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man(7)									man(7)

Name
       man - the man macro package for online reference pages

Syntax
       tbl file...  | nroff [ -nN ] [ -rl1 ] -man | col | ...
       tbl file...  | *troff [ -nN ] [ -rl1 ] -man | ...

Description
       The  macro  package is used to format reference manual pages for online
       viewing or printing.  This reference page was formatted by the  command
       and  the	 macros,  or  was formatted by the and the commands, using the
       macro package.

       The page size is 80 columns by 66 lines for output and is  8.5"	x  11"
       when formatted with text formatters.  Page numbers appear at the bottom
       of each output page with odd page numbers appearing on the  right  side
       and even page numbers appearing on the left side.

       The  format  of	the ULTRIX online reference pages is determined by the
       macro package.  The macros are a compatible subset of the macros.

   Macros
       The following describes the macros in the macro package.

       Any text argument can range from zero to six words.  Quotation marks ("
       ")  can	be used to include blanks in words.  If text is not specified,
       special treatment is applied to the next input line that has text to be
       printed.	  In  this  way, can be used to italicize a whole line or fol‐
       lowed by to make small bold letters.

       A prevailing indent distance is remembered between successive  indented
       paragraphs, and is reset to a default value upon reaching a nonindented
       paragraph.  Default units for indents i are ens (an en is  1  character
       or 1/2 em space in current point size).

       Typeface	 and  size  are reset to default values before each paragraph,
       and after processing font and size setting macros.

       .B [ text... ]
		   Sets text text in boldface.	If no text is  specified,  the
		   next text line is set in boldface.

       .BI word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets	 word1	in  boldface, word2 in an italic typeface, and
		   then alternates between these two fonts for	the  remaining
		   words,  up to six words.  Blanks between words are stripped
		   unless the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .BR word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in boldface, word2 in a roman typeface, and then
		   alternates between these two fonts for the remaining words,
		   up to six words.  Blanks between words are stripped	unless
		   the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .CT character
		   Prints  the	keyboard  control  character  indicator .  For
		   example, prints as .

       .CW	   Sets text in constant width font until another font	change
		   is found.

       .De	   Ends	 an unfilled display block (started by Also ends auto‐
		   matic centering, if it was in effect.

       .Ds	   Starts an unfilled display  block.	Text  between  and  is
		   printed  in a roman typeface, with `no fill' mode (no wrap‐
		   ping and blank lines allowed) in effect.  The display block
		   is set flush left.

       .DT	   Restores  default tabs.  Default tabs are set to .5 inches,
		   starting with .5i, 1i, ... .

       .EE	   Ends an  example  and  restores  basic  text	 defaults  and
		   indents.

       .EX [ i ]   Starts  an  example.	 Text between and is printed in a con‐
		   stant width font with `no fill' mode (no wrapping and blank
		   lines  allowed)  in	effect.	 The example is set flush left
		   unless an indent i is specified.  Units of i are ens.

       .G [ text... ]
		   Sets text in a sans-serif typeface.	If no text  is	speci‐
		   fied, the next text line is set in a sans-serif typeface.

       .GL [ text... ]
		   Sets	 text  in a sans-serif italic typeface.	 If no text is
		   specified, the next text line is set in a sans-serif italic
		   typeface.

       .HB [ words... ]
		   Sets	 the  text  in	underline mode or in a sans-serif bold
		   typeface, depending on the type of text formatter or If the
		   text formatter is of type the next 999 input lines are for‐
		   matted in underline mode italic mode), or all the lines  up
		   to a font change are formatted in underline mode, depending
		   on which limit is encountered first.	 If the text formatter
		   is  of type text is set in a sans-serif bold typeface until
		   a font change is encountered.  Up to nine words can also be
		   specified as arguments.

       .HP [i]	   Begins a paragraph with a hanging indent of i ens.

       .I [ text... ]
		   Sets	 text in an italic typeface.  If no text is specified,
		   the next text line is set in an italic typeface.

