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MAKEFS(8)		  BSD System Manager's Manual		     MAKEFS(8)

NAME
     makefs — create a file system image from a directory tree

SYNOPSIS
     makefs [-t fs-type] [-o fs-options] [-d debug-mask] [-B byte-order]
	    [-S sector-size] [-M minimum-size] [-m maximum-size]
	    [-s image-size] [-b free-blocks] [-f free-files] [-F specfile]
	    [-x] [-N userdb-dir] image-file directory

DESCRIPTION
     The utility makefs creates a file system image into image-file from the
     directory tree directory.	No special devices or privileges are required
     to perform this task.

     The options are as follows:

     -t fs-type
	   Create an fs-type file system image.	 The following file system
	   types are supported:

		 ffs  BSD fast file system (default).

     -o fs-options
	   Set file system specific options.  fs-options is a comma separated
	   list of options.  Valid file system specific options are detailed
	   below.

     -d debug-mask
	   Enable various levels of debugging, depending upon which bits are
	   set in debug-mask.  XXX: document these

     -B byte-order
	   Set the byte order of the image to byte-order.  Valid byte orders
	   are ‘4321’, ‘big’ or ‘be’ for big endian, and ‘1234’, ‘little’ or
	   ‘le’ for little endian.  Some file systems may have a fixed byte
	   order; in those cases this argument will be ignored.

     -S sector-size
	   Set the file system sector size to sector-size.  Defaults to 512.

     -M minimum-size
	   Set the minimum size of the file system image to minimum-size.

     -m maximum-size
	   Set the maximum size of the file system image to maximum-size.  An
	   error will be raised if the target file system needs to be larger
	   than this to accommodate the provided directory tree.

     -s image-size
	   Set the size of the file system image to image-size.

     -b free-blocks
	   Ensure that a minimum of free-blocks free blocks exist in the
	   image.  An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that
	   free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size

     -f free-files
	   Ensure that a minimum of free-files free files (inodes) exist in
	   the image.  An optional ‘%’ suffix may be provided to indicate that
	   free-blocks indicates a percentage of the calculated image size

     -F specfile
	   Use specfile as an mtree(8) ‘specfile’ specification.

	   If a specfile entry exists in the underlying file system, its per‐
	   missions and modification time will be used unless specifically
	   overridden by the specfile.	An error will be raised if the type of
	   entry in the specfile conflicts with that of an existing entry.

	   In the opposite case (where a specfile entry does not have an entry
	   in the underlying file system) the following occurs: If the spec‐
	   file entry is marked optional, the specfile entry is ignored.  Oth‐
	   erwise, the entry will be created in the image, and it is necessary
	   to specify at least the following parameters in the specfile: type,
	   mode, gname or gid, and uname or uid, device (in the case of block
	   or character devices), and link (in the case of symbolic links).
	   If time isn't provided, the current time will be used.  If flags
	   isn't provided, the current file flags will be used.	 Missing regu‐
	   lar file entries will be created as zero-length files.

     -x	   Exclude file system nodes not explcitly listed in the specfile.

     -N dbdir
	   Use the user database text file master.passwd and group database
	   text file group from dbdir, rather than using the results from the
	   system's getpwnam(3) and getgrnam(3) (and related) library calls.

     Where sizes are specified, a decimal number of bytes is expected.	Two or
     more numbers may be separated by an “x” to indicate a product.  Each num‐
     ber may have one of the following optional suffixes:
	   b	Block; multiply by 512
	   k	Kilo; multiply by 1024 (1 KB)
	   m	Mega; multiply by 1048576 (1 MB)
	   g	Giga; multiply by 1073741824 (1 GB)
	   t	Tera; multiply by 1099511627776 (1 TB)
	   w	Word; multiply by the number of bytes in an integer

   FFS-specific options
     ffs images have ffs-specific optional parameters that may be provided.
     Each of the options consists of a keyword, an equals sign (‘=’), and a
     value.  The following keywords are supported:

	   avgfilesize	 Expected average file size
	   avgfpdir	 Expected number of files per directory
	   bsize	 Block size
	   density	 Bytes per inode
	   fsize	 Fragment size
	   maxbpg	 Maximum blocks per file in a cylinder group
	   minfree	 Minimum % free
	   optimization	 Optimization preference; one of ‘space’ or ‘time’.
	   extent	 Maximum extent size
	   maxbpcg	 Maximum total number of blocks in a cylinder group
	   version	 UFS version. 1 for FFS (default), 2 for UFS2

SEE ALSO
     mtree(8), newfs(8)

HISTORY
     The makefs utility appeared in NetBSD 1.6.

AUTHORS
     Luke Mewburn ⟨lukem@NetBSD.org⟩.

BSD				March 30, 2003				   BSD
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