr/share/mk		 default system makefile directory
     /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make	 PMake tutorial
     /usr/obj			 default MAKEOBJDIRPREFIX directory.
     /etc/make.conf		 default path to make.conf(5)

     List all included makefiles in order visited:

	   make -V .MAKEFILE_LIST | tr \  \\n

     Older versions of make used MAKE instead of MAKEFLAGS.  This was removed
     for POSIX compatibility.  The internal variable MAKE is set to the same
     value as .MAKE; support for this may be removed in the future.

     Most of the more esoteric features of make should probably be avoided for
     greater compatibility.

     mkdep(1), make.conf(5)

     PMake - A Tutorial.  in /usr/share/doc/psd/12.make

     A make command appeared in PWB UNIX.

     The determination of .OBJDIR is contorted to the point of absurdity.

     In the presence of several .MAIN special targets, make silently ignores
     all but the first.

     .TARGETS is not set to the default target when make is invoked without a
     target name and no .MAIN special target exists.

     The evaluation of expression in a test is very simple-minded.  Currently,
     the only form that works is ‘.if ${VAR} op something’.  For instance, you
     should write tests as ‘.if ${VAR} == string’ not the other way around,
     which would give you an error.

     For loops are expanded before tests, so a fragment such as:

	   .for ARCH in ${SHARED_ARCHS}
	   .if ${ARCH} == ${MACHINE}

     will not work, and should be rewritten as:

	   .for ARCH in ${SHARED_ARCHS}
	   .if ${MACHINE} == ${ARCH}

     The parsing code is broken with respect to handling a semicolon after a
     colon, so a fragment like this will fail:

	   HDRS=   foo.h bar.h

	   .for h in ${HDRS:S;^;${.CURDIR}/;}

     A trailing backslash in a variable value defined on the command line
     causes the delimiting space in the MAKEFLAGS environment variable to be
     preceded by that backslash.  That causes a submake to not treat that
     space as a word delimiter.	 Fixing this requires a larger rewrite of the
     code handling command line macros and assignments to .MAKEFLAGS.

BSD			       December 29, 2008			   BSD

List of man pages available for FreeBSD

Copyright (c) for man pages and the logo by the respective OS vendor.

For those who want to learn more, the polarhome community provides shell access and support.

[legal] [privacy] [GNU] [policy] [cookies] [netiquette] [sponsors] [FAQ]
Polarhome, production since 1999.
Member of Polarhome portal.
Based on Fawad Halim's script.
Vote for polarhome
Free Shell Accounts :: the biggest list on the net