       .I1 word	   Sets a temporary indent to  the  length  of	the  specified
		   word.

       .I2 word	   Reverses  one  line and then sets a temporary indent to the
		   length of the specified word.

       .IB word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in an italic typeface, word2  in	boldface,  and
		   then	 alternates  between these two fonts for the remaining
		   words, up to six words.  Blanks between words are  stripped
		   unless the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .IP x [i]   Sets	 the prevailing indent to i.  Then begins the indented
		   paragraph with a hanging tag given by the next  text	 line.
		   If  the tag does not fit, the macro places the next text on
		   a separate line.  Tag x appears in bold typeface.

       .IR word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in an italic typeface, word2 in  a  roman	 type‐
		   face,  and  then alternates between these two fonts for the
		   remaining words, up to six words.  Blanks between words are
		   stripped  unless  the string is enclosed in quotation marks
		   (" ").

       .LP	   Same as the macro.  This macro is obsolete, but is provided
		   for backwards compatibility.

       .MS reference_page section_subsection [ punctuation ]
		   Sets reference_page immediately followed by section_subsec‐
		   tion in parentheses followed by optional punctuation, using
		   fonts  that	distinguish this reference page reference from
		   ordinary text.  For example,

       .NE	   Ends a note. Also cancels automatic centering if it was  in
		   effect.

       .NT [ header1 ] [ C ]
       .NT [ C ] [ header2 ]
		   Starts  a note.  If no arguments are specified, the default
		   header for the note is `Note'.  If the  first  argument  is
		   the	letter	`C', all text in the note is centered, for the
		   next 99 text lines or until the macro is called,  whichever
		   comes  first.  If the first argument is not `C', it becomes
		   the header of the note, even if header2 is also  specified.
		   The	header2 argument becomes the header of the note if the
		   first argument is `C'.

       .PD [ v ]   Sets the interparagraph  distance  to  v  vertical  spaces.
		   Resets the distance to the default value if v is omitted.

       .PN x [ y ] Sets	 x  in an italic or constant width typeface (depending
		   on the formatter type) and then  reverts  to	 the  previous
		   typeface.  The optional argument y is appended to x with no
		   space, but printed in the previous typeface.	 The  x	 argu‐
		   ment is usually a path name; y is usually punctuation.

       .Pn x y [ z ]
		   Sets x in the current typeface, sets y in an italic or con‐
		   stant width typeface (depending on the formatter type)  and
		   appends  it to x, and finally reverts to the previous type‐
		   face.  The optional	argument  z  is	 appended  to  y,  but
		   printed  in	the  previous  typeface.   Spaces  are removed
		   between x, y, and z, unless quotation marks (" ") are  used
		   to  enclose strings with spaces.  The x argument is usually
		   a fixed path name; y is usually a variable path name; and z
		   is usually punctuation.

       .PP	   Starts  a  block  paragraph.	 Sets the prevailing indent to
		   .5i for and four picas for text formatters.

       .R	   Sets the text in a roman typeface until another font change
		   is  encountered.   Also  ends  underline  mode if it was in
		   effect.

       .RB word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in a roman typeface, word2 in boldface, and then
		   alternates between these two fonts for the remaining words,
		   up to six words.  Blanks between words are stripped	unless
		   the string is enclosed in quotation marks (" ").

       .RE [ k ]   Returns  to	the  kth  relative  right  shift indent level.
		   (Restores the left margin to the position prior to the  kth
		   call).  Specifying k=0 is equivalent to specifying k=1.  If
		   k is omitted, restores the left margin to the  most	recent
		   previous  position.	 When  k=1  or	0,  the default indent
		   increment is restored.

       .RI word1 word2 [ words... ]
		   Sets word1 in a roman typeface, word2 in  an	 italic	 type‐
		   face,  and  then alternates between these two fonts for the
		   remaining words, up to six words.  Blanks between words are
		   stripped  unless  the string is enclosed in quotation marks
		   (" ").

       .RN	   Prints the return character indicator, .

       .RS [ i ]   Shifts the left margin to the right (relatively) the amount
		   of  i ens. The macro calls can be nested up to nine levels.
		   If i is not specified for  the  first  call,	 the  relative
		   right  shift	 increases .5 inch for and four picas for text
		   formatters.	Nested calls increment the relative indent  by
		   i ens, or by .2 inch for or by 2 picas for text formatters.

       .SH text	   Creates a section header.

       .SM [ text ]
		   Sets	 text  to be two points smaller than the current point
		   size.  If no text is specified, the next text line  is  set
		   in the smaller point size.

       .SS text	   Creates a subsection header.

       .TB [ words... ]
		   Same as the macro.  This macro is obsolete, but is provided
		   for backwards compatibility.

       .TH n c[s] [ a ] [ f ] [ x ]
		   Begins a new reference page and sets the page title.	  Also
		   sets	 up  headers and footers for output pages, sets up all
		   defaults and traps, and calls the and  macros.   The	 title
		   appears as a header on all pages of the formatted reference
		   page. The n argument is the reference  page	name.	The  c
		   argument  is	 the  primary section number or letter.	 The s
		   argument is the subsection, if any.	The a argument is  for
		   an  optional machine architecture specific label; for exam‐
		   ple ``VAX''.	 The f argument optionally alters a portion of
		   the page footer.  The x argument is for optional extra com‐
		   mentary; for example ``Unsupported''.

		   Fields n, c, and s appear together at the top of each  out‐
		   put	page (see the top of this page for an example).	 These
		   fields alternate between the right top and left  top	 of  a
		   page	 header,  corresponding	 to odd and even page numbers.
		   Field a appears opposing the page name in the  header  when
		   formatted  with  but	 appears as a bleed tab when formatted
		   with text formatters.  The f argument appears in  the  page
		   footer  on  the  inside edge of the page (left for odd page
		   numbers, right for even).  The x  argument  appears	under‐
		   neath the page name in the header.

		   The last three fields are optional.	To skip a field, spec‐
		   ify a pair of quotation marks  ("")	in  the	 field	to  be
		   skipped.

       .TP [i]	   Sets	 the prevailing indent to i.  Then begins the indented
		   paragraph with a hanging tag given by the next  text	 line.
		   If  the tag does not fit, the macro places the next text on
		   a separate line.

       .VE	   End a vertical margin bar.

       .VS [ 4 ]   Starts a vertical margin bar, if `4' is  specified;	other‐
		   wise, the macro does nothing.

   Macros That Cause Line Breaks
       The following macros cause line breaks:

	      De   Ds	EE   EX	  HP   IP
	      LP   PP	RE   SH	  SS   TH
	      TP

   Macros That Need Text Lines
       The  following  macros  affect  the  following line of text if they are
       specified in the input without arguments:

	      B	   BI	BR   G	  GL   I
	      IB   IR	RI   RB	  SH   SS
	      SM

	  Defaults
	      Automatic hyphenation is turned on. However,  last  lines	 (ones
	      that  will  cause	 a  trap)  are not hyphenated and the last and
	      first two characters of a word are not split off.

       Characters printed from the Special Font	 are  artificially  bolded  by
       three units whenever the current font is `3'.

       The  default  page size is 80 columns by 66 lines for output and 8.5" x
       11" for output generated by text formatters.  The text area is horizon‐
       tally placed on the page so that the effective page margin is .3 inches
       for and 7.5 picas for text formatters.

       The macro sets up the following defaults:

       ·   Text is set in ``noadjust'' mode; the right margin is ragged.

       ·   The default interparagraph distance is 1v for and .5v for text for‐
	   matters.

       ·   The basic text indent is .5 inches for and four picas for text for‐
	   matters, from the left margin.

       ·   The maximum text line length is 7.4 inches for  and	36  picas  for
	   text formatters.

       ·   Sets tab stops every .5 inches.

       ·   The basic text point size is 11 points, with line spacing set to 12
	   points.

       ·   The basic text font is ``R'' (a roman typeface).

       ·   Reference page headers, section headers, and subsection headers are
	   set in a sans-serif bold typeface.

Options
       -nN	   Numbers the first generated page as N.

       -rl1	   Turns on line double-spacing mode.

Restrictions
   Predefined Registers
       The  following registers are predefined by the macro package and should
       not be changed:

       PO	   Page offset and page margin

       IN	   Left margin indent relative to the section headers

       LL	   Line length including

       PL	   Page length

       The register `l' is predefined when you specify the option. Its default
       value is 0.  The command does not use this option.

   Reserved Registers
       The  following registers are reserved for internal use by the and macro
       packages:

	      A1   DX	EX   l	 p   p#
	      PF

       In addition, registers beginning with the characters `)', `]', and  `}'
       are also reserved for internal use.

       Registers  predefined  by  the commands, and the and text preprocessors
       and formatters should not be redefined.

   Predefined Strings
       The following strings are predefined by the macro  package  and	should
       not be changed:

       lq	   “ if `` if

       rq	   ” if '' if

       S	   Command string to change type size to 10 points.

   Reserved Strings and Macros
       The  following  string and macro names are reserved for internal use by
       the and macro packages:

	      ##   A1	BD   BK	  CD   D
	      DE   DS	HH   ID	  LD   NO
	      NX   P	UF   ya	  yn   yl
	      ys

       In addition, names beginning with the characters `)', `]', and `}'  are
       also reserved for internal use.

       Names  predefined  by  the commands, and the and text preprocessors and
       formatters should not be redefined.

   .TH Macro Restrictions
       The section number should only be 1-8, `n', `l', `o',  or  `p'.	 Other
       values might not be recognized by the or commands.

       Sections	 6,  7,	 `n',  `l', `o', and `p' do not currently have subsec‐
       tions, so subsections should not be specified.

       The architecture field (a) should not exceed four characters.  A	 value
       longer than four characters might print outside the right page margin.

       Reference  pages	 containing commands should be preprocessed by an text
       preprocessor before being installed on the system.

       Reference pages containing commands must	 not  be  preprocessed	before
       being installed on the system.

   The Name Section
       The  command  assumes the Name section of a reference page has the fol‐
       lowing format:
       name[, name, name ...] \- explanatory text
       There should be at least one space after any comma and only  one	 space
       following  the ``backslash hyphen'' (\-).  There should not be any com‐
       mands in the explanatory text.  The explanatory text should  be	brief.
       The command combines information in the Name section with parameters of
       the macro to create an entry in a database searched  by	the  and  com‐
       mands.

Portability Considerations
       The  ULTRIX macro packages contain extensions and enhancements borrowed
       from other macro packages.  If you have a need to write portable refer‐
       ence pages, you should not use the following macros:

	      CT   CW	De   Ds	  EE   EX
	      G	   GL	HB   I1	  I2   LP
	      MS   NE	NT   PN	  Pn   R
	      RN   TB	UF

       The and macros are obsolete.

       The  ULTRIX macro differs from other implementations of the macro.  The
       primary differences are in the placement of the page title,  and	 third
       and fifth fields in the output.	The page title (the page name and sec‐
       tion number) is commonly placed on both sides of	 the  page  header  in
       other implementations.  The more common placement of the third field is
       in the center of the page footer.  The more  common  placement  of  the
       fifth field is in the center of the page header.

       The  macro  permits  the use of the percent (%) character in any of its
       fields.	The presence of the percent character may cause	 problems  for
       other implementations of this macro.

       Use  of	the and commands should be avoided, because the version of the
       command in some other implementations might  not	 preprocess  reference
       pages through the command.  The commands also might not be installed.

Files
       The			  macro package file

See Also
       col(1),	man(1),	 nroff(1),  tbl(1),  man.nopage(7), man.repro(7), cat‐
       man(8)

									man(7)
